Всего статей в данном разделе : 265
An Analysis of Occupational Change and Departures from the Labor Force: Evidence of the Reasons Teacher Quit [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Todd R. Stinebrickner Journal of Human Resources. 2002. Vol. 37 . No. 1. P. 192-216.
This article deals with two problems: the timing of exits from the teaching profession and the reasons for these exits. Approximately 67 % of exiting female teachers leave the work force altogether. The presence of a newborn child is the single most important determinant of exits for females. The paper discusses why studies of quit behavior that simply include a person's total number of children may fail to capture the true importance of fertility behavior on a female's quit decision. It is also examined in this paper the return rates of departing teachers and compares the exit behavior of teachers to that of nonteachers.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004Kenneth Miller Employee Relations. 1990. Vol. 12. No. 2.
Canadian labour legislation is not simply a pale imitation of that of the United States. In fact, Canada's labour laws possess a number of unique and original features which distinguishes them from those stipulated by the United States Labor Relations Act. These basic features are examined and their origins traced, with particular emphasis on the provisions laid out by the Ontario Labour Relations Act, the Labour Code for Canada's largest province.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2007Xenia Matschke Public Choice. 2003. No. 114. P. 103-135.
In this article, the possibility of Nordhaus political wage cycles in the West German public services during 1961–1995 is investigated. Since wage negotiations are centralized, one might expect a systematically higher wage increase shortly before a federal election. A regression of wage increases from 30 consecutive public sector pay contracts is run on an election variable and several additional explanatory variables. The null of no election influence is rejected for worker wage increases. The estimated increase in wages due to an imminent election is predicted to be in the range of 2.5 to 3 percentage points.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007Daron K. Acemoglu, Jörn-Steffen Pischke Economic Journal. 1999. Vol. 109. No. 453. P. 112-42.
In this paper, the authors survey noncompetitive theories of training. With competitive labor markets, firms never pay for investments in general training, whereas when labor markets are imperfect, firm-sponsored training arises as an equilibrium phenomenon. The authors discuss a variety of evidence that supports the predictions of noncompetitive theories and they draw some tentative policy conclusions from these models.
Beyond Incentive Pay: Insiders' Estimates of the Value of Complementary Human Resource Management Practices [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007Kathryn L. Shaw, Casey Ichniowski Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2003. Vol. 17. No. 1. P. 155-180.
Do human resource management (HRM) practices, such as incentive pay, teamwork, training, and careful screening practices, raise productivity, and if so, under what conditions does productivity rise? Recently, this question has been a central focus in organizational and personnel economics. We emphasize the value of a new research approach--an approach we label "insider econometrics"--that is aimed going deep inside businesses to obtain data and insights into the ways in which HRM practices affect specific production processes. We conclude that sets of complementary HRM practices appear to raise performance, but that some firms, such as those that make complex products or those that are starting up brand new facilities, benefit more from these practices.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007Daron K. Acemoglu American Economic Review. 1999. Vol. 89. No. 5. P. 1259-1278.
I present a model where firms decide what types of jobs to create and then search for suitable workers. When there are few skilled workers and the skilled-unskilled productivity gap is small, firms create a single type of job and recruit all workers. An increase in the proportion of skilled workers or skill-biased technical change can create a qualitative change in the composition of jobs, increasing the demand for skills, wage inequality, and unemployment. I provide some evidence that there has been a change in the composition of jobs in the United States during the past two decades.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003Walter Block International Journal of Social Economics. 1996. Vol. 23. No. 1. P. 6-16.
Freeman's critics of the economics profession is based on the ground that it has improperly accepted the philosophy of laissez-faire capitalism in five different realms: economic development, unionism and minimum wage laws, socialist central planning versus decentralized markets, military dictatorships and income inequality, and the benefits of economic progress. Attempts to defend the view that the free enterprise analysis in these five different areas can withstand Freemans criticisms.
Culture and the Labor Market [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2002Siobhan Austen Review of Social Economy. 2000. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 505-521.
This paper explores the relationship between culture and labor market behavior. An attempt is made to clarify, from an economic perspective, the meaning of culture; to discuss the importance of cultural studies in the economic analysis of the labor market; and to outline the major theoretical issues that are associated with adopting a cultural perspective on economic behavior in the labor market.
Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003J.A. Tipton Journal of Bioeconomics. 2001. Vol. 3. No. 1. P. 51-55.
