Всего статей в данном разделе : 37
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Pierre Cahuc
In this paper, we investigate whether unemployment benefits should decrease with the unemployment spell in a model where both job search intensity and wages are endogenous. Wages are set by collective agreements bargained by insiders. It is shown that a more declining time sequence of unemployment benefits leads to wage increases when the tax rate is given. Such an effect may imply an increase in unemployment and counteracts the response of job search intensity that can be found in standard job search models with a given wage distribution. Calibration exercises suggest that it costs twice more in terms of welfare loss for the long-term unemployed workers to reduce the unemployment rate of one percent when wages are endogenous than in the standard job search model.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2007Andreas Ammermueller, Claudio Lucifora, Federica Origo, Thomas Zwick ZEW Discussion Papers. 2007. No. 07-008.
This paper investigates the functioning of regional labour markets in Italy and Germany for different employee groups. In the light of high and persistent differences in unemployment and wage rates between the North and South of Italy and the West and East of Germany, we first derive theoretical hypotheses on group specific correlations between regional unemployment and individual wages. Using micro data on hourly wages properly matched to local unemployment rates, we specify and empirically test different wage equations. On the basis of our results, we find no evidence for the existence of a “wage curve” in Italy. In the case of Germany, results are quite sensitive to the model specification and the employee group considered. In both countries, the reaction of wages to local unemployment varies significantly along the wage distribution, being more sensitive around the median quantiles. We conclude that there is no uniform wage curve and call for a differentiated analysis for various groups, taking into account the respective institutional setting.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2004Saint-Paul Gilles Universitat Pompeu Fabra Working Papers. 1998. No. 343.
Author analyzes the channels by which an ill-functioning labor market changes the preferences of the people for public policy and therefore the decisions that are made. He not only discusses labour market reform but other important aspects of policy making such as the size and structure of government spending. The class of mechanisms that is highlighted can be summarized as the very existence of unemployment generating political support for "sclerosis". This may help to explain the timid pace of reform, in particular the fact that any recovery sends them at the backfront of the political agenda, and the sometimes violent opposition generated by some measures, as can be seen mostly in France.
Опубликовано на портале: 26-10-2007Stephen L. Ross, Shihe Fu Department of Economics University of Connecticut: Working papers. 2007. No. 2007-26.
The correlation between wage premia and concentrations of firm activity may arise due to agglomeration economies or workers sorting by unobserved productivity. A worker's residential location is used as a proxy for their unobservable productivity attributes in order to test whether estimated work location wage premia are robust to the inclusion of these controls. Further, in a locational equilibrium, identical workers must receive equivalent compensation so that after controlling for residential location (housing prices) and commutes workers must be paid the same wages and only wage premia arising from unobserved productivity differences should remain unexplained. The models in this paper are estimated using a sample of male workers residing in 33 large metropolitan areas drawn from the 5% Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) from the 2000 U.S. Decennial Census. We find that wages are higher when an individual works in a location that has more workers or a greater density of workers. These agglomeration effects are robust to the inclusion of residential location controls and disappear with the inclusion of commute time suggesting that the effects are not caused by unobserved differences in worker productivity. Extended model specifications suggest that wages increase with the education level of nearby workers and the concentration of workers in an individual's own industry or occupation.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-10-2003Robert A. Hart, Ma Yue
In this paper the authors investigate wage-hours contracts within a four-period rent sharing model that incorporates asymmetric information. Distinctions are made among (a) an investment period, (b) a period in which the parties may separate (quits or layoffs) or continue rent accumulation and sharing, (c) a post investment period and, (d) retirement. Robert et al establish that increases in both wage rates and hours of work in the post-investment period serve to minimize sub-optimal separations and, moreover that both wage and hours schedules are concave. The model is tested with the British Household Panel Survey (1991-1997) and with the British Labour Force Survey (1993/4).
Working Paper: Returns to Human Capital under the Communist Wage Grid and During the Transition to a Market Economy [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 02-07-2004Daniel Munich, Jan Svejnar, Katherine Terrell
Under communism, workers had their wages set according to a centrally-determined wage grid. In this paper we use new micro data on men to estimate returns to human capital under the communist wage grid and during the transition to a market economy. We use data from the Czech Republic because it is a leading transition economy in which the communist grid remained intact until the very end of the communist regime. We demonstrate that for decades the communist wage grid maintained extremely low rate of return on education, but that the return increased dramatically and equally in all ownership categories of firms during the transition. Our estimates also indicate that mens wage-experience profile was concave in both regimes and on average it did not change from the communist to the transition period. However, the de novo private firms display a more concave profile than SOEs and public administration. Contrary to earlier studies, we show that mens inter-industry wage structure changed substantially between 1989 and 1996.
Отношения по оплате труда как форма проявления характера социально-трудовых отношений на примере российской действительности [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 16-02-2003Владимир Исакович Герчиков
В условиях рыночной экономики все субъекты социально-трудовых отношений имеют правовую свободу, закрепленную на законодательном уровне. Принуждение к труду замещается экономическим стимулированием труда. В статье рассматриваются общественно-экономические функции заработной платы.