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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 67

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S TU V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Emilio Gatto, Beatriz E. Velazquez, Roberto Henke
2002
The set of policy tools that the EU puts under the heading of Rural Development is extremely heterogeneous, such heterogeneity translates into a different degree of coupling support with agriculture production and also brings out the need to discuss the actual consistency of such tools with the UE position on NTCs at WTO. Examined in the present work are the Rural Development Plans (RDPs) and the Regional Operative Plans (ROPs) recently approved by the European Commission for the Italian Regions. The analysis is of a purely qualitative type and is based on currently available information, that is, the measures and the relative project typologies approved within the Plans. Taking into account the EU position on NTCs and their relation with multifunctionality we look at the tools applied for Rural Development in Italy with respect to their degree of de-coupling, production of externalities/non marketable goods and consistency with the EU position on NTCs. Financial allotment by measure typology is also examined. We found out that the present set of actions that fall under rural development is still dominated by a sector-based intervention, even in the case of measures aimed at safeguarding the environment, the least contestable ones. Paradoxically, the measures aimed at the promotion of Rural Development and at training, that better respond to the NTC objectives, are those for which the least resources are located.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
John C. Beghin, Jean-Christophe Bureau, Sung Joon Park
2002
As part of its food security policy, South Korea has been pursuing food self-sufficiency using high tariffs and high administrative prices in key agricultural and food markets. Using a dual approach to trade and trade restrictiveness indices, we analyze the impact of these market distortions on welfare and trade volume. Then, we compute optimum distortions, which minimize the welfare cost of observed self-sufficiency and production objectives. We rationalize these optimum distortions to what could be claimed as legitimate protection under a “food security” (FS) box in World Trade Organization negotiations. FS-box protection is sensitive to changes in the definition and the extent of the FS objectives. We show that FS via production targets and reliance on imports would be more palatable to consumers and trade partners, while preserving rents to the farm sector.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Beatrice I. Conradie, Dana L. Hoag
Durban, 2003
In this paper the incremental values of water are calculated for irrigators in the Fish-Sundays Scheme of South Africa's Eastern Cape province. The socio-political pressure for redistribution of agricultural resources provided the imperative for this study. The model of the Fish-Sundays Scheme reflects a survey of 50 000 ha of fodder and citrus production. It explicitly models the water demand on sixteen typical farms, for five irrigation technologies, six crops and four livestock activities. The existing allocation generates an average value of R0.0423/m3/year, which increases to R0.0681/m3/year if farmer-to-farmer trading is allowed given existing infrastructure. Unrestricted trade raises the average value to R0.0719/m3/year. The marginal cost of additional water in the source basin is R0.05/m3/year for the first 315 million m3 and R1.27/m3/year to extend capacity beyond that.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Julia Koerner
2002
Germany is the second important coffee market in the world, just overshadowed by the United States. Coffee is the most famous beverage in Germany – even more popular than beer. On the supply side dominate few roasters. Market structure influences the market outcome and explains the processors’ ability to exercise market power. This paper aims at studying the pricing behavior in the German market for roasted coffee. Respectively, it discusses the impact of three different explanations. First, market power may be due to low price elasticity related to a high level of consumption. Second, pricing behavior may be influenced by the industry concentration. And finally, pricing behavior may be change over time due to exogenous shocks. In particular, the degree of competition has changed as a consequences of a merger. Further, cyclical demand changes induce pricing behavior. Empirical results are derived using data on the aggregate market for roasted coffee in Germany during 1992:1 to 2000:12.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Alexander Sarris
2003
The paper considers the benefit to agricultural producers from commodity price insurance that provides in every year, but in advance of the resolution of production and price uncertainty, a minimum price for a fixed or variable portion of production. Under the assumption that producers do not change their long term production and income diversification pattern, the theoretical framework suggested leads to explicit formulas for the benefit from providing this type of insurance. The theoretical framework is implemented for Ghana, using the GLSS data to specify various classes of cocoa producing households, and monthly price data for both domestic and international prices to formulate appropriate models for ascertaining price risks faced by producers. Empirical estimates of the actuarially fair premium are given, and it is shown that they are smaller than market based put option prices from organized exchanges. The overall benefit to households, however, turns out to be substantially higher than the actuarially fair premiums, as well as the market based put option prices, due both to the magnitudes of the uncertainties facing the households, as well as their risk and consumption smoothing behavior.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Samuel Benin, Melinda Smale, Berhanu Gebremedhin, John Pender, Simeon K. Ehui
2003
