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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 27

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL MN O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Catherine Benjamin, Isabelle Piot
2002
The European Union beef market regulation is largely influenced by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). With the 1992 CAP reform, there was a partial shift by the EU from product price support to a more direct form of income support by way of direct payments. For beef there was a move to direct payments on intermediate products which was essentially a direct payment for the possession of various categories of animals and these were linked to a land resource base. The Agenda 2000 reform consists in a further price decrease associated with an increase in direct payments. The objective of this paper is to assess how the behaviour of beef producers is sensitive to changes in production prices and to changes in premiums. The analysis relies on an analytical framework which allows to take into account the dynamic feature of beef production and the subsidies provided by the Common Agricultural Policy. We studys how the beef supply response is modified when various exogenous variables like prices or premiums are changed. The application focuses on the dynamics of beef supply response in the French beef sector.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Karin Eckstein, Helmut Hoffmann, Jutta Gloeggler
2004
In the context of the mid-term evaluation of rural development programmes (EU regulation 1257/99) the Bavarian agri-environmental programme, the so-called Kulturlandschaftsprogramm Part A” (KULAP-A), was evaluated. By means of this programme, only agricultural land related measures are supported. The measures may refer to the whole agricultural enterprise, parts of it or the individual plot. The guideline of the EU-commission demand analysis about the effects of the programme on biotic and abiotic environmental resources such as soil, water, species and their habitat and landscape. This paper focuses on the results concerning the protection of soil erosion and water contamination. For this, statistical data corresponding the supported measures were analysed. Additionally a survey of farmers participating and non-participating at the programme was conducted. In this study the dead-weight-effect is discussed as an effect which can be excluded in cases when: due to the programme an intensification of management is prevented, a low intensive management is reached or the abandonment of farming could at least be delayed.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Caroline Saunders, Anita Wreford
Durban, 2003
This paper focuses on the impact of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) on agricultural trade. In particular, the paper assesses the impact on New Zealand (NZ), which is highly reliant on agricultural trade, with a high percentage of its total GHG emissions are originating in the agricultural sector. The paper also analyses the impact of mitigation strategies in the European Union (EU), which has a low proportion of GHG coming from agriculture, a highly protected agriculture sector, and is a major market and competitor for NZ. Results from a partial equilibrium trade model, the LTEM, show clearly that while these mitigation strategies achieve the goal of GHG reduction, producer returns are also negatively affected. The value of these changes in emissions are then calculated, based on US$15/tonne of carbon dioxide (CO2), and producer returns adjusted for this. Although this value of CO2 goes some way towards offsetting the reduction in producer returns, it would need to be considerably greater in order to provide any significant compensation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Thia Hennessy
2002
This paper examines intergenerational succession on Irish dairy farms. The factors that influence the decision to enter dairying farming are examined using a binary choice logit model. Reasons that are frequently published in the popular farming press as being an obstacle to intergenerational succession are analysed and the significance of their effect is quantified. Results show that the level of education of the heir is the most significant factor in the succession decision. Heir’s with third level education are 30% less likely to enter dairy farming than their second level only educated counterparts. The sizes of milk quota and income that are associated with high probabilities of succession are identified.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Javier Calatrava-Leyva, Alberto Garrido
2002
Water availability in semiarid regions usually exhibits patterns of extreme variability. Even in intensively controlled basins, some users are subject to low levels of water reliability, and more vulnerable to periods of extreme scarcity. To reduce their risk exposure more flexible instruments, such as voluntary exchanges of water among users, are required. Recent changes in the Spanish water Law have given an initial impulse to allow for leases of water use rights. Properly designed and monitored, this instrument provides some flexibility to water management, and may increase the economic use efficiency as well as mitigate the adverse economic effects of droughts.

