American Journal of Sociology
1950 1951 1953 1955 1958 1959 1960 1961 1963 1966 1968 1969 1970 1971 1973 1976 1981 1991 1994 1995 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Arthur L. Stinchcombe American Journal of Sociology. 1961. Vol. 67. No. 2. P. 165-176.
Property is far more important in rural stratification than in urban stratification, where occupational position predominates. There is less similarity of the property systems in commercialized agriculture than there is in urban occupational structure. In agricultural production for markets, the main types of property systems are commercialized manorial systems, plantation systems, and ranching systems. Each of these produces a distinctive pattern of class relations, determining the sharpness of differences of legal privileges and style of life, and shaping the distribution of technical culture and political activity.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-11-2005Talcott Parsons American Journal of Sociology. 1950. Vol. 45. No. 5. P. 841-862.
The present paper is an attempt to formulate and illustrate a generalized approach to the theory of social stratification. This field has, in spite of its central importance, been in a notably undeveloped stae. The emergence of a highly generalized conceptual scheme in social theory which has elsewhere been traced by the author suggests the possibility of a more thorough theoretical approach than has hitherto been possible. Social stratification, here regarded as the differential ranking of the human individuals who compose a given social system and their treatment as relatively superior or inferior, may be analyzed in terms of the following classification scheme: (I) membership in a kinship unit, (2) personal qualities, (3) achievements, (4) possessions, (5) authority, and (6) power.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Joel I. Nelson American Journal of Sociology. 1968. Vol. 74. No. 2. P. 184-192.
Research is reported on the relation between anomie and membership in the old and the new middle class. The old and the new middle class are defined in terms of two dimensions: (1) access to large-scale industrial bureaucracies-a factor relevant to mass-society theory-and (2) ownership as opposed to management of capital-a factor relevant to a more traditional class-oriented, economic theory. The data are generally more consistent with an economic viewpoint than a mass-society viewpoint: at low and moderate income levels owners tend to be more anomic than managers; bureaucratic affiliations are not, however, related to anomie. An attempt is made to trace the differences in anomie between owners and managers to varying mobility commitments. Owners tend to be less mobility oriented than managers. When commitments to mobility are controlled, the differences on anomie between the two groups attenuate to a point where they are no longer statistically significant. This result is discussed within a more general theoretical perspective.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Gerhard E. Lenski, John C. Leggett American Journal of Sociology. 1960. Vol. 65. No. 5. P. 463-467.
To test the influence of the defence norm on low-status respondent when questioned by middleclass interviewers, a cross-section of Detroiters were asked their views concerning two mutually contradictory propositions used at widely separated points in the interview. As predicted, the norm led in nearly 8 per cent to agree with both statements despite their highly contradictory character. This raises serious questions concerning the validity of the A-scale and concerning the interpretation of the F-scale. This study serves as yet another reminder that the research interview invariably creates a social relationship with consequences of importance forthe interpretation of data.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Erik Olin Wright American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 6. P. 1559-1571.
In commenting on Aage Sorensen's "Toward a Sounder Basis for Class Analysis," Wright argues against the ideas that exploitation can be fruitfully defined in terms of rent-generating processes or that a class analysis built on such foundations will be satisfactory.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Robert W. Hodge, Donald J. Treiman American Journal of Sociology. 1968. Vol. 73. No. 5. P. 535-547.
Data derived from a national sample survey reveal that education, main earner's occupation, and family income have independent effects upon class identification. Multiple regresion analyses reveal that ownership of stocks and bonds in private companies, savings bonds, and rental property makes no significant contribution to the explanation of class identification once education, occupation, and income have been controlled. These same socioeconomic variables also account for the zero-order associations of race and union membership with class identification. However, indexes based upon the occupational levels of one's friends, neighbors, and relatives make independent contributions to one's class identification which are no less important than those made by education, occupation, and income. Thus, class identification rests not only upon one's own location in the status structure but upon the socioeconomic level of one's acquaintances.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002Nan Dirk De Graaf, Paul Nieuwbeerta, Anthony F. Heath American Journal of Sociology. 1994. Vol. 100. No. 4. P. 997-1027.
The authors test several hypotheses about the impact of intergerational class mobility on political party preferences. Test using cross-national data sets representing Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States over the period 1964-90 suggest a process of acculturation to the class of destination. The authors hypothesized that a class with a high degree of demographic identity influences newcomers more than a class with low demographic identity does and that, the more left-wing inflow there is into a class, the more likely the immobile members are to have left-wing political preferences. The data did not confirm these hypotheses. A macro analysis does, however, show that the level of class voting is weakened by a compositional mobility effect.
Class Origin, Class Destination, and Education: A Cross-National Study of Ten Industrial Nations [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Hiroshi Ishida, Walter Muller, John M. Ridge American Journal of Sociology. 1995. Vol. 101. No. 1. P. 145-193.
