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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 535

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Denis A. Nadolnyak, Ian M. Sheldon
2002
In the paper, a dynamic model of diffusion of genetically modified crop technology is developed and simulated using the U.S. soybean market data. The model accounts for factors specific to agricultural markets, such as oligopsony power and strategic interaction among crop processors, growers’ characteristics such as adoption behavior, and identity preservation requirements. Simulation results show how these factors affect the magnitude and distribution of the potential gains from genetically modified crops.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Bahaeddin Najafi, Mohammad Bakhshoodeh
2002
To evaluate the government intervention effects on growth of rice production in Iran, the nominal protective rate was calculated and a Nerlove supply model was applied to a time series of 1983- 1998. The results showed that in the majority of these years, producers has not been supported and therefore, redirecting the rice market is recommended. In order to get more efficient approach than the government intervention, diminishing the share of the government in the market and strengthening the private sector may be listed on the top of a list that could be regarded as a plan for making rice production profitable.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Flora J. Nankhuni, Jill L. Findeis
Durban, 2003
This paper presents results of research that investigates if long hours of work spent by children in fuel wood collection and water collection activities, hereafter referred to as resource (collection) work, are related to the probability that a child aged 6-14 will attend school. Possible endogeneity of resource work hours is corrected for, using two-stage conditional maximum likelihood estimation. Using data from a 1997-98 Malawi Integrated Household Survey (IHS) conducted by the National Statistics Office (NSO), the study finds that children are significantly involved in resource collection work and their probability of attending school decreases with increases in hours spent on this work. The study further shows that girls spend more hours on resource work and are more likely to be going to school while burdened by this work. Consequently, girls may find it difficult to progress well in school. However, girls are not necessarily less likely to be attending school. The results further show that presence of more women in a household is associated with a lower burden of resource work on children and a higher probability of children.s school attendance while that of men is not. Finally, the study shows that children from the most environmentally degraded districts of central and southern Malawi are less likely to attend school and few of them have progressed to secondary school compared to those from the north region districts.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Richard Nehring, V. Eldon Ball, Vince Breneman
2002
The purpose of this paper has been to present quality-adjusted values for land in the United States and nine European countries using price and quantity data for 1990. Disregarding such differences in the quality-adjusted land input would generate biased estimates of the land input and thus of total factor productivity. Land quality adjustments could potentially be enhanced further with additional data on soil characteristics, climate, and other productivity-related characteristics.
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Опубликовано на портале: 09-12-2003
David M.G. Newbery
Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2000, 484 с.
Network utilities, such as electricity, telephones, and gas, are public utilities that require a fixed network to deliver their services. Because consumers have no choice of network, they risk exploitation by network owners. Once invested, however, a network's capital is sunk, and the bargaining advantage shifts from investor to consumer. The investor, fearing expropriation, may be reluctant to invest. The tension between consumer and investor can be side-stepped by state ownership. Alternatively, private ownership and consumers' political power can be reconciled through regulation. Either way, network utilities operate under terms set by the state.

David Newbery argues that price-setting rules comprise only part of the policy agenda. Network utilities pose special problems of ownership and regulation. He discusses the history of ownership and regulation, privatization, and theories of regulation. Examining three network utilities in detail--telecoms, electricity, and gas--he contrasts the regulatory approaches of Britain and the United States. He also looks at liberalization in a variety of other countries.

History shows that the mature forms of regulatory institutions are remarkably similar under both public and private ownership. This raises obvious questions such as: Will the forces that caused convergence to regulated vertical integration in the past reassert themselves? Can the benefits of competition be protected against the pressure to reintegrate? Will different utilities differ in their form and structure? A full understanding of the forces shaping regulatory institutions is necessary to answer these important questions.