On farm conservation of crop diversity entails policy challenges, especially when the diversity of crops maintained on farms has both inter-specific (among crops) and infra-specific (within a crop) components. Survey data is used to compare the determinants of inter- and infra-specific diversity on household farms in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. Physical features of the farm, and household characteristics such as livestock assets and the proportion of adults that are men, have large and significant effects on both the diversity among and within cereal crops grown, varying among crops. Demographic aspects such as age of household head and adult education levels affect only infra-specific diversity of cereals. Though there are no apparent trade-offs between policies that would enhance one type of diversity (richness) versus another (evenness), those designed to encourage infra-specific diversity in one cereal crop might have the opposite effect on another crop. Trade-offs between development and diversity in this resource-poor system are not evident. Market-related variables and population density have ambiguous effects. Education positively influences cereal crop diversity. Growing modern varieties of maize or wheat does not detract from the richness or evenness of these cereals on household farms.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Imre Ferto, Lionel G. Hubbard
2003
We analyse the evolving pattern of Hungary.s agri-food trade using recently developed empirical procedures based on the classic Balassa index and its symmetric transformation. The extent of trade specialisation exhibits a declining trend; Hungary lost comparative advantage for a number of product groups over the 1990s. The indices of specialisation have also tended to converge. For particular product groups, the picture is mixed: indices are reasonably stable for product groups with comparative disadvantage, but those with weak to strong comparative advantage show significant variation. The results reinforce the finding of a general decrease in specialisation, but do not support the idea of self-reinforcing mechanisms, emphasised strongly in much of the endogenous growth and trade literature.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Henrik Zobbe
2002
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was founded in the 1950s with price support as the main policy instrument. Despite massive criticism from both within and outside the EU, price support remains the backbone of the CAP. This paper argues that the choice of price support was logical viewed in both historical and economical perspectives, and gives three reasons for this. First, even though talks on agricultural integration began immediately after the war, the CAP was a result of general economic integration in Europe rather than the reason for it. Second, the structure of the CAP was determined by the agricultural policies of the six founding countries. The third and last reason is related to the economic characteristics of running a price support system. The six countries together were net importers of agricultural products and could thereby benefit from import levies. Price support is paid for by the consumers, and European consumers had been paying high prices for food for a long time. This, together with a high level of economic growth in Europe in the 1960s, made it easier for the governments to choose this policy rather than a policy based on direct payments financed by taxpayers that would have put pressure on the national fiscal budgets of the six countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
K.N. Ninan, Jyothis Sathyapalan
2003
This paper analyses the economics of biodiversity conservation in the context of a tropical forest ecosystem in India, where coffee is the main competitor for land use. Using primary data covering a cross-section of coffee growers, the study notes that the opportunity costs of biodiversity conservation in terms of coffee benefits foregone are quite high. Even after including external costs due to wild life damages and defensive expenditure to protect against wild life, the NPVs and IRRs from coffee for all land holding groups were high. Even if the expected benefits were to decrease by 20% and costs rise by a similar proportion, still the IRRs from coffee were quite high (19.5 to 20.1 per cent). The study notes that the external costs accounted for between 7 to 15 per cent of the total discounted costs of coffee cultivation, and smaller holdings proportionately incurred higher external costs as compared to large holdings. The study also notes high transaction costs incurred by the growers to claim compensation for wild life damages. Notwithstanding these disincentives, the study notes that the local community were willing to pay in terms of time for participatory biodiversity conservation, and they preferred a decentralized government institution for this purpose.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: Nicolas Lampkin, Susanne Padel
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994, 480 с.
Книга написана по одной из актуальных и широко обсуждаемых проблем - производство органической (экологической) продукции в сельском хозяйстве. На примере США, Канады, Великобритании, Австралии, Германии, Дании, Швейцарии авторы представляют статистику по финансовому состоянию ферм, производящих органическую продукцию, знакомят со спецификой по введению и адаптации органического производства, политикой стран.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
C. Robert Taylor, Bruce Beattie
Florida: Krieger, 1993, 258 с.
Учебник рассматривает микроэкономические аспекты работы фирмы. Является базовым для чтения курса «Экономика производства» для магистров и докторантов первого года обучения. Основные рассматриваемые темы – технические аспекты производственного процесса, производство с одним переменным фактором, производство с двумя переменными факторами, эластичность производства, один продукт-n-переменных факторов, экономические аспекты производства – анализ со стороны ресурсов, случай при спросе на один ресурс и на несколько ресурсов одновременно, выпуск продукции, функции дохода и издержек, производство при различном ассортименте выпуска.

