Всего статей в данном разделе : 702
Sources of Racial Wage Inequality in Metropolitan Labor Markets: Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Leslie McCall American Sociological Review. 2001. Vol. 66. No. 4. P. 520-541.
Research on racial inequality has become increasingly specialized, often focusing on a single explanation and subgroup of the population. In a diverse society, a broader comparative framework for interpreting the causes of wage inequality for different racial, ethnic, and gender groups is called for. The effects of a range of different factors on the wages of Latinos, Asians, and blacks, relative to whites and separately for women and men, are examined. New sources of racial wage inequality are also considered. Significant differences are found in the sources of wage inequality across race, ethnicity, and gender. Differences are generally greater between racial and ethnic groups than between men and women. Key findings include a large negative effect of immigration on the relative wages of Latinos and Asians and only a small effect on the relative wages of black women (and no effect on black men). In contrast, the relative wages of blacks remain most affected positively by the presence of manufacturing employment and unions. New economy indicators of high-skill services and flexible employment conditions play only a secondary role in explaining metropolitan racial wage inequality.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Tamas Kolosi Annual Review of Sociology. 1988. Vol. 14. P. 405-419.
The study of social structure represents an important field of sociological research in the European socialist countries. At first, the objective of these studies was to revise the ideological model of society developed during the period of Stalinism, a model that distinguished "two allied classes"--the working class and the peasantry--and "one stratum"--the intelligentsia. Later, as knowledge developed, scientific interest shifted from ideological criticism to exploring and understanding actual social conditions. The present paper briefly touches upon these ideological and scientific developments and makes an attempt to build a model that represents both the system of reproduction and the system of inequality of Hungarian society.
Subjective Social Distance, Occupational Stratification, and Forms of Status and Class Consciousness: A Cross-national Replication and Extension [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Edward O. Laumann, Richard Senter American Journal of Sociology. 1976. Vol. 81. No. 6. P. 1304-1338.
After briefly reviewing some general theoretical issues in analyzing systems of social inequality and stratification, we propose a typology of forms of class and status consciousness. A specific procedure employing subjective social distance scales is proposed as an empirical strategy for assessing different forms of status consciousness and exploring their implications for class consciousness and other political and social attitudes. To evaluate the empirical and theoretical utility of this strategy, we report a West German replication of an American study in which substantial evidence is found for a remarkable degree of cross-national similarity in the subjective social distance responses accorded occupations varying in prestige and socioeconomic status, regardless of the class position of the respondent. Some working- and middle-class persons did, indeed, prefer to interact with members of their own class rather than with persons in higher- (or lower-) status occupations; and this manifestation of corporate status consciousness appeared to be specifically linked to other political and social views consonant with such consciousness. But these were relatively minor, albeit systematic, departures from the general picture of prestige-or upward-oriented preferences for intimate interaction at all class levels-what we have called a competitive status consciousness that appeared to be pervasive among lower-status persons in both the American and the German communities studied. While the results can hardly be regarded as definitive, they help to clarify a number of issues in studying subjective consciousness of the class and status order and suggest the promise of further work employing the approach.
Опубликовано на портале: 26-12-2010Вестник общественного мнения: Данные. Анализ. Дискуссии. 2008. Т. 97. № 5. С. 118-119.
Svetlana Stephenson. Crossing the Line: Vagrancy, Homelessness and Social Displacement in Russia. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-07-2011Милая Анастасия Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2011. № 1. С. 198-200.
Светлана Стивенсон работает в рамках качественной парадигмы, используя не статистические, а «мягкие» методы исследования. Такой подход позволяет глубже оценить причины попадания «на дно», представить многогранность повседневной жизни его обитателей.
The Crucial Aspects of Class: An Empirical Assessment of the Relevance of Class Analysis With Swedish Data Covering the Late Twentieth Century [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 19-05-2004Erik Bihagen, Bjorn Hallerod Work, Employment, and Society. 2000. Vol. 14. No. 2. P. 307-330.
