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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 78

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R ST U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Tobias Hausen, Ralf Helbig, Gerhard Schiefer
2002
This article gives an overview of a conceptual framework for the designing and implementation of an electronic trade platform. The trade platform prototype is the basis of a general conception for the design and implementation of internet-based trade platforms in agribusiness. The main platform focus related to the concept are to convert traditional business relationships and transactions into an electronic system. The conceptual framework provides clarification with regard to the benefit of trade platforms and the individual requirements of different value chains and chain levels.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Roberto Henke, Roberta Sardone
2002
The paper focuses on the implementation of direct aids modulation, as provided for by Regulation 1259/99. After a critical review of the most relevant questions arisen around the effectiveness and the viability of modulation, the paper presents results about its possible application in Italy. In the first part of the paper a special attention is given to the actual distribution of direct aids in Italy, to the number of farms involved and the amount of revenues realised. In the second part four different hypotheses of modulation are tested. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of modulation revenues under the four different hypotheses are compared with the financial resources allotted in Italy to the regional Rural Development Plans (RDPs). While results of modulation are, generally speaking, quite poor in terms of re-distribution of direct aids, there is a more relevant effect in terms of additional resources destined to the RDPs. However, resources are to be destined to measures that receive the highest share of resources within the RDPs. On the contrary, other measures, more genuinely addressing Rural Development and territorial issues within the RDPs, receive a much smaller amount of resources and cannot be funded through modulation. In other words, if the main objective of the modulation is that of shifting resources from the first to the second pillar of the CAP, this is only partially realised, given the mandatory destination of financial resources on measures that are substantially financed and that do not fully address the economic diversification and the development of rural areas.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Roberto Henke, Daniela Storti
2004
The paper deals with the financial issues of the CAP reform at the edge of the EU enlargement, looking at the new distribution of resources programmed for the “second pillar” of the CAP. More in details, the papers focuses on three aspects: the distribution of resources coming from the implementation of modulation of direct payments, with regards to both the current and the new Member States; the future financial perspectives for Rural Development Regulation (RDR) in the framework of the cohesion policies, in the light of the proposal of a “single Fund” that include both Guarantee and Guidance sections of the EAGGF; the new distribution of resources for Rural Development Plans (RDPs) as it comes out of the “Objective Criteria” coming from the European Commission. Modulation of direct payments is the current only instruments that actively shifts resources from the first to the second pillar of the CAP. The proposal of a single fund would change the geography and the distribution of resources for the second pillar quite consistently. It would also affect the equity of the “objective criteria”, that would probably will be debated and eventually revised.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Nancy L. Johnson, Ruth Suarez, Mark Lundy
2003
This paper characterizes and measures the contribution of social capital to the performance of 50 agroenterprises in Colombia. Using qualitative analysis we document the functions that social capital performs within firms. To estimate social capital’s contribution to firm structure and performance, quantitative indicators of firm-level use of social capital are developed based on the number and strength of external relationships that firms maintain. Econometric analysis finds that firm-level returns to relationships are positive and higher than to physical or human capital. The results suggests that while firms can increase their economic performance by investing in social capital, ameliorating the effects of the market failures that lead to use of social relations for business purposes could also improve both equity and efficiency.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Giannis Karagiannis, Alexander Sarris
Zaragoza, 2002
In this paper we apply the technical inefficiency effect model to a set of eight different crop products (i.e., wheat, mixed arable crops, tobacco, cotton, olive oil, fruits, vegetables, and greenhouse horticulture) in Greek agriculture.

For each product, a panel data set covering the period 1991- 1995 is used and separate econometric results are obtained for each product. A particular set of socioeconomic and demographic variables is used to explain technical efficiency differentials among Greek farmers, including the direct subsidies given to each farmer, and the concordance of these efficiency determinants is discussed across the eight different crop products considered.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Barbara Lampic, Irma Potočnik Slavič
2004
Slovenia is characterised by very specific conditions for agriculture (approx. 80 % of territory defined as LFA), extremely heterogeneous geographic features and therefore also by huge regional divergence – especially in rural areas (representing at least three-quarters of the state’s territory). Heterogeneity, mosaic structure and relatively good preserved environment and traditional patterns are general characteristics of Slovene rural areas and we consider the mentioned as development potential for the vast part of Slovenian rural areas. In the last decade, huge regional disperities have actually arisen. Although the agriculture has lost its importance in economy, the newly proposed Rural Development Programme (for time period 2004 – 2006) is based on agricultural and agri-environment measures and ignores the multifunctional character of rural areas.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Lutz Laschewski, Bettina Matzdorf, Christian Schleyer
2004
Current research on the impact of agri-environmental schemes under the Rural Development Regulation (EC) 1257/99 (RDR) stresses the institutional, structural and cultural diversity, but also the wide range of natural conditions that shape the implementation processes. Furthermore, those agri-environmental policy instruments are closely linked to the development and institutionalisation of an European environmental policy in general and to a number of European directives, such as the ‘Habitat’ Directive, in particular. While taking the implementation of Article 16 of the RDR in the German federal state of Brandenburg as an illustrative case, we are aiming at developing a wider understanding of the implementation process and its regional impacts. In particular, we argue that it is necessary to understand the regional agrienvironmental discourse to which regional administrations refer to, the rationale of the administration itself and the mechanisms of decision making at the regional level. Regional administrations follow their own legitimate agendas and do not simply apply given measures, but modify and try to integrate them into wider regional strategies. In the case presented, we show that the regional administration’s foremost concern to link political goals with given budgetary constraints resulted in a reshuffling of funds between schemes funded by different sources. We also show that European regulations are enforcing administrative procedures that do influence the design of agri-environmental schemes in a way that raises doubts about their environmental effectiveness. Finally, we argue, that the presumably sharp distinction between statutory environmental rules versus voluntary agri-environmental schemes is blurred in practice. Instead, they appear to be complementary in nature.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Karen Macours, Johan Swinnen
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 9-35 с.
Economic reforms have induced different output and productivity changes in Russia, China and the transition countries of Eastern Europe. The main objective of this paper is to analyze what has caused these differences in performance. We discuss how initial conditions and reform policy choices affect changes in property rights, production organization, terms of trade, and the liberalization of the economy. We analyze how these, in turn, have affected economic performance.