This article examines three themes about the relationships among class origin, education, and class destination in 10 industrial nations: (1) differential access to education for different class origins, (2) the allocation of class positions by education, and (3) the role of education in class reproduction and mobility. The patterns of association between class origin and education and between education and class destination are similar across the 10 nations. However, the strength of these associations shows cross-national variations. Class reproduction and mobility involve different social processes, which are differentially affected by education. However, a cross-national similarity emerges again in the way education mediates the association between class origin and destination. The conclusion presents some implications of this analysis for the study of comparative macrosociology.
Culture, Class, and Connections [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Bonnie H. Erickson American Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 102. No. 1. P. 217-251.
Bourdieu's analysis of class and culture errs in neglecting two important aspects of social structure: social networks and class relations at work. He expects high-status culture to be useful in class because it is correlated with class, but culture used at work includes both genres related to class (used in domination) and genres unrelated to class (used in coordination). High-status culture is correlated with class but excluded, not used, in the competitive private sector. The most widely useful cultural resource is cultural variety, and social network variety is a better source of cultural variety than is class itself.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Theodore P. Gerber, Michael Hout American Journal of Sociology. 1995. Vol. 101. No. 3. P. 611-660.
A national survey of educational stratification in Russia reveals substantial inequality of educational attainments throughout the Soviet period. Parents' education, main earner's occupation, and geographical origin contributed to these inequalities. Gender preferences for men were removed, and for some transitions reversed. Although secondary education grew rapidly, higher education failed to keep pace. This disparity led to a university-level enrollment squeeze, and the resulting bottleneck hurt disadvantaged classes more than advantaged ones. In turn the effect of social origins on entering university increased after 1965. The upshot was no net change in the origin-based differences in likelihood of attaining a VUZ degree across three postwar cohorts.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Mark Abrahamson American Journal of Sociology. 1973. Vol. 78. No. 5. P. 1236-1246.
This paper presents an analysis of the assumptions that are necessary to test empirically hypotheses from functional theories and from the functional theory of stratification in particular. The study focuses upon Stinchcombe's hypothesis that the income of military-related positions will rise relative to the income of comparable nonmilitary-related positions during times of war. Problems in operationalizing occupational comparability, relative income gains, and wartimes are discussed, and solutions are presented. Data comparing matched occupations between 1939 and 1967 are shown to provide support for Stinchcombe's proposition, and the paper concludes with a discussion of the generalizability of the findings.
Marx's Use of "Class" [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Bertell Ollman American Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 73. No. 5. P. 573-580.
We attempt to derive Marx's theory of class through the way he uses the terms, rather than through an interpretation of his most general statements on the subject, which is how class has usually been approached. "Class" is seen to refer to social and economic groupings based on a wide variety of standards whose interrelations are those Marx finds in the real society under examination. By conceptualizing a unity of apparently distinct social relations, "class" in Marxism is inextricably bound up with the truth of Marx's own analysis. Its utility is a function of the adequacy of this analysis.
Опубликовано на портале: 07-10-2004Alejandro Portes American Journal of Sociology. 1971. Vol. 77. No. 2. P. 228-244.
Marx's concept of class consciousness has frequently been employed in political sociology to state that the emergence of leftist radicalism in the lower classes is affected not only by feelings of frustration but also by whether individuals blame their condition on the social structure rather than themselves. Most contemporary formulations, however, fail to specify whether the hypothesis predicts purely corrrelational or interactive relationships between frustration, structural blame, and leftist radicalism. Data from two lower-class samples drawn at different times in Santiago, Chile, are used here to test the two versions. Results support the correlational, but not the interactive, interpretation. Implications and limitations of this finding are discussed.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Maurice Zeitlin American Journal of Sociology. 1966. Vol. 71. No. 5. P. 493-508.
Cuba has been characterized by abrupt political and social transitions, and Cubans have interpreted their history to a significant extent in generational terms. This study is based on interviews with 202 Cuban industrial workers. Hypotheses were formulated in accordance with the concept of political generation. Each political generation, both in the aggregate and in structural (employment-status) subgroups, had prerevolutionary attitudes toward the Communists and has responded to the Castro revolution as predicted from knowledge of the historical experiences hypothesized to have been of decisive political relevance in the formation of that generation.
Power and Privilege in the Large Corporation: Corporate Control and Managerial Compensation [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Michael Patrick Allen American Journal of Sociology. 1981. Vol. 86. No. 5. P. 1112-1123.
The research presented here investigates the relative utility of a power theory versus a functional theory of organizational stratification as they pertain to managerial compensation in the large corporation. Concretely, it examines the effects of different types and levels of corporate control, adjusted for the effects of corporate size and performance, on three dimensions of compensation among 218 industrial corporations during 1975 and 1976. In order to assess the power of the chief executive officer in relation to other directors, the analysis employs a hierarchy of control configurations based on the distribution of stock ownerwhip among the members of the board of directors. In general, the results confirm the hypothesis that the remuneration received by a chief executive officer is directly related to his power within the corporation. A major exception to this pattern involves chief executive officers who are also principal stockholders in their corporations and receive dividend income from their stock.