Всего статей в данном разделе : 37
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2004Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo NBER Working Paper Series. 2000. w7793.
This paper describes the correlations between inequality and the growth rates in cross-country data. Using non-parametric methods, we show that the growth rate is an inverted U-shaped function of net changes in inequality: Changes in inequality (in any direction) are associated with reduced growth in the next period. The estimated relationship is robust to variations in control variables and estimation methods. This inverted U-curve is consistent with a simple political economy model, although, as we point out, efforts to interpret this model causally run into difficult identification problems. We show that this non-linearity is sufficient to explain why previous estimates of the relationship between the level of inequality and growth are so different from one another.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-10-2004Tito Boeri, Katherine Terrell World Bank Policy Research Working Papers. 2001.
The transition process from planned economies to market-oriented economies involves a substantial reallocation of labor. In the planned economies employment was typically concentrated in heavy industry, away from consumers preferences. A strong small business sector was lacking, and private initiative had been tolerated almost exclusively in agriculture. Patterns of foreign trade were determined by economic planners within the framework of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. In the process of transition, employment had to flow out of such sectors as state-owned heavy industry into the new private, mostly small-scale, business sector. The success of transition in a given country can be assessed in part by how well it has addressed the problem of reallocating labor.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-10-2004Timothy J. Bartik W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research: Staff Working Papers. 2002. No. 02-78.
By increasing the labor supply of welfare recipients, welfare reform may reduce wages and increase unemployment among other less-educated groups. These "spillover effects" are difficult to estimate because welfare caseloads decrease in response to improvements in the economy, which leads caseload reductions to be associated with improvements in labor market outcomes. This paper corrects for the endogeneity of caseloads by using instruments that reflect policy. The estimates suggest that welfare reform has significant spillover effects: welfare reform reduces employment of male high school dropouts, and reduces wages of single mothers and male high school dropouts.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2004Robert J. Gordon NBER Working Paper Series. 2000. w7752.
This paper assesses the standard data on output, labor input, and capital input, which imply one big wave' in multi-factor productivity (MFP) growth for the United States since 1870. The wave-like pattern starts with slow MFP growth in the late 19th century, then an acceleration peaking in 1928-50, and then a deceleration to a slow rate after 1972 that returns to the poor performance of 1870-1891. A counterpart of the standard data is a mysterious doubling in the ratio of output to capital input when the postwar era is compared with 1870-1929. Three types of measurement adjustments are applied to the standard input data. Following the lead of Denison and Jorgenson-Griliches, adjustments for the changing composition (or quality') of labor and capital, currently published by the BLS back to 1948, are estimated for 1870-1948. These composition adjustments take into account the shifting mix of the labor force along the dimensions of education and age-sex composition, and of the capital stock between equipment and structures. Further adjustments are made to capital input data to allow retirement to vary with gross investment rather than to follow a fixed pattern depending only on age, and to add types of capital owned by the government that are particularly productive in the private sector. A new MFP series taking account of all these adjustments grows more slowly throughout, and the big wave' phenomenon is both flatter and extends back further in time to 1891. However, there is no solution to the post-1972 productivity slowdown, and in the new data MFP growth during 1972-96 proceeds at a pathetic 0.1 percent per year. A byproduct of the measurement adjustments is to solve completely the previous puzzle of the jump in the output-capital ratio; in the new data this ratio is actually lower in 1996 than in 1870. The primary substantive explanation for the big wave lies in the timing of inventions. MFP growth during the big wave' period benefited from the diffusion of four great clusters of inventions that dwarf today's information technology revolution in their combined importance. A complementary hypothesis is that the partial closing of American labor markets to immigration and of American goods markets to imports during the big wave period gave an artificial and temporary boost to real wages which fed back into boosting productivity growth, followed by a reopening that contributed to the post-1972 productivity slowdown.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2007Peter Haan DIW Berlin Discussion Papers. 2007. No. 669.
In the year 2000, the German government passed the most ambitious tax reform in post-war German history aiming at a significant tax relief for households. One central aim of this tax reform was to improve work incentives and, thereby, foster employment. In this paper, I estimate an intertemporal discrete choice model of female labor supply that allows to analyze the behavioral effects of the tax reform on the labor supply of married and cohabiting women over time. Using the Markov chain property, I analyze the dynamics of labor supply behavior and derive the short- and long-run labor supply effects of the tax reform.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-11-2004Anthony B. Atkinson
This paper is concerned with an issue that is both an intellectual puzzle and of key importance for contemporary policy-making. The issue can be simply stated. Are labour market reforms, and scaling back the welfare state, complementary or substitute economic policies? Do countries need to do both, or can they choose? If there is a choice, how should the balance be struck?
Опубликовано на портале: 05-11-2004Владимир Исакович Герчиков, Екатерина Юрьевна Калакутина, М.В. Кошман, L. Truth
Статья посвящена рассмотрению истории становления современных трудовых отношений на предприятиях России. В качестве объекта исследования были выбраны семь крупных предприятия Сибири, работающих в разных отраслях народного хозяйства. В начале работы авторы описывают ситуацию, которая имело место на предприятиях перед развалом СССР, в дальнейшем этот материал будет использован для акцентирования внимания читателя на причинах современного типа отношений работник-работодатель. Безработица и падение уровня заработной платы рассматриваются как тотальная реакция предприятий на экономические кризисы 90-х. Обращается особое внимание на деятельность профсоюзов, являвшихся, по мнению авторов, важным фактором становления современных трудовых отношений. В заключении, в статье описывается отношения менеджер-работник и дается прогноз развития отношений для различных профессионально-возрастных групп работников и руководителей различного уровня.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-10-2004George J. Borjas, Valerie A. Ramey NBER Working Paper Series. 2000. No. 7799.
