Всего статей в данном разделе : 702
Class Origin, Class Destination, and Education: A Cross-National Study of Ten Industrial Nations [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Hiroshi Ishida, Walter Muller, John M. Ridge American Journal of Sociology. 1995. Vol. 101. No. 1. P. 145-193.
This article examines three themes about the relationships among class origin, education, and class destination in 10 industrial nations: (1) differential access to education for different class origins, (2) the allocation of class positions by education, and (3) the role of education in class reproduction and mobility. The patterns of association between class origin and education and between education and class destination are similar across the 10 nations. However, the strength of these associations shows cross-national variations. Class reproduction and mobility involve different social processes, which are differentially affected by education. However, a cross-national similarity emerges again in the way education mediates the association between class origin and destination. The conclusion presents some implications of this analysis for the study of comparative macrosociology.
Class Segments: Agrarian Property and Political Leadership in the Capitalist Class of Chile [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Maurice Zeitlin, W. Lawrence Neuman, Richard Earl Ratcliff American Sociological Review. 1976. Vol. 41. No. 6. P. 1006-1029.
This is an analysis of the relationship between large landownership and "representative political activity" as one expression of political hegemony in the capitalist class of Chile in the mid-1960s. We conceptualize landed corporate executives and principal owners of capital and their non-landed counterparts in the largest corporations as distinct "class segments"; and we analyze their comparative officeholding in parliament and cabinet ministries and in the leadership of the political parties of the Right, as well as the officeholding of their fathers and others in their immediate families. The findings consistently show that the landed segment played a distinctive role in the political leadership of the capitalist class. The problem of the "coalescence" of agrarian property and corporate capital as a self-contradictory class situation and its relevance for state policy is posed for further analysis.
Class Voting in Capitalist Democracies Since World War II: Dealignment, Realignment, or Trendless Fluctuation? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Jeff Manza, Michael Hout, Clem Brooks Annual Review of Sociology. 1995. Vol. 21. P. 137-162.
Over the last two decades, many social scientists have argued that the stable class politics of industrial capitalism is giving way to newer types of social and attitudinal cleavages. Some scholars have gone further to associate what they see as significant declines in the anchorings provided by class with the rise of new political movements, parties, and even politicians standing for office completely outside traditional party systems. Advances in class theory and statistical methods coupled with the availability of high quality data have led others to reexamine the issue. They have suggested that these arguments reflect a misreading of the empirical evidence and/or exaggerate the significance of these developments. We conclude that despite the absence of a clear consensus in the field, theories asserting a universal process of class dealignment are not supported.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Harry B. G. Ganzeboom, Donald J. Treiman, Wout C. Ultee Annual Review of Sociology. 1991. Vol. 17. P. 277-302.
In this article, we review 40 years of cross-national comparative research on the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic advantage, with particular attention to developments over the past 15 years--that is, since the transition between (what have become known as) the second and third generations of social stratification and mobility research. We identify the generations by a set of core studies and categorize them with respect to data collection, measurement, analytical models, research problems, main hypotheses, and substantive results. We go on to discuss a number of new topics and approaches that have gained prominence in the research agenda in the last decade. We conclude that the field has progressed considerably with respect to data collection and measurement; that shifts across generations with respect to data analytic and modelling strategies do not unambiguously represent advances; and that with respect to problem development and theory formulation the field has become excessively narrow.
Comparing Social Stratification Schemas: CAMSIS, CSP-CH, Goldthorpe, ISCO-88, Treiman, and Wright [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 25-01-2003Manfred Max Bergman, Dominique Joye
The purpose of this article is to inform researchers in the social and political sciences about the main social stratification scales in use today. Six stratification schemas are described in this text: the Cambridge Social Interaction and Stratification Scale (CAMSIS), Swiss Socio-Professional Categories (CSP-CH), John H. Goldthorpes class schema, the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88), Donald J. Treimans prestige scale, and Erik Olin Wrights class structure. Their theoretical backgrounds and assumptions are discussed, as are their structural and methodological aspects. General problems of contemporary stratification research are covered, and suggestions for future research directions within this field are proposed.
Culture, Class, and Connections [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Bonnie H. Erickson American Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 102. No. 1. P. 217-251.
Bourdieu's analysis of class and culture errs in neglecting two important aspects of social structure: social networks and class relations at work. He expects high-status culture to be useful in class because it is correlated with class, but culture used at work includes both genres related to class (used in domination) and genres unrelated to class (used in coordination). High-status culture is correlated with class but excluded, not used, in the competitive private sector. The most widely useful cultural resource is cultural variety, and social network variety is a better source of cultural variety than is class itself.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002Branko Milanovic, Shlomo Yizhaki Review of Income and Wealth. 2002. Vol. 48. No. 2.
Using the national income/expenditure distribution data from 111 countries, we decompose total inequality between the individuals in the world, by continents and regions. We use Yitzhakis Gini decomposition which allows for an exact breakdown of the Gini. We find t hat Asia is the most heterogeneous continents; between-country inequality is much more important than inequality in incomes within countries. At the other extreme is Latin America where differences between the countries are small, but inequalities within the countries are large. Western Europe/North America is fairly homogeneous both in terms of countries mean incomes and income differences between individuals. If we divided the world population into three groups: The rich (those with incomes greater than Italys mean income), the poor (those with income less than Western countries poverty lie), and the middle class, we find that there are only 11 percent of people who are world middle class; 78 percent are poor, and 11 percent are rich.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Murray A. Straus American Sociological Review. 1962. Vol. 27. No. 3. P. 326-335.
The theoretical and research literature on self-imposed postponement of gratifications or satisfactions is reviewed with emphasis on the relation of such a "Deferred Gratification Pattern" (DGP) to social class and social mobility. Three hypotheses growing out of this review were tested on 338 male high school students. The hypothesis of a deferred gratification pattern received some support from the fact that scales with reproducibilities from .92 to .96 were developed for deferment of five adolescent needs (affiliation, aggression, consumption, economic independence, and sex); and by the intercorrelation of these scales. The hypothesis of positive correlation between socioeconomic status and DGP was not supported. The hypothesis of positive correlation between the DGP scales and achievement role-performance and role-orientation was supported. These relationships were not eliminated by controls for socioeconomic status and intelligence. Findings are interpreted as supporting the theory that need deferment is functional for social mobility in American society.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Seymour Martin Lipset American Sociological Review. 1959. Vol. 24. No. 4. P. 482-501.
A variety of evidence from many countries suggests that low status and low education predispose individuals to favor extremist, intolerant, and transvaluational forms of political and religious behavior. The evidence includes reports from surveys concerning differential attitudes among the various strata towards democratic values, including civil liberties for unpopular political groups, civil rights for ethnic minorities, legitimacy of opposition, and proper limits on the power of national political leaders; psychological research on the personality traits of different strata; data on the composition and appeal of chiliastic religious sects; and materials bearing on the support of authoritarian movements. The factors operating to support this predisposition are all those which make for a lack of "sophistication," a complex view of causal relations, and heightened insecurity, both objective and subjective. These findings suggest that the success of the Communist Party among those of low status in poorer nations is positively related to its authoritarian character.
Detecting Overdispersion in Large Scale Surveys: Application to a Study of Education and Social Class in Britain [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 17-12-2002Garrett M. Fitzmaurice, Anthony F. Heath, David R. Cox Applied Statistics. 1997. Vol. 46. No. 4. P. 415-432.
A practical problem with large scale survey data is the potential for overdispersion. Overdispersion occurs when the data display more variability than is predicted by the variance-mean relationship for the assumed sampling model. This paper describes a simple strategy for detecting and adjusting for overdispersion in large scale survey data. The method is primarily motivated by data on the relationship between social class and educational attainment obtained from a 2% sample from the 1991 census of the population of Great Britain. Overdispersion can be detected by first grouping the data into a number of strata of approximately equal size. Under the assumption that the observations are independent and there is no variability in the parameter of interest, there is a direct relationship between the nominal standard errors and the empirical or sample standard deviation of the parameter estimates obtained from each of the separate strata. With the 2% sample from the British census data, quite a discernible departure from this relationship was found, indicating overdispersion. After allowing for overdispersion, improved and more realistic measures of precision of the strength of the social class-education associations were obtained.
Опубликовано на портале: 31-01-2003Lawrence E. Raffalovich
This paper uses annual time-series data on a sample of thirty-nine countries to investigate the impact of inequality on growth over the 1950-1998 period. Our inequality measure is the property-income share of GDP, selected because it is both the means and the motive for investment, the proximate cause of growth in most theories. Cross-national time-series regression analysis of the pooled data finds only limited evidence that inequality increases subsequent growth, and only in a few countries. There is no evidence that this effect can be generalized beyond these few nations. The argument that inequality promotes economic growth remains largely unsupported.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Theodore P. Gerber, Michael Hout American Journal of Sociology. 1995. Vol. 101. No. 3. P. 611-660.
A national survey of educational stratification in Russia reveals substantial inequality of educational attainments throughout the Soviet period. Parents' education, main earner's occupation, and geographical origin contributed to these inequalities. Gender preferences for men were removed, and for some transitions reversed. Although secondary education grew rapidly, higher education failed to keep pace. This disparity led to a university-level enrollment squeeze, and the resulting bottleneck hurt disadvantaged classes more than advantaged ones. In turn the effect of social origins on entering university increased after 1965. The upshot was no net change in the origin-based differences in likelihood of attaining a VUZ degree across three postwar cohorts.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Ronnelle Paulsen Sociology of Education. 1996. Vol. 64. No. 2. P. 96-110.
In this article, social class effects in the political socialization found in education are examined in relation to individual participation in collective action. It is proposed that the way school reinforces the family socialization of class position and the class-related structure of education produce a sense of political efficacy among middle-class students. An analysis of data from a nationwide longitudinal survey of high school seniors shows that political efficacy, being a leader in school organizations, taking college preparatory courses, and attending school in an urban setting encourage later activism among students from families with moderate to high levels of socioeconomic status.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Richard Lachmann American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 3. P. 346-372.
Why does the leading economic power of its time lose its dominance? Competing theories are tested through a comparison of four historical cases-the Florentine city-state, the Spanish empire, and the Dutch and British nation-states. Institutional context determined social actors' capacities to apply their polities' human and material resources to foreign economic competition. Specifically, the dominant elites in each polity established the social relations and institutions that protected them from domestic challenges from rival elites and classes. But these relations and institutions had the effect of limiting elites' capacities to adapt to foreign economic rivals: Elites acting locally determined their capacities to act globally.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Randall Collins American Sociological Review. 1971. Vol. 36. No. 6. P. 1002-1019.
Two theories are considered in accounting for the increased schooling required for employment in advanced industrial society: (a) a technical-function theory, stating that educational requirements reflect the demands for greater skills on the job due to technological change; and (b) a conflict theory, stating that employment requirements reflect the efforts of competing status groups to monopolize or dominate jobs by imposing their cultural standards on the selection process. A review of the evidence indicates that the conflict theory is more strongly supported. The main dynamic of rising educational requirements in the United States has been primarily the expansion of mobility opportunities through the school system, rather than autonomous changes in the structure of employment. It is argued that the effort to build a comprehensive theory of stratification is best advanced by viewing those effects of technological change on educational requirements that are substantiated within the basic context of a conflict theory of stratification.