This paper looks at the risks and uncertainty dimensions of water markets, which have not been paid much attention in the literature. It analyses, from theoretical and empirical standpoints, the role that uncertainty plays in market participants’ decisions and its impact on gains from trade. Two models have been developed to carry out the empirical application. One is a stochastic and two-stage discreet programming model which simulates irrigators behaviour and the other is a spatial equilibrium model to compute market exchange and equilibrium. Water market price endogeneity is solved by an iterative process, which characterise price uncertainty from the results obtained from the spatial equilibrium model. Hydrological risk is characterised at the irrigation farm level through the variation of the water allowances served for irrigation. The application is performed on eleven irrigated farms in a district of the Guadalquivir Valley (Southern Spain). It is shown how water availability uncertainty reduces farmers’ benefits because of the fact that they must take ex – ante decisions. However, if market participation is allowed once water allowances become known, even at an uncertain price, the benefit losses are partly mitigated. From a methodological standpoint, these results suggest that the agricultural water market benefits estimates found in the literature may be undervalued as a result of omitting the option to participate in the market in the mix of possible strategies. Exchanging water in annual spot markets allows for the reduction of farmers’ economic vulnerability caused by the variability and uncertainty of water supply within an irrigation season.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Paul Diederen, Hans van Meijl, Arjan Wolters
2002
This paper addresses the question which factors influence a farmer in deciding to adopt an innovation. We differentiate between innovations that are new to the farmer, but already well established in the sector, innovations that are early in their process of diffusion, and innovations that are new to the farmer’s sector. We use an ordered probit approach to relate adoption behaviour to variables that capture characteristics of the farm (labour and financial resources and market position), of the business environment of the farm (type of production and market, degree of regulation) and of the farmer (access to information, capabilities, preferences). We use data on 865 Dutch farms and find that innovation adoption is positively related to labour resources, market position, access to information and past adoption behaviour, and negatively to solvency and the degree of market regulation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Jose A. Gomez-Limon, Laura Riesgo, Manuel Arriaza
Durban, 2003
In this paper we present a methodology to analyse input use in the agricultural sector. The novelty of the theoretical model explained is that it has been developed considering a multi-criteria environment. Thus, the optimal input use condition is determined by the assessment of "multi-attribute utility" and "multi-attribute marginal utility". We show how the approach adopted in this paper is a generalization of the single-attribute expected utility theory. The theoretical model developed is further implemented in an empirical application that studies water for irrigation use as a particular case. Results show how multi-attribute utility functions elicited for a sample of 52 irrigators explain differences on irrigation water use in relative homogenous agricultural systems, albeit exhibiting similar water partial utility functions. We conclude that these differences come from the dissimilar weights that farmers attached to each attribute in the aggregate utility function. The irrigated area considered as case study is located in North-western Spain.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Jussi Lankoski, Markku Ollikainen
2002
We study the multifunctional character of agriculture in a model of endogenous input use and land allocation augmented by biodiversity, landscape amenity, and nutrient runoff. While biodiversity and landscape amenities represent the public good aspects of agriculture, nutrient runoff represents its negative externalities. We show that the private use of fertilizer input is higher and the size of buffer strips lower than the socially optimal solution requires. Also the socially optimal land allocation differs from the private solution due to the valuation of landscape diversity and runoff damages. The optimal policy is to use a differentiated fertilizer tax and a differentiated buffer strip subsidy and to determine their levels by the equality between the net value of their marginal product in food production and their effects on the marginal valuation of diversity and runoff damage in each parcel. We characterize empirically socially optimal multifunctional agriculture and the optimal design of the policy instruments by using Finnish data.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Werner Hediger, Bernard Lehmann
2003
In this article, we investigate welfare economic aspects of multifunctional agriculture, putting emphasis on the provision of rural environmental benefits. The formal analysis shows that the efficiency prices of agricultural and forest land include important amenity and non-use values that exhibit the character of undepletable externalities. Thus, to achieve a socially optimal land allocation these externalities must be internalised. We propose the compensation to agricultural and forest managers according to the marginal external benefit of their land, and a charge-subsidy scheme to improve rural water quality. Altogether, this is consistent with the requirement of optimal land allocation and would not cause additional market distortions. Moreover, it would leave the property right on the land and landscape benefits with the farmers, and assign the right on clean air and water to the consumers.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Tristan Le Cotty, Tancrede Voituriez
2003
When public goods are joint outputs of agricultural production, there is a trade-off between agricultural and non-agricultural provision of the public good. The principle of minimal price distortion in the reform of agricultural policies has led to a theoretical recommendation that public goods, if under-provided at agricultural free market level, should be promoted through non agricultural policies instead of agricultural policies. We show that the economies of scope between the agricultural production and the joint public good play a key role in determining the optimal way of providing this latter. If the policy designed is a non- agricultural policy, the production cost of the public good is higher than with an agricultural policy. If the policy designed is an agricultural policy, the production cost is lower but generates market effects. Under the assumption of strictly positive economies of scope, we show that the optimal policy is a mix of agricultural and non-agricultural policy. We confirm this result in the two-country case, demonstrating the optimal level of agricultural support for public good provision is strictly positive and lower than in the case of one country.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Karsten Kyed, Niels Kaergard, Henrik Zobbe
2002
The multifunctional character of agriculture is used as a main argument for agricultural support. This argument is theoretical analyzed in a model with decreasing marginal utility and it is shown that such a support must depend on the size of the agricultural sector. Consequently the argument is not valid for a common policy for very different countries as the EU-countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Maury E. Bredahl, Sjur Spildo Prestegard, Nils Kristian Nersten
2002
The ongoing negotiations in the WTO will most certainly lead to a further liberalization of the global agricultural trade. Related to this, many national governments, including Norway, Switzerland and Japan have placed substantial emphasis on the so-called non-trade concerns. In addition to the production of food and fiber, agriculture also provides or may provide national food security, environmental benefits, and viable rural areas. The term “Multifunctional Agriculture” has been applied to describe these additional functions. In this paper, we will show how the economic concepts of “positive and negative externalities” and “public goods” can be used to analyse non-trade concerns and multifunctionality, especially with reference to agriculture’s impact on the environment. We conclude the paper with suggestions for international trade rules that can allow countries to meet domestic environmental policy objectives in a minimally trade-distorting manner.
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