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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 35

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
AB C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Narciso Arcas, Jose Luis Munuera
2002
The integration in second-order cooperatives allows the first-order agricultural cooperatives to complement their resources and capabilities, achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The problems associated with the creation, development and long-term maintenance of these partnerships, along with the lack of research into this area, justify the realization of studies aimed at improving our understanding of the processes and outcomes that characterize them. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to discover the factors which lead to the success of these relationships, empirically measured through the satisfaction of first-order co-operatives with the relationship. In order to achieve this, a suitable theoretical framework is established and an empirical study undertaken, with information obtained from a survey of 190 Spanish first-order agricultural co-operatives. The results obtained reveal that the contribution of the partnership to the first-order cooperative’s performance, its trust and perception of fairness are critical antecedents of the level of satisfaction of the first-order cooperative satisfaction with the relationship.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Channing Arndt, Peter Wobst
2003
We examine the performance of the primary school education system in Tanzania over the 1990s - a decade characterized by substantial AIDS deaths. Given the relatively robust correlation between educational attainment and productivity established in the literature in both agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, human capital accumulation through education forms a major component of development strategy. At the same time, AIDS poses clear threats to the goal of human capital accumulation through education. To assess performance of the primary school system, we estimate non-stationary education transition matrices using a minimum cross entropy approach at the national, sub-national, and regional levels for girls, boys, and all students. Results indicate a deterioration in primary school performance using enrollments in grade 7, the final year of primary school, as a metric. This deterioration in performance occurred despite increased real resource allocations to the public education system and positive, if only tepid, overall economic growth trends. We conclude that the HIV/AIDS pandemic has quite likely slowed human capital accumulation in Tanzania.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Manuel Arriaza, Jose A. Gomez-Limon
2002
This study compares the predictive performance of several mathematical programming models. Using the cropping patterns, yields and crop gross margins of eighteen farms over a period of five years we compare the models’ optimum solutions with observed crop distributions after the Reform of the EU Common Agricultural Policy of 1992. The results show that the best prediction corresponds to a model that includes expected profit and a qualitative measure of crop riskiness. The results suggest that, in order to obtain reliable predictions, the modelling of farmers’ responses to policy changes must consider the risk associated with any given cropping pattern. Finally, we test the ability of the proposed model to reproduce the farmers’ observed behaviour with equally good performance under conditions of limited data availability.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Michela Ascani, Gaetano Martino
2004
This paper aims to examine some aspects of the Rural Development policies in the light of the conceptualization of institutional complementarities. Actually, an increasing amount of analytical outcomes emerges in inquiring the relationship between specific institutional arrangements and the kind of economic and social problems they may solve. This suggests that under that view some chances of enhancing the knowledge about rural policy making models may be exploited. Actually, the rural systems constituting the European Rural territory show specific and complex institutional orderings defining a rural institutional field. This field calls for specific analysis and policy models. The market and the State are the main entities taken into account in specifying policy patterns in the Rural Development’s field, whereas a communitarian framework is often considered a rooted characteristic of the European rural development processes. The communities’ constituting processes is often not fully considered in the rural development studies. Even if the scholars have usually recognised a correspondence between Community and Rural System, this correspondence has still to be analysed. The paper would examine some Rural Development Policies (i.e. under the EU regulation 1257/99), by taking into account the roles of the market, the State, and the Community. In particular the communitarian field seems of interest in integrating different policy making levels, thus we would delineate the role of the Rural Development Policies in constituting or fostering Rural Communities. The Hohfeld-Commons analytical structure of rights and duties will be considered to this purpose. Then the analytical framework will be taken into account to delineate some opportunities for future scenarios emerging from the CAP reform.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Ignacio Atance, Isabel Bardaji
2002
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) intervenes in most agricultural systems that provide positive environmental externalities using both direct payments and agrienvironmental schemes. In this context, the objective of this paper is to compare the efficiency of the current intervention system versus intervening using agri-environmental payments as a sole instrument. The cereal steppes agroecosystem of Tierra de Campos (Valladolid, Spain) has been selected to develop this comparison. A farm survey and a Positive Mathematical Programming Model have been combined to provide results of both alternative instruments. The farm survey was used to ask the farmers their payments demands to participate in the alternative instrument, supplying also qualitative information about how it is perceived by farmers. The payments demanded were simulated in the model to get environmental and economic indicators for both instruments. Instruments were evaluated using a cost-effectiveness approach were total public expenditure was conserved constant for both. The main conclusion of this research is that policy intervention effectiveness could be potentially increased using an agri-environmental scheme as the unique intervention instrument. Considering this finding, results transferability to other agricultural systems and policy consequences in the context of the CAP are finally discussed.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Julian Binfield, Gary Adams, Robert Young, Patrick Westhoff
Zaragoza, 2002
Most of the large scale modeling systems used in the analysis of agricultural policies produce deterministic projections. In reality, however, the agricultural sector is subject to a high degree of uncertainty as a result of fluctuations in exogenous factors such as the weather or macroeconomic variation. A stochastic approach can provide additional information to policy makers regarding the implications of this uncertainty, through the use of stochastically generated projections.

