Опубликовано на портале: 22-11-2005David B. Grusky, Thomas A. DiPrete Demography. 1990. Vol. 27. No. 4. P. 617-637.
Using the 14 annual cross-sections from the General Social Survey, we specify a "basic model" of attainment and describe the year-by-year fluctuations in its parameters. The results are partially consistent with theories describing the gradual growth of universalistic patterns of stratification and mobility. Under a linear model of educational achievement, we find that the direct effects of race are weakening and the returns to class-based advantages are declining in tandem. The contours of the socioeconomic "gender gap" are also changing in important ways, with the male intercept declining at a rapid pace and the female term registering small and insignificant year-by-year gains. At the same time, the returns to experience and schooling are increasing for men, whereas the corresponding returns for women have remained stable over the 15-year period. This pattern of interaction effects implies that the size of the gender gap varies over time and across different population groups.
Retirement Against the Demographic Trend: More Older People Living Longer, Working Less, and Saving Less [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 13-02-2004David A. Wise Demography. 1997. Vol. 34. No. 1. P. 83-95.
Scheduled Social Security changes would have little effect on the retirement decisions of employees with a typical defined benefit pension plan. But if the pension plan provisions were changed to correspond to the Social Security changes, the effect would be very large. And although not contemplated by current legislation, it is clear that an increase in the Social Security early retirement age would have a substantial effect on the early retirement rates of the large number of employees not covered by a pension plan.