Class structure and class formation are two crucial aspects of class. The former relates to differences in market positions and the latter concerns social factors such as interaction, mobility and class action. This paper is based on Swedish data covering the period from 1975 to 1995. Analysis reveals a persistent class hierarchy and that there is no trend towards declining class differences regarding market position. The situation is better described as being in a state of non-linear flux. However, one persistent trend is discernible; class explains less and less of the variance in wage income. Looking at class formation there is a decline over time in class-homogeneity. Most Swedes are mobile in the sense that they end up in a class position different from their father's. A growing majority of all marriage is also class mixed. However, although classes generally lack homogeneity, social boundaries still exist, i.e., tendencies for immobility and class homogeneous marriage. In relation to the Фclass-is-dying hypothesis, the results generally indicate the continuing relevance of class, although the view of classes as homogenous social groups is increasingly troublesome over time.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Jonathan Kelley, Ian McAllister, Anthony Mughan American Political Science Review. 1985. Vol. 79. No. 3.
Class has long been the preeminent source of political conflict in industrial society, but its electoral influence has declined in recent years. The sources of the decline are not yet firmly established, and moreover the implications for political parties remain unclear. The decline-of-class hypothesis states that parties on the left will decline as the working class becomes more affluent and adopts middle-class styles of conduct. By contrast, the party-appeals hypothesis suggests that as the electorate becomes more middle class, parties of the left will alter their appeals to encompass the growing middle class and so offset the shrinkage of their traditional working-class constituency. This article applies multivariate anaysis to survey data collected in England between 1964 and 1979 to test four specific hypotheses derived from the two scenarios. The results support the decline-of-class theory's prediction that economic development erodes the working-class bases of left-wing parties, but not its claim that the left-wing party's vote declines proportionately. Rather, the results suggest that parties are apparently able to change their appeals to reduce their losses, as argued by the party-appeals theory, but not to eliminate them. It seems that their are restraints on parties' ability to change their appeals, limitations not envisioned by the party appeals theory.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002Michael Hout, Clem Brooks, Jeff Manza American Sociological Review. 1995. Vol. 60. No. 6. P. 805-828.
We present evidence of a historic realignment in the relationship between class and voting behavior in U.S. presidential elections in the postwar period. We take advantage of recent advances in class analysis and statistical methodology to introduce a distinction between "traditional" class voting and "total" class voting. Neither shows a decline in the postwar era. The realignment occurred since 1968, as professionals and nonmanagerial white-collar workers moved from voting for Republicans to supporting Democratic presidential candidates. Stronger support for Republicans among the self-employed and among managers has more than offset the shift of professionals and nonmanagerial white-collar workers to the Democrats. Skilled blue-collar workers have become volatile, moving away from their historic support for the Democratic Party without firmly attaching themselves to the Republican Party. Significant class differences in voter turnout also contribute to the total association between class and voting outcomes.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Dennis H. Wrong American Sociological Review. 1959. Vol. 24. No. 6. P. 772-782.
The functional theory of stratification advanced by Davis and Moore attempts to explain the universality and the necessity of inequality in societies with a complex division of labor, a task that is independent of efforts to explain the division of labor itself or the intergenerational perpetuation of inequalities along family lines. The theory is so general, however, that it excludes none of the Utopian models of "classless societies" proposed by Western thinkers and, its critics to the contrary notwithstanding, says nothing whatsoever about the range of inequality and the determinants of the range in concrete societies. The theory appears to understate the degree to which positions are inherited by failing to view societies in long-range historical perspective. In common with the arguments of its critics, it also ignores the possible disruptive consequences of mobility and equality of opportunity, a theme notably neglected by American sociologists.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Richard F. Hamilton American Sociological Review. 1966. Vol. 31. No. 2. P. 192-199.
A test of claims made about white-collar workers shows the following: about half identify themselves as "working-class." Those identifying themselves as middle-class are not marginal; the working-class identifiers are the ones who have low incomes. Working-class identifiers report working-class origins and middle-class identifiers indicate middle-class origins. "Authoritarianism" is not especially prevalent among the clerical workers who are economically marginal. Some comparative materials are examined and alternative lines of theory indicated.
The Peasants of El Ceibal and Access to Justice. Land Rights and Precarious Land Tenure in Santiago del Estero, Argentina [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 20-10-2010Karina Bidaseca Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 257-274.
The primary focus of this article is to analyze, through the study of a trial that borders on the absurd (yet is not an exception), how a subsistence economy and a peasant way of life were brutally interrupted by an auction, and how subalternity could be momentarily interrupted by the peasants’ agency.