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: John M. Antle, Vincent H. Smith
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000, 300 с.
В книге анализируется современная ситуация на рынке пшеницы, основные страны экспортёры и импортёры, даётся прогноз развития международного рынка. Авторы уделяют внимание таким странам, как Россия и Китай, чья роль на мировом рынке пшеницы значительно изменилась за последнее время. Анализируются и стратегии традиционных экспортёров пшеницы на мировом рынке - США, ЕС, Канады, Аргентины и Австралии. Поведение и развитие рынка пшеницы рассматривается через призму международных торговых соглашений. Под редакцией Д.Антл и В.Смит.

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: Pranab Bardhan
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992, 416 с.
These specially commissioned essays apply new analytical methods to study the origins, maintenance, and adaptation of agrarian institutions in a variety of regions and cultures.

Книга представляет собой сборник эссе, написанных ведущими экономистами (Д.Стиглиц, Л.Путтерман, Т.Сринивасан, Х.Бинсвангер, Д.Ньюбери) в области развития институтов в аграрном секторе. Авторами предлагаются методы анализа для изучения причин, поддержки работы и адаптации аграрных институтов применительно к разным регионам и культурам. Под редакцией П. Бардхан. Книга может быть использована при изучении курсов: «Международное сельское хозяйство», «Международное сельскохозяйственное развитие», «Экономика развития», «Институциональная экономика».
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Michael Kopsidis
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 221-238 с.
Regional grain production in the Russian Federation has developed in a number of different ways over the last years. The same is true for grain marketing. Not only the prices on local markets but also those in the nation-wide grain trade seem to be at least strongly influenced by regional authorities.

However, it is very likely that only a small part of the grain trade is exchanged interregionally. The growing independence of the Russian Federation’s political subjects seems to be primarily responsible for regional differences concerning grain production and marketing. The 1998 economic crisis is likely to obstruct the development of an efficient domestic grain market further.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Javier Calatrava-Leyva, Alberto Garrido
Durban, 2003
Water availability in semiarid regions commonly exhibits patterns of extreme variability. Even in basins with large infrastructure development, some users are subject to low levels of water reliability, incurring economic losses during periods of scarcity. More flexible instruments, such as voluntary exchanges of water among users, may help users reduce their risk exposure. Recent changes in the Spanish water Law have given an initial impulse to allow for lease-out contracts of water use rights. This paper analyses, from theoretical and empirical standpoints, the effect that establishing water markets has on the economic risk caused by water availability variations.

The empirical study is performed on an irrigation district of the Guadalquivir Valley (Spain) with fair levels of average water availability but a high probability of periods of extreme scarcity. A non-linear programming model is used to simulate irrigators’ behaviour and derive water demand functions. Another spatial equilibrium model is used to compute market exchange and equilibrium. These programming models are combined with statistical simulation techniques. It is shown that the probability distribution of profits for a representative irrigator is modified if water exchanges are authorised, resulting in unambiguous risk reductions. Results also suggests that if the market would be extended to several irrigation districts and users, each characterised by different hydrological risk exposure, the occurrence of extremely low benefits events would become more unlikely. In sum, it is shown that exchanging water in annual spot markets allows for the reduction of farmers’ economic vulnerability caused by the variability of water supply across irrigation seasons.
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