Всего статей в данном разделе : 44
‘The Public Gets what the Public Wants’: England Football Fans, ‘Truth’ Claims and Mediated Realities [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 02-09-2006Tim Crabbe International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2003. Vol. 38. No. 4. P. 413-425.
For at least two decades prior to the 2002 World Cup Finals there had been a widespread tendency for England fans to be castigated by the full spectrum of media vehicles as the embodiment of an unrepentant nationalistic ‘Englishness’. These supporters have systematically been negatively associated with aggressive masculinity, drunkenness, open displays of nationalism, xenophobia and racism. Rather than assessing the extent to which these representations distort ‘the truth’ about ‘England fans’, drawing on popular cultural theory this article is concerned with the ways in which ‘regimes of truth’ (Foucault, 1980), deployed in contingent and situation-specific ways, have been constituted through an interplay between media reporting and wider cultural practice. The article utilizes media content analysis, interview material and participant observations collected before, during and after England’s games against Germany in Charleroi on 17 June 2000, in Munich on 1 September 2001 and during the finals of the 2002 World Cup staged in Japan and Korea. This material is underpinned by the researcher’s ongoing ethnographies among supporters of the England national team.
Adult Participation Sports as Cultural Capital: A Test of Bourdieu’s Theory of the Field of Sports [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2006Carl Stempel International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2005. Vol. 40. No. 4. P. 411-432.
This study extends recent tests of Bourdieu’s theory of sports as cultural capital using data from the 1998 US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) on adult Americans’ frequency and intensity of participation in 15 sports. Most of the previous tests of Bourdieu’s theory have been limited to general measures of sport participation, and have provided general support for the thesis that sports operate as cultural capital. The NHIS data allow inferences about the principles of distinction dividing social classes in the field of participatory sports. More extensive tests of the ‘prole’ and ‘omnivore’ theses are also presented. The analysis shows that many sports are highly class exclusive and that the principles of exclusion fit closely with Bourdieu’s theory of the relational structure of the field of adult participation sports. The dominant classes use strenuous aerobic sports, moderate levels of weight-training, and competitive sports that restrict direct physical domination and/or are aerobically strenuous, in order to draw boundaries between themselves and the middle and lower classes. Competitiveness and demonstrating the ‘will to win’ within ‘civilized’ constraints on physical domination appear to be an important secondary principle of distinction. The evidence also supports a gendered ‘ascetic vs luxury’ divide between the culturally and economically weighted fractions of the dominant class. There is strong support for the cultural omnivore thesis, but the ‘prole’ thesis is not supported. These finding are also congruent with both Lareau’s description of the upper middle class cultural logic of ‘concerted cultivation’ and Lamont’s findings with regard to upper-middle-class boundary-making around ‘self-actualization’ and ‘moral character’.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-09-2006Mick Green, Barrie Houlihan International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2004. Vol. 39. No. 4. P. 387-403.
This paper explores the process of elite sport policy change in two sports (swimming and track and field athletics) and their respective national sport organizations (NSOs) in Canada and national governing bodies of sport (NGBs) in the United Kingdom (UK). The nature of policy change is a complex and multifaceted process and a primary aim is to identify and analyse key sources ofpolicy change through insights provided by the advocacy coalition framework (ACF). In Canada, it is evident that the preoccupation with high performance sport over the past 30 years, at federal government level, has perceptibly altered over the past two to three years. In contrast, in the UK, from the mid-1990s onwards, there has been a noticeable shift towards supporting elite sport objectives from both Conservative and Labour administrations. Most notably, the ACF throws into sharp relief the part played by the state in using its resource control to shape the context within which debates on beliefs and values within NSOs/NGBs takes place. While the ACF has proved useful in drawing attention to the notion of changing values and belief systems as a key source of policy change, as well as highlighting the need to take into account factors external to the policy subsystem under investigation, potential additions to the framework’s logic are suggested for future applications.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-09-2006Toni Bruce, Emma H. Wensing International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2003. Vol. 38. No. 4. P. 387-396.