This paper also shows how deterministic analysis may result in systematic errors in the projection of some variables. As an applied example, the FAPRI model of the US agricultural sector is simulated stochastically to analyse the impact of proposals for the new US farm bill.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Boubaker Dhehibi, Jose Maria Gil, Ana M. Angulo
Durban, 2003
The objective of this paper is to analyse the Spanish demand for food taking into account the consumer.s concern about the relationship between food diet and health. This concern is forcing food demand analysts to assume that consumer utility is a function of nutrients instead of simply the food products themselves. A CBS demand model has been considered to model the new demand function obtained, which is estimated with a complete panel data set. Ten broad categories, nine nutrients and the most relevant socio-economic variables have been considered. Finally, after an apropriate model selection strategy, expenditure, price and nutrient elasticities, as well as main sociodemographic effects, have been calculated.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Lire Ersado, Gregory Amacher, Jeffrey Alwang
Durban, 2003
The adoption of more efficient farming practices and technologies that enhance agricultural productivity and improve environmental sustainability is instrumental for achieving economic growth, food security and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our research examines the interaction between public investments, community health, and adoption of productivity and land enhancing technologies by households in the northern Ethiopian state of Tigray. Agricultural technology adoption decisions are modeled as a sequential process where the timing of choices can matter. We find that time spent sick and opportunity costs of caring for sick family members are significant factors in adoption. Sickness, through its impact on household income and labor allocation decisions for healthcare and other activities, significantly reduces the likelihood of technology adoption. Our findings suggest that agencies working to improve agricultural productivity and land resource conservation should consider not only the financial status of potential adopters, but also their related health situation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Jose A. Gomez-Limon, Laura Riesgo, Manuel Arriaza
2002
In modelling farm systems it is widely accepted that risk plays a central role. Furthermore, farmers’ risk aversion determines their decisions in both the short and the long run. This paper presents a methodology based on multiple criteria mathematical programming to obtain relative and absolute risk aversion coefficients. We rely on multiattribute utility theory (MAUT) to elicit a separable additive multiattribute utility function and then estimate the risk aversion coefficients and apply this methodology to an irrigated area of Northern Spain. The results show a wide variety of attitudes to risk among farmers, who mainly exhibit decreasing absolute risk aversion (DARA) and constant relative risk aversion (CRRA).
