Всего статей в данном разделе : 702
Опубликовано на портале: 10-11-2006Юрий Александрович Левада Вестник общественного мнения: Данные. Анализ. Дискуссии. 2004. № 3 (71). С. 8-18.
В статье рассматривается феномен социальной самоидентификации человека "советского". Даются определения "советской" и "русской" идентификации.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-11-2005David B. Grusky, Thomas A. DiPrete Demography. 1990. Vol. 27. No. 4. P. 617-637.
Using the 14 annual cross-sections from the General Social Survey, we specify a "basic model" of attainment and describe the year-by-year fluctuations in its parameters. The results are partially consistent with theories describing the gradual growth of universalistic patterns of stratification and mobility. Under a linear model of educational achievement, we find that the direct effects of race are weakening and the returns to class-based advantages are declining in tandem. The contours of the socioeconomic "gender gap" are also changing in important ways, with the male intercept declining at a rapid pace and the female term registering small and insignificant year-by-year gains. At the same time, the returns to experience and schooling are increasing for men, whereas the corresponding returns for women have remained stable over the 15-year period. This pattern of interaction effects implies that the size of the gender gap varies over time and across different population groups.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Otis Dudley Duncan, Beverly Duncan American Journal of Sociology. 1955. Vol. 60. No. 5. P. 493-503.
Ecological analysis is a promising approach to the study of urban social stratification, for differences in the residential distributions of occupations groups are found to parallel the differences among them in socio-economic status and recruitment. The occupation groups at the extremes of the socioeconomic scale are the most segregated. Residential concentration in low-rent areas and residential centralization are inversely related to socioeconomic status. Inconsistencies in the ranking of occupation groups according to residential patterns occur at points where there is evidence of status disequilibrium.
Resnick S.A., Wolff R.D. Class Theory and History: Capitalism and Communism in the USSR. New York and London: Routledge, 2002. – 353 p. (С. Резник, Р. Вольф Классовая теория и история: капитализм и коммунизм в СССР. Нью-Йорк, Лондон: Рутледж, 2002. – 353 с.) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 04-12-2010Михаил Владимирович Синютин Журнал социологии и социальной антропологии. 2006. Т. 9. № 3.
Рецензия на книгу: Resnick S.A., Wolff R.D. Class Theory and History: Capitalism and Communism in the USSR. New York and London: Routledge, 2002. – 353 p. (С. Резник, Р. Вольф Классовая теория и история: капитализм и коммунизм в СССР. Нью-Йорк, Лондон: Рутледж, 2002. – 353 с.)
Rethinking Stratification from a Feminist Perspective: Gender, Race, and Class in Mainstream Textbooks [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Myra Marx Ferree, Elaine J. Hall American Sociological Review. 1996. Vol. 61. No. 6. P. 929-950.
Economic stratification and social class occupy a central position in sociological discourse as the core organizing features of modern societies. Yet such economically centered models of stratification often disregard factors like physical violence and the intra-household distribution of resources that shape power and autonomy for all group. Using a sample of textbooks from 1983 through 1988, we examine "mainstream" sociology, that is, the sociology that teachers, students, and textbook publishers have treated as nonproblematic. We show how stratification analysis is applied to class, race, and gender in profoundly unequal ways. Rather than integrating macro, meso, and micro levels of social structure as interactive and mutually determinative in their discussions of race, class, and gender, introductory sociology textbooks segregate stratification processes. They discuss class at the societal (or macro) level of analysis, gender at the individual (or micro) level, and race at a group (or meso) level. We analyze the quantitative and qualitative elements of the coverage of class, race, and gender in indexes, texts, pictures, and captions, and suggest that attention to feminist theories of gender would produce a more integrated, multilevel, and interactive view of stratification.
Re-thinking the Analysis of Intergenerational Social Mobility: A Comment on John W. Fox's "Social Class, Mental Ilness, and Social Mobility [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Bryan Rodgers, Susan L. Mann Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1993. Vol. 34. No. 2. P. 165-172.
The method of analyzing social mobility described by Fox (1990) is flawed in its adjustment for between-group differences in destination status when estimating the extent of the mentally ill's mobility as compared with the general population. Use of the recommended model with hypothetical data sets resulted in a significant finding when no overall upward or downward mobility occurred, and a non-significant result when the downward mobility of a psychotic group was contrived to be massive. An alternative model for the test of group differences in mobility is suggested within the framework of log-linear analysis commended by Fox (1990). This method indicated significantly more downward and less upward mobility in mentally ill groups when data from four studies were re-analyzed. We conclude that the weight of evidence from published studies supports the notion of social selection-drift, although this does not imply the inconsequence of social factors in the aetiology of schizophrenia (and other psychoses) or in its prognosis and occupational consequences.
Social Class and Parental Values [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Melvin L. Kohn American Journal of Sociology. 1959. Vol. 64. No. 4. P. 337-351.