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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Agata Nicolosi, Marco Platania
2004
In recent times the role played by women in rural development has been given an ever increasing attention, culminating in the insertion of specific measures in Agenda 2000. The EU programs for rural development aim to single out the factors handicapping the full participation of women to the public and economic life at the local level and to develop specific initiatives for this category. Aim of the present research was the evaluation of the effectiveness of the new EU policy guidelines in terms of occupation and/or additional income achieved by women in agriculture. The study analysed the main characteristics of the farm women in a local rural system in Calabria. As any rural system, the one that was considered is the result of the interlace between various governmental intervention (EU and national policies) and the physical, social and economic characteristics of a particular territory. The analysis regarded social characteristic, characteristics of the farm, organisation and management. In relation to the specific agricultural activities, they were analysed the main sociological factors affecting the motivations and the attitudes of the local farm women, the difficulties in conciliating job and family and the potential unexpressed and the ambitions unfulfilled and/or discouraged.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Huan Niemi
2002
The EU dairy sector will be one of the most sensitive sectors to be affected by the outcome of the on-going negotiations for the new WTO round for agriculture. Nevertheless, if the Next WTO Round is going to be along the same lines as the Uruguay Round, the EU may be able to stay within the WTO commitments for export subsidy in the dairy sector without further reforms in the Common Agricultural Policy. Certainly, some minor reforms are needed to relieve the binding commitments for cheese and other milk products. The upcoming reform in the dairy sector under Agenda 2000 starting from year 2005 may help in reforming the dairy sector for the new round. In contrast, a steeper reduction in the export subsidy commitments compared to the Uruguay Round may cause problems for cheese and other milk products because the majority of exports in these products will have to be exported without any export subsidy. After enlargement, in particular with a steeper reduction formula, the EU may face troubles in the categories of butter, skim milk powder, cheese, and other milk products. The reforms under Agenda 2000 may not be sufficient because the difference between the EU internal market price and world market price is still too high for EU dairy products to allow unsubsidised exports to the world market. The EU internal market will have to absorb the dairy products intended for the export market. Consequently, the EU internal market for dairy products will be under pressure for further price reduction, and the EU world market share in dairy products will shrink.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
K.N. Ninan, Jyothis Sathyapalan
2003
This paper analyses the economics of biodiversity conservation in the context of a tropical forest ecosystem in India, where coffee is the main competitor for land use. Using primary data covering a cross-section of coffee growers, the study notes that the opportunity costs of biodiversity conservation in terms of coffee benefits foregone are quite high. Even after including external costs due to wild life damages and defensive expenditure to protect against wild life, the NPVs and IRRs from coffee for all land holding groups were high. Even if the expected benefits were to decrease by 20% and costs rise by a similar proportion, still the IRRs from coffee were quite high (19.5 to 20.1 per cent). The study notes that the external costs accounted for between 7 to 15 per cent of the total discounted costs of coffee cultivation, and smaller holdings proportionately incurred higher external costs as compared to large holdings. The study also notes high transaction costs incurred by the growers to claim compensation for wild life damages. Notwithstanding these disincentives, the study notes that the local community were willing to pay in terms of time for participatory biodiversity conservation, and they preferred a decentralized government institution for this purpose.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Rosanna Nistico, Giovanni Anania
Durban, 2003
Most food products can be classified as ‘credence’ goods and regulations exist to provide consumers with a substitute for the lacking information and trust. The paper presents an analysis of the decisions of producers and consumers about a ‘credence’ good in three institutional scenarios, which reflect different levels of credibility of the regulation.

The first scenario is a reference scenario in which the regulation is fully credible. In the second case considered there is no regulation, or, if there is, it is totally ineffective. In the third scenario a regulation only partially credible provides consumers with an imperfect substitute for the information and trust they lack. Some of the producers of ‘low’ quality goods share with the producers of .high. quality goods an interest in the introduction of a regulation as long as this is not fully credible. In addition, it may be the case that even producers of ’low’ quality goods who know they will not be able to sell their products labeling them as being of ‘high’ quality may have an interest in supporting a not fully credible regulation. Finally, rather than having producers of ‘low’ quality goods ‘block’ the introduction of a fully credible regulation, producers of ‘high’ quality goods are better off when a compromise is reached which leads to the approval of an imperfect regulation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
George W. Norton, Jeffrey Alwang
USA: McGraw Hill College Div, 1993, 404 с.
Учебник по экономике сельскохозяйственного развития.

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
George W. Norton, Scott M. Swinton
Berlin, 2000
Producers in industrialized countries have been inundated with ideas and information about precision agriculture (PA) and how new site-specific management (SSM) technologies will revolutionize their farm operations. Conjuring up Star Wars-imagery, farmers and their computerized machinery communicate with satellites while speeding up and down the information highway. The farm press has hailed the advent of these technologies as a win-win situation with higher farm profits and improved environmental quality. Certainly the potential is there for greater economic returns and better environmental stewardship. But what exactly is precision agriculture, who is applying it, and where? Is the technology only relevant for developed countries and are there implications for markets? What is the likelihood that environmental benefits will be realized?

This paper addresses these questions by drawing on literature, data, and expert opinion to explore what technologies have been developed and which ones have been or are likely to be adopted, by whom, and where. It considers the environmental implications of this host of new information technologies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Ernst-August Nuppenau
2004
This contribution deals with opportunities to integrate ecological objectives into landscape modelling. We start with the behaviour of farmers. By depicting the behaviour of farmers with respect to land use we determine farm and field sizes, as been dependent on prices, natural conditions, and structural variables, such as farm technologies. Then we pursue the idea that a geometrical interpretation of land use can help us to define an interface between farming, landscape modelling, and ecological concerns. This interface goes along economic rationales for income of farmers and ecological rationales for a redesign of landscapes. Next, for integrating ecological oriented nature components into a landscape planning, as been based on economic incentives, a payment scheme has to be introduced. Such payment scheme becomes part of farmers’ objective functions in a non-linear model. Core decision variables are the longitudinal stretch of field sizes and the transversal stretch of farm sizes. Then, given various natural frames within an overarching subdivision of field parcels, farms and the landscape are optimised. The suggested approach can be sequentially solved taking into consideration natural conditions and behaviour. Furthermore, a central focus is on policy instruments: 1. We cater for impacts of price policies on landscape structure (farm size) and ecology (heterogeneity of fields). Note, in this context, that it is important to depict the growth of fields as being a consequence of imposed price pressure, modern technology application, and income aspirations. 2. The ecological