This paper examines the link between interindustry wage differentials and subsequent growth of industry variables such as employment, GDP and labor productivity. We find that industries that paid higher than average wages in 1959 experienced significantly lower employment growth and GDP growth in the subsequent 30 to 40 years, while at the same time experiencing higher-than-average growth in the capital-labor ratio and in labor productivity. We argue that the evidence is best explained by a non-competitive model of the interindustry wage structure, as both firms and the market respond to the wage rigidity implied by the long-run persistence of the interindustry wage structure.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-10-2003Daron K. Acemoglu, Jörn-Steffen Pischke
Considering to Beckers theory of human capital it predicts that minimum wages should reduce training investments for affected workers because they prevent these workers from taking wage cuts necessary to finance training. In contrast, in noncompetitive labor markets, minimum wages tend to increase training of affected workers because they induce firms to train their unskilled employees. The Authors provide new estimates on the impact of the state and federal increases in the minimum wage between 1987 and 1992 on the training of low wage workers. They find no evidence that minimum wages reduce training, and little evidence that they tend to increase training. It is developed a hybrid model where minimum wages reduce the training investments of workers who were taking wage cuts to finance their training, while increasing the training of other workers. Finally, some evidence consistent with this hybrid model was made up.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007Jörn-Steffen Pischke, Alan B. Krueger NBER Working Paper. 1997. No. 6146.
This paper has three goals; first, to place U.S. job growth in international perspective by exploring cross-country differences in employment and population growth. This section finds that the U.S. has managed to absorb added workers -- especially female workers -- into employment at a greater rate than most countries. The leading explanation for this phenomenon is that the U.S. labor market has flexible wages and employment practices, whereas European labor markets are rigid. The second goal of the paper is to evaluate the labor market rigidities hypothesis. Although greater wage flexibility probably contributes to the U.S.'s comparative success in creating jobs for its population, the slow growth in employment in many European countries appears too uniform across skill groups to result from relative wage inflexibility alone. Furthermore, a great deal of labor market adjustment seems to take place at a constant real wage in the U.S. This leads to the third goal: to speculate on other explanations why the U.S. has managed to successfully absorb so many new entrants to the labor market. We conjecture that product market constraints contribute to the slow growth of employment in many countries.
On globalisation, trade and wages [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003Richard Nahuis
Low skilled workers have been facing declining real wages during the 80s in the US, while high skilled workers gained in the same period. This decrease in the relative wage of the low skilled provoked a lively debate on the causes of the observed decline. A lot of academic authors have opposed to the popular view that trade with low wage countries caused the relative deterioration of low skilled workers. This paper addresses the central question, whether we can ignore the role for trade on the basis of existing literature. To answer this question, we first set forth basic trade theory. Next the theoretical basis for empirical validation is established, whereafter the empirical contributions of several authors are reviewed. Finally alternative explanations are assessed. On the basis of this survey we argue that the denial of a role for trade by a number of contributors to the debate is not convincing.
Personnel Economics [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-06-2008Edward Lazear №7-8, 9.. 2007. № 13480.
In this review of the personnel economics literature, we introduce key topics of personnel economics, focus on some relatively new findings that have emerged since prior reviews of some or all of the personnel economics literature, and suggest open questions in personnel economics where future research can make valuable contributions to the literature. We explore five aspects of the employment relationship - incentives, matching firms with workers, compensation, skill development, and the organization of work - reviewing the main theories, empirical tests of those theories, and the open questions in each area.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2004Laurence M. Ball, Robert A. Moffitt NBER Working Paper Series. 2001. w8421.
We present a model in which workers' aspirations for wage increases adjust slowly to shifts in productivity growth. The model yields a Phillips curve with a new variable: the gap between productivity growth and an average of past wage growth. Empirically, this variable shows up strongly in the U.S. Phillips curve. Including it explains the otherwise puzzling shift in the unemployment- inflation tradeoff since 1995.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Bruce A. Rayton
The rent-sharing literature and the agency literature both predict a link between pay and performance. The rent-sharing literature relies on short-term market power to explain this link, and the agency literature bases its prediction on the importance of incentives in principal-agent relationships. Annual data from an unbalanced panel of U.S. manufacturing firms indicate that the performance-elasticity of average employee pay is approximately 0.127271 in small firms while it not significantly different from zero in large firms. The relative lack of incentive pay in the group of large firms demonstrates that the link between pay and performance evident in U.S. manufacturing firms is inconsistent with the exclusive truth of the rent-sharing hypothesis.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2003George Psacharopoulos, Harry Anthony Patrinos World Bank Policy Research Working Papers. 2002. No. 2881.
Returns to investment in education based on human capital theory have been estimated since the late 1950s. In the 40-plus year history of estimates of returns to investment in education, there have been several reviews of the empirical results in attempts to establish patterns. Many more estimates from a wide variety of countries, including over time evidence, and estimates based on new econometric techniques, reaffirm the importance of human capital theory. This paper reviews and presents the latest estimates and patterns as found in the literature at the turn of the century. However, because the availability of rate of return estimates has grown exponentially, we include a new section on the need for selectivity in comparing returns to investment in education and establishing related patterns.