Extensive qualitative research shows that, even at its best, media coverage of women athletes tends to be ambivalent, meaning that it juxtaposes positive descriptions and images with descriptions and images that undermine and trivialize women’s efforts and successes. However, researchers have rarely explored the implications of nationalism — in particular during global sports events — for coverage of women’s sport. This analysis of media coverage of Cathy Freeman during the Sydney 2000 Olympics points to an instance in which gender lost its place as the primary media framing device because of Freeman’s importance as a symbol of national reconciliation.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-09-2006Grant Jarvie International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2003. Vol. 38. No. 2. P. 139-153.
The contribution that sport can make to community has been a contemporary theme within both sociological and political thinking about sport. This paper examines assumptions that are often associated with communitarianism as a basis for thinking about aspects of sport in Scotland. It is argued that it is unrealistic to expect sport to sustain a notion of social capital or civic engagement or communitarianism without addressing the issue of ownership, obligations and stakeholding in Scottish sport. Case-study research is used to substantiate the arguments made about Scottish sport.
Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2006Ingar Mehus International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2005. Vol. 40. No. 3. P. 321-333.
Drawing on the theoretical framework of Pierre Bourdieu, this study investigates the relationship between cultural capital and different forms of sport consumption by spectators of three different sports (N = 587). Main findings show a negative relationship between cultural capital and sport consumption, and a positive relationship between sport participation and sport consumption. The findings are partly at odds with previous studies, indicating a positive relationship between cultural capital and direct sport consumption. The findings are possibly explained by considering tastes as social communication in a society where mass consumption adds to the blurring of distinctive borders between different groups of social belongingness, involving the ‘cultural omnivore’ thesis.
Embedded Expectations, Embodied Knowledge and the Movements That Connect: A System Theoretical Attempt to Explain the Use and Non-Use of Sport Facilities [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 02-09-2006Jan Ove Tangen International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2004. Vol. 39. No. 1. P. 7-25.
In this article I propose another way of studying the use and non-use of sport facilities. I argue that sport facilities embed expectations observable to individuals who are forced to meet these expectations or not. I also claim that our choices concerning the use or non-use of a sport facility are grounded in our embodied knowledge, a knowledge that is not easy to make conscious. My last claim is that movements connect the embedded expectations and embodied knowledge and eventually mediate changes in both these structures.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-09-2006Cathy Ingen International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2003. Vol. 38. No. 2. P. 201-216.
This article returns to an earlier discussion on `sport and space' that began in a 1993 special issue of the International Review for the Sociology of Sport. In this article I initiate a discussion and debate that aims to move spatial inquiry beyond a focus on `place' in order to more clearly link the relation between identity and the spaces through which identity is produced and expressed. Reframing the focus to include a broader cultural analysis enables sport sociologists to more closely examine the geography of social relations. In particular, this article considers how relations of gender, sexuality and race are produced, negotiated and contested in social space. This discussion is largely situated in the work of French theorist Henri Lefebvre and contextualized in the recent `spatial turn' in sport sociology.
Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2006Barrie Houlihan International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2005. Vol. 40. No. 2. P. 163-185.
Despite the increasing involvement of governments in sport, and the high level of academic interest in sports-related public policy issues such as equity, doping, harassment and violence, there is remarkably little analysis of sport policy that utilizes the major models and frameworks for analysis widely adopted in other policy areas. Following the development of a set of criteria for assessing the adequacy of analytic frameworks, four major meso-level analytic frameworks are examined: the stages model, institutional analysis, multiple streams model, and the advocacy coalition framework. These are assessed for their internal coherence and applicability to the study of sport policy. None of the four frameworks reviewed is considered to be sufficiently persuasive and, consequently, a modified version of the advocacy coalition framework is developed and suggested as the most promising point of departure for the analysis of sport policy.
Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2006Michael Atkinson, Kevin Young International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2005. Vol. 40. No. 3. P. 335-356.
