Quarterly Journal of Economics
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-03-2007Joshua D. Angrist, Alan B. Krueger Quarterly Journal of Economics. 1991. Vol. 106. No. 4. P. 979-1014.
The authors establish that season of birth is related to educational attainment because of school start age policy and compulsory school attendance laws. Individuals born in the beginning of the year start school at an older age, and can therefore drop out after completing less schooling than individuals born near the end of the year. Roughly 25 percent of potential dropouts remain in school because of compulsory schooling laws. They estimate the impact of compulsory schooling on earnings by using quarter of birth as an instrument for education. The instrumental valuables estimate of the return to education is close to the ordinary least squares estimate, suggesting that there is little bias in conventional estimates.
Опубликовано на портале: 06-02-2007Alan B. Krueger Quarterly Journal of Economics. 1999. Vol. 114. No. 2. P. 497-532.
This paper analyzes data on 11,600 students and their teachers who were randomly assigned to different size classes from kindergarten through third grade. Statistical methods are used to adjust for nonrandom attrition and transitions between classes. The main conclusions are (1) on average, performance on standardized tests increases by four percentile points the first year students attend small classes; (2) the test score advantage of students in small classes expands by about one percentile point per year in subsequent years; (3) teacher aides and measured teacher characteristics have little effect; (4) class size has a larger effect for minority students and those on free lunch; (5) Hawthorne effects were unlikely.
Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2007Bruce I. Sacerdote Quarterly Journal of Economics. 2001. Vol. 116. No. 2. P. 681-704.
This paper uses a unique data set to measure peer effects among college age roommates. Freshman year roommates and dormmates are randomly assigned at Dartmouth College. I find that in this group, peer effects are very important in determining levels of academic effort and in decisions to join social groups such as fraternities. Residential peer effects are markedly absent in other major life decisions such as choice of college major. Several forms of peer effects are considered. The data support a model in which peer effects are driven by roommate behavior after the freshmen arrive. Social learning based on a roommate's observable pre-Dartmouth information or skills appears to be less important. Peer effects in GPA occur at the individual room level whereas peer effects in fraternity membership occur both at the room level and the entire dorm level. I also find that a freshman with high social ability is likely to remain with his or her roommates in sophomore year, but high academic ability actually decreases roommate retention.