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Jose A. Gomez-Limon, Laura Riesgo, Manuel Arriaza
Durban, 2003
In this paper we present a methodology to analyse input use in the agricultural sector. The novelty of the theoretical model explained is that it has been developed considering a multi-criteria environment. Thus, the optimal input use condition is determined by the assessment of "multi-attribute utility" and "multi-attribute marginal utility". We show how the approach adopted in this paper is a generalization of the single-attribute expected utility theory. The theoretical model developed is further implemented in an empirical application that studies water for irrigation use as a particular case. Results show how multi-attribute utility functions elicited for a sample of 52 irrigators explain differences on irrigation water use in relative homogenous agricultural systems, albeit exhibiting similar water partial utility functions. We conclude that these differences come from the dissimilar weights that farmers attached to each attribute in the aggregate utility function. The irrigated area considered as case study is located in North-western Spain.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
A. Gracia, Mehrez Ameur
2002
Agrifood firms operate in a more global, saturated and competitive market than other manufacturing firms, and they have smaller size. These firms certainly need to define appropriate strategies related to accessing the international market and to investing in innovative activities. This two decisions are related to firms size because as Krugman states international trade is not only explained by differences in technology between countries but also by firms’ desire to extend their sales in foreign markets to take advantage of the economies of scales. Therefore, it seems to exist a simultaneous relation between firm size, exports and innovative activities. The aim of this paper is to analyse agrifood firms’ decisions on these three strategies: export behaviour, innovative activities and firm’s size in comparison to other manufacturing firms using some modification from the simultaneous model defined by Entorf and Pohlmeier. The study is focused on the Spanish manufactured firms taking special attention to the agri-food ones. Data come from a National Survey (“Encuesta de Estrategias Empresariales”) carried out by the “Fundación Empresa Pública”) from 1990. Results indicate that agri-food manufacturing firms decision process related to their size, export share and innovative activities is not a simultaneous process. Moreover, some differences with the rest of manufactured firms have been detected, In particular, agri-food firms have lower export shares, lower size and lower innovation intensity than Spanish firms in other manufacturing sectors. Spanish firms decision process on strategic variables (size, export share and innovation) is characterized by a recursive decision process where firms firstly decide export intensity, secondly, they decide their size or total sales depending on the previous decision and, finally, they decide their innovative intensity depending on the last two.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Harold Halcrow, Robert Spitze, Joyce Allen-Smith
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994, 448 с.
Учебник об экономических и политических аспектах политики государства в агропромышленном комплексе. Предназначен для студентов последнего года обучения в бакалавриате и/или первого года обучения магистратуры. Рассматривается такие темы как экономика и сельское хозяйство, политология и сельское хозяйство, проблемы общественного выбора и политика в области сельского хозяйства сегодня.

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Brian Hardaker, Jock Anderson, Ruud Huirne
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, 288 с.
Основная цель книги - познакомить со спецификой принятия решений в сельском хозяйстве в условиях неопределённости и способами снижения риска. Рассматриваются методы анализа степени риска в сельском хозяйстве и подготовки планов по управлению риском. Учебник рекомендуется для студентов последнего года обучения в бакалавриате и первого года обучения в магистратуре, а также специалистов АПК.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Berit Hasler, Martin Andersen
Zaragoza, 2002
This paper addresses the combination of environmental regulation and rural development using an integrated economic modelling approach. Specifically, the regional impacts of regulating livestock density at the farm level are analysed in a projected 2010 setting. This scenario is motivated by a concern for nitrogen loads on ground and surface water. The applied model framework includes a macroeconomic CGE-model, an econometric agricultural sector model and a local economic model, and consistent links have been established between these models. The analyses show that the largest relative economic impacts occur in the western parts of Denmark. This occurs in the agricultural sector, because the highest livestock densities are found in the western regions, but also at the general economic level, because agriculture is relatively important for the regional economy in these regions. However, the maximum absolute economic impact on the regional economies in terms of regional GDP is only around one per cent in the most affected region.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Marjorie Le Bars, Jean-Marie Attonaty, Suzanne Pinson
2002
Water sharing has become a serious problem in France. One of the objectives of 1992 and 2000 directives proposed by the European Union was to reduce both the frequency and the extent of water conflicts through the establishment of multilateral negotiations, where different public and private interests can be represented in a structured institutional environment. In France, many negotiations take place at local level between farmers, water suppliers, public services and environmentalists to allocate water resources between users. We suggest that Agent–Based Modelling (ABM) using a multi-agent approach could help negotiations between different players by showing the consequences of water allocation rules and taking in consideration the players’ respective attitudes and their ability to change their behaviour.
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