Sociologists have been slow to turn their attention to ‘blood sports’ involving animals or activities where animals suffer neglect and abuse. Although there seems to be a heightened sense of public contempt in many countries toward the outwardly cruel treatment of animals such as dogs, and toward the place of animals in ‘sport’ per se, the ways in which racing greyhounds may be enmeshed in wider formations of sports-related abuse and violence continues to be ignored. In this article, data gathered on greyhound abuse in the North American racing figuration are examined in the process of understanding the social chains of interdependence necessary to perpetuate ‘tolerable’ deviance against the dogs. Using central tenets of figurational sociology, patterns of neglect and abuse are discussed and conceptual typologies of the main ‘players’ in the greyhound figuration are outlined.
Sport and Society [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2006James H. Frey, Stanley Eitzen Annual Review of Sociology. 1991. Vol. 17. P. 5-3-522.
Sport is a very prominent social institution in almost every society because it combines the characteristics found in any institution with a unique appeal only duplicated by, perhaps, religion. The functional, conflict, and cultural studies perspectives are reviewed, with additional discussion on how sport relates to the processes of socialization and social change. The latter focusses on the evolution of sport from a playful, participation-oriented activity to one that resembles a corporate form guided by the principles of commercialism and entertainment. The role of sport in international relations and national development dramatizes the political meaning of sport to many societies. While sport may be integrative at the higher political levels, it has not been so at the interpersonal levels of gender and race. The inequality that characterizes society's relations of gender and race is found in sport as well. The sociology of sport will be able to shed more light on all of these issues when theory informs more of the research in this subfield.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-09-2006Eric Dunning, Ivan Waddington International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2003. Vol. 38. No. 3. P. 351-368.
This article seeks, first, to suggest that relations between `drug users' and members of the wider society have many of the features of an `established-outsider' figuration as defined by Elias; second, to examine aspects of the complex interrelationships between sport and the consumption of alcohol. In this regard, reference is made to the long-standing Epicurean/Dionysian and Stoical/Puritanical conceptions of sport and to the consumption of alcohol in leisure-gemeinschaften. Third, the article seeks to examine some aspects of the increasing use of `sport in the community' schemes as a means of combating the use of drugs by young people and, fourth, to look at some of the ways in which participation in sport might itself be considered, in a loose sense, as a kind of `drug'.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-08-2007Susan Birrell Social Forces. 1981. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 354-376.
The thesis is presented that sport is an important societal phenomenon because of its ritualistic overtones. The significance of sport as a ritual is based on the status of the athlete as exempla y role incumbent with power to mediate between the individuals zoho comprise the audience and the moral order of the community. Theoretical support is derived by a synthesis of Durkheim's social theoy of religion and Gofian's theo y of interaction ritual. Sporting incidents singled out and applauded by the media as examples of heroic action are used to support the idea that athletes are significant social figures because they are capable of representing important societal values, i.e., courage, gameness, integrity, and poise.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-09-2006Olivier Aubel, Fabien Ohl International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2004. Vol. 39. No. 2. P. 123-137.
Free-climbing is used as a privileged way of studying the positioning generated by the meeting of the symbolic economy of sport and a market that is trying to extend its hold on it. In order to understand why money has become an internal problem to the free-climbing space, the article analyses how its symbolic economy and its market are organized. As the economization of free-climbing took place almost simultaneously with its advent, free-climbers had to take an immediate stand. At the end of the 1980s, nearly 25 years after the establishment of free-climbing, opposition to its marketization was still strong among its enthusiasts because the symbolic economy of the free-climbing world was at stake. Free-climbers use the denegation of the economy to overcome the contradictions between their anti-economic ethos and the marketing of their performances, while at the same time expressing the values of the social categories to which the sportsmen and sportswomen belong. Thus, denegation is not a conscious way of being close to the climbing culture; it underlines the beliefs that in climbing value does not, as in some other social spaces, depend on the individual’s economic capital but on free-climbing culture.
The New Symbols of European Football [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 02-09-2006Anthony King International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2004. Vol. 39. No. 3. P. 323-336.
In 1992, UEFA, the Union of European Football Associations, replaced the final rounds of the European Cup with a mini-league competition called ‘The Champions League’ and developed three symbols to market this new competition. This article draws on Barthes’s semiology to examine the political significance of these symbols. It claims that the symbols developed by UEFA communicate a sense of tradition of which UEFA is the guardian. In this way, the symbols seek to suppress the current political tensions within European football between UEFA and the big European clubs.