The hypotheses are tested by quantitative analysis. We conclude that it is a combination of both initial conditions and reform policy choices which has caused the differences in performance.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Karen Macours, Johan Swinnen
Berlin, 2000
This paper analyzes the causes of the differences in transition performance in agriculture. The analysis draws on three empirical studies in which we estimated the impact of reform policies and initial conditions, and their 'intermediate results', (i.e. changes in relative prices, farm restructuring, changes in property rights and overall economic liberalization), on performance, i.e. agricultural productivity and output.

Two studies (Macours and Swinnen, 1999, 2000b) use aggregate data for 15 transition countries (as presented in figure 3); the third (Macours and Swinnen, 2000a) uses annual data on crop output for eight CEECs.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Mario Mazzocchi, Gianluca Stefani
2002
The paper develops a measure of consumer welfare losses associated with withheld information about BSE linkage with vCJD. food safety. The Cost of Ignorance (COI) is measured by comparing the utility of the informed choice with the utility of the uninformed one, under condition of improved information. Unlike previous work, based on a single equation demand model, the measure is obtained retrieving a cost function from a dynamic Almost Ideal Demand System. The results indicate that Italian consumers bore a significant loss because of the delayed release of information.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Daniele Moro, Paolo Sckokai, Claudio Soregaroli
2002
In this paper we present a partial equilibrium model for the bovine sector (beef and dairy) in Italy, which can be used for simulation and forecasting. The structure of the model follows the vertical chain of the beef and dairy sector, allowing trade of both agricultural raw materials and final products. Since the processing and retailing stage is characterised by an imperfectly competitive structure, the model accounts for market power in modeling the price transmission mechanism. This provides further insights on the vertical transmission of shocks, both at the final level (i.e. the BSE crisis) and at the farm level (i.e. agricultural policy reform).
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-01-2004
Charles Moss, Andrew Schmitz
Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company, 2003, 304 с.
Авторы пытаются определить экономические детерминанты стоимости земли и последствия изменения цены земли на примере США и Канады. Анализ построен на рассмотрении следующих разделов : исторический обзор структуры и поведения земельного рынка в США, связь между стоимостью фермерской земли и аграрной политикой США, рынок капитала и стоимость фермерских земель, механика функционирования рынка фермерской земли с точки зрения издержек по покупке и продаже земельных участков, экология и проблемы расширяющейся урбанизации, государственное регулирование в области запрета на владение фермерской землёй иностранными гражданами и его влияние на стоимость фермерских земельных наделов в Канаде.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Denis A. Nadolnyak, Ian M. Sheldon
2002
In the paper, a dynamic model of diffusion of genetically modified crop technology is developed and simulated using the U.S. soybean market data. The model accounts for factors specific to agricultural markets, such as oligopsony power and strategic interaction among crop processors, growers’ characteristics such as adoption behavior, and identity preservation requirements. Simulation results show how these factors affect the magnitude and distribution of the potential gains from genetically modified crops.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
K.N. Ninan, Jyothis Sathyapalan
2003
This paper analyses the economics of biodiversity conservation in the context of a tropical forest ecosystem in India, where coffee is the main competitor for land use. Using primary data covering a cross-section of coffee growers, the study notes that the opportunity costs of biodiversity conservation in terms of coffee benefits foregone are quite high. Even after including external costs due to wild life damages and defensive expenditure to protect against wild life, the NPVs and IRRs from coffee for all land holding groups were high. Even if the expected benefits were to decrease by 20% and costs rise by a similar proportion, still the IRRs from coffee were quite high (19.5 to 20.1 per cent). The study notes that the external costs accounted for between 7 to 15 per cent of the total discounted costs of coffee cultivation, and smaller holdings proportionately incurred higher external costs as compared to large holdings. The study also notes high transaction costs incurred by the growers to claim compensation for wild life damages. Notwithstanding these disincentives, the study notes that the local community were willing to pay in terms of time for participatory biodiversity conservation, and they preferred a decentralized government institution for this purpose.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
George W. Norton, Scott M. Swinton
Berlin, 2000
Producers in industrialized countries have been inundated with ideas and information about precision agriculture (PA) and how new site-specific management (SSM) technologies will revolutionize their farm operations. Conjuring up Star Wars-imagery, farmers and their computerized machinery communicate with satellites while speeding up and down the information highway. The farm press has hailed the advent of these technologies as a win-win situation with higher farm profits and improved environmental quality. Certainly the potential is there for greater economic returns and better environmental stewardship. But what exactly is precision agriculture, who is applying it, and where? Is the technology only relevant for developed countries and are there implications for markets? What is the likelihood that environmental benefits will be realized?

This paper addresses these questions by drawing on literature, data, and expert opinion to explore what technologies have been developed and which ones have been or are likely to be adopted, by whom, and where. It considers the environmental implications of this host of new information technologies.
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