In this paper, author explores the way in which Aristotle seems to appeal to certain principles of economicsmost notably, the division and combination of laborin describing and attempting to explain certain biological phenomena. He uses examples recently employed in the bioeconomics literature and discuss how Aristotle uses similar examples in similar ways.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Lars Calmfors, Anders Forslund, Maria Hemstrom
The Swedish experiences of the 1990s provide a unique example of how large-scale active labour market programmes (ALMPs) have been used as a means to fight high unemployment. This paper discusses the mechanisms through which ALMPs affect (un)employment and surveys the empirical studies of the effects of ALMPs in Sweden. The main conclusions are: (i) there is hardly any evidence for a positive effect on matching efficiency; (ii) there are some indications of positive effects on labour force participation; (iii) subsidised employment seems to cause displacement of regular employment, whereas this appears not to be the case for labour market training; (iv) it is unclear whether or not ALMPs raise aggregate wage pressure in the economy; (v) in the 1990s, training programmes seem not to have enhanced the employment probabilities of participants, whereas some forms of subsidised employment seem to have had such effects; and (vi) youth programmes seem to have caused substantial displacement effects at the same time as the gains for participants appear uncertain. On the whole, ALMPs have probably reduced open unemployment, but also reduced regular employment. The overall policy conclusion is that ALMPs of the scale used in Sweden in the 1990s are not an efficient means of employment policy. To be effective, ALMPs should be used on a smaller scale. There should be a greater emphasis on holding down long-term unemployment in general and a smaller emphasis on youth programmes. ALMPs should not be used as a means to renew unemployment benefit eligibility.
Does School Quality Matter? Returns to Education and the Characteristics of Public Schools in the United States [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2003David Card, Alan B. Krueger Journal of Political Economy. 1992. Vol. 100. No. 1. P. 1-40.
This paper estimates the effects of school quality--measured by the pupil/teacher ratio, average term length, and relative teacher pay--on the rate of return to education for men born between 1920 and 1949. Using earnings data from the 1980 census, we find that men who were educated in states with higher-quality schools have a higher return to additional years of schooling. Rates of return are also higher for individuals from states with better-educated teachers and with a higher fraction of female teachers. Holding constant school quality measures, however, we find no evidence that parental income or education affects average state-level rates of return.
Does Unemployment Cause Future Unemployment? Definitions, Questions and Answers from a Continuous Time Model of Heterogeneity and State Dependence. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-06-2007James Joseph Heckman, George J. Borjas Economica. 1980. Vol. 47. No. 187. P. 247-83.
Recent research demonstrates that, the greater the number of previous spells of unemployment and the longer their duration, the more likely is the event that an individual will be unemployed at a point in time. Two explanations have been advanced to interpret this finding. The first is rooted in economic theory; the second is based solely on statistical considerations.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-10-2004Irena Grosfeld, Claudia Senik-Leygonie, Thierry Verdier, Станислав О. Колеников, Елена А. Пальцева William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series. 1999. No. 246.
This paper proposes an explanation of the puzzling coexistence of elements of inertia and dynamism on the Russian labour market using a segmentation model. Risk averse workers are differentiated according to their productivity. They face a trade-off between wages and access to social services provided by the firm. The most productive workers leave their initial firm, contract on the spot labour market, and concentrate in the best performing firms. The model provides a possible interpretation of wage arrears which can be viewed as an element of an implicit contract between firms and less productive workers. We test some of the predictions of the model using a panel dataset containing 13,410 firms, for 1993-1997.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2003Edward Lazear Journal of Political Economy. 1977. Vol. 85. No. 3. P. 569-598.
This paper attempts to determine whether the relationship between education and income results because schooling allows individuals to earn higher income or because higher income individuals purchase more of all normal goods, including schooling. Education is treated as a joint product, producing potential wage gains and utility simultaneously. The framework permits estimation of the rental price of a unit of education, net of consumption effects. The major finding is that education does causally produce income. By moving from 0 years of schooling to 12 years, the mean individual approximately triples his wealth. More surprising is that education is a bad." Individuals stop short of acquiring the wealth-maximizing level of education because of the disutility associated with school attendance.
Employment equity and minority legislation in the UK after two decades: a review (Обзор законодательства Великобритании двух последних десятилетий о трудовом равенстве и правах меньшинств) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004Peter J. Sloane, Daniel Mackay International Journal of Manpower. 1997. Vol. 18. No. 7. P. 597-626.
Examines employment equity legislation, initially introduced in the UK during the 1970s, along with separate legislation covering sex, race, religion and disability, together with separate enforcement bodies, and separate geographical arrangements in Britain and in Northern Ireland. Notes the role of European Community Law which takes precedence over UK law and increasingly dictates legislation changes. Claims that the period since the 1970s has witnessed growing levels of unemployment, along with a focus on de-regulation of labour markets. Most British empirical work focuses on explaining earnings differentials using the standard Mincer human capital model with comparative neglect of employment equality issues. The fundamental question is to what extent has employment equity legislation been successful in removing labour market discrimination against minority groups. Uses a cross-section of data from the 1994 labour force survey to attempt to explain differences in employability across various groups and to analyse the degree of occupational segregation across these same groups which remain after nearly 20 years of experience of employment equity legislation. Reviews the legislation and then estimates first, logit equations to explain employability and second, ordered probit equations to explain occupational attainment, in each case decomposing the results in order to estimate the proportion of the differential which may be explained by "discrimination".