The Permeability of Class Boundaries to Intergenerational Mobility Among Men in the United States, Canada, Norway and Sweden [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Mark Western, Erik Olin Wright American Sociological Review. 1994. Vol. 59. No. 4. P. 606-629.
We explore the differential permeability of three class boundaries--the boundaries determined by property, authority and expertise--to intergenerational mobility among men in four developed capitalist economies: the United States, Canada, Norway and Sweden. We conclude: (1) In all four countries, the authority boundary is the most permeable to intergenerational mobility; (2) in the two North American countries, the patterns of permeability of class boundaries are broadly consistent with the expectations of neo-Marxist conceptualizations of class--the property boundary is the least permeable, followed by the expertise boundary, and then the authority boundary; (3) in the two Scandinavian countries, especially in Sweden, the property and expertise boundaries do not differ significantly in their degree of permeability; (4) the class boundary between workers and capitalists is less permeable than would be predicted from a strictly additive model of the permeability of the three dimensions of the class structure (property + authority + expertise); and (5) in the United States and Canada, the patterns of class boundary permeability to mobility are similar to the patterns of permeability to friendship and cross-class marriages, while mobility patterns in Norway and Sweden differ from friendship and marriage patterns.
The Question of Caste in Modern Society: Durkheim's Contradictory Theories of Race, Class, and Sex [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Jennifer M. Lehmann American Sociological Review. 2002. Vol. 60. No. 4. P. 566-585.
I explore a set of contradictions crucial to Durkheim's work, that revolve around the issue of whether modern society (i.e., industrial capitalism) is structured according to the principle of individual mobility or the principle of caste. Specifically, I analyze Durkheim's theories of race, class, and sex to determine if they describe modern society in terms of individuals or in terms of castes. I find that Durkheim has both a dominant and a subordinate theory for each category. I also find that his theories of race and class differ significantly from his theories of sex. Durkheim's dominant theories of race and class and his subordinate theory of sex are theories of individuals in modern society. Conversely, his dominant theory of sex and his subordinate theories of race and class are theories of castes in modern society. I view Durkheim's social theory as a quintessential construction of modernity, and I view Durkheim as a quintessential liberal "of sorts." I conclude that the contradictions at the heart of Durkheim's social theory are contradictions at the heart of modern society--and at the heart of liberal ideology.
The Relative Permeability of Class Boundaries to Cross-Class Friendships: A Comparative Study of the United States, Canada, Sweden, and Norway [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Erik Olin Wright, Donmoon Cho American Sociological Review. 1992. Vol. 57. No. 1. P. 85-102.
The structural analysis of classes can be divided into the analysis of class locations and the analysis of permeability of boundaries separating those locations. Marxist analysis of class structure has been primarily concerned with the first of these while Weberian class analysis has focused on the second. We attempt to combine a Marxist structural class concept, which views class locations in capitalist societies as structured by exploitation based on property relations, authority relations and expertise, with the Weberian concern with the ways lives of individuals traverse the boundaries of that structure. We examine patterns of friendship ties across class boundaries in four contemporary capitalist societies: the United States, Canada, Sweden, and Norway. Three empirical conclusions stand out: (1) The property-based class boundary is the least permeable of the three exploitation dimensions; (2) the authority-based class boundary is significantly more permeable than the expertise-based boundary; and (3) patterns of inter-class friendships are largely invariant across these four countries.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002John Hagan, Alberto Palloni American Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 96. No. 2. P. 265-299.
The historical concept of a criminal class includes a sociological reference to the concentration and recurrence of crime within groups and across generations. Two family-linked processes may lead to the social reproduction of a criminal class: a cultural/characterological process involving child-raising conditions and practices, and a structural/imputational process involving official labeling. Mead's concern about the perpetuation of a "permanent class of criminals" is discussed, and special attention is given to an intergenerational interaction effect of parent and son labeling on subsequent delinquent and criminal behavior. This intergenerational interaction effect is explored, net of the acknowledged role of cultural/characterological influences, which are modeled in several ways using data collected in a well-known London panel study. The article addresses implications of the neglect of labeling effects in contemporary longitudinal research initiatives directed to the formation of crime policy.