Middle-and working-class parents share a broadly common se of values-but not an identical set by any means. There appears to be a close fit between the actual workings-class situation and the values of working-class parents; between the actual middle-class situation and the values of middle-class parents. In either situation the values that seem important but problematic are the ones most likely to be accorded high priority. For the working class the "important but problematic" centers around qualities that assure respectability; for the middle class it centers around internalized standards of conduct.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Melvin L. Kohn American Journal of Sociology. 1963. Vol. 68. No. 4. P. 471-480.
The argument of this analysis is that class differences in parent-child relationships are a product of differences in parental values (with middle-class parents' values centering on self-direction and working-class parents' values on conformity to external proscriptions); these differences in values, in turn, stem from differences in the conditions of life of the various social classes (particularly occupational conditions-middle-class occupations requiring a greater degree of self-direction, working-class occupations, in larger measure, requiring that one follow explicit rules set down by someone in authority). Values, thus, form a bridge between social structure and behavior.
Social Class and Size of Community [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Thomas Ely Lasswell American Journal of Sociology. 1959. Vol. 64. No. 5. P. 505-508.
Descriptions of the patterns of social stratification of the home towns of 151 subjects were sorted according to the local populations of 1950. The subjects' conceptions of social classes were shown to vary with the size of the communities; certain marked distinctions in the number of classes were believed to exist in the communities, and, even though the same values seemed to be involved, their relative importance, as indicated by frequency in being mentioned, varied significatly among the categories of communities.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Melvin L. Kohn American Sociological Review. 1959. Vol. 24. No. 3. P. 352-366.
The conditions under which middle- and working-class parents punish their pre-adolescent children physically, or refrain from doing so, appear to be quite different. Working-class parents are more likely to respond in terms of the immediate consequences of the child's actions, middle-class parents in terms of their interpretation of the child's intent in acting as he does. This reflects differences in parents' values: Working-class parents value for their children qualities that assure respectability; desirable behavior consists essentially of not violating proscriptions. Middle-class parents value the child's development of internalized standards of conduct; desirable behavior consists essentially of acting according to the dictates of one's own principles. The first necessarily focuses on the act itself, the second on the actor's intent.
Social Class in American Sociology [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Milton M. Gordon American Journal of Sociology. 1951. Vol. 55. No. 3. P. 262-268.
Despite the rapid development of social-class analysis within the last twenty-five years in American sociology, there is no agreement on the meaning of the term as a research tool. A series of analytical questions to be used in a survey of recent class materials is proposed to aid in the discovering of common ground. These questions revolve around definition, which may be in terms of economic power, status ascription, group life, cultural attributes, political power, or their combination; ascertainment, or class placement; defferences; social mobility; and the relationship of class to ethnic stratification.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Richard Centers American Journal of Sociology. 1953. Vol. 58. No. 6. P. 543-555.
Utilizing survey research methods, an investigation was carried out to clarify the public's conceptions of occupation and belief as criteria of the several social classes. The data were analyzed with a view to determining the constancies and discrepancies in conception between the various classes and the extent to which the individual's own subjective affiliation influences his ideas. The study confirms the importance of belief as a criterion of class ascription.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Morris Janowitz American Journal of Sociology. 1958. Vol. 64. No. 1. P. 6-24.
By means of a nation-wide sample survey, the social stratification and patterns of social mobility of West Germany were investigated as well as the consequense of social mobility on selected aspects of social and political behavior. These data underline the continuity of the present social structure with that of the prewar period but also record the extensive upward and downward personal social mobility of individual Germans. West Germany has a social structure similar to that of other Western industrialized countries, but, as compared with the United States, its unique circumstances has produced distinctive features. The consequences of social mobility in West Germany seem to be at least temporarily contributing to greater social consensus.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Kenneth I. Spenner Annual Review of Sociology. 1988. Vol. 14. P. 69-97.
The last decade saw considerable advances in the state of research on social stratification, work, and personality. The program carried out by Kohn, Schooler, and colleagues was central to refocusing research on social structure and personality, and generating new knowledge about social stratification, work, and personality. The review is organized around the Kohn-Schooler program and considers other research and issues in relation to this centerpiece. It includes central features and findings of the Kohn-Schooler models, replication support and extensions, scope conditions and limitations, alternate hypotheses and relationships to other explanatory models, and other forms of unattended heterogeneity. The review concludes with a summary of the ways in which the field can and should move beyond this central program; the summary is organized in terms of a research agenda at multiple levels of time and space in social structure.
Sociological Marxism in Jonathan Turner (ed), Handbook of Sociological Theory (Plenum: forthcoming) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 01-02-2003Michael Burawoy, Erik Olin Wright
We have argued in this paper that the main theoretical ideas of Marxism can be grouped into three broad clusters: a theory of dynamics and destiny of capitalism -- historical materialism; a theory of the contradictory reproduction of capitalism sociological Marxism; and a normative theory of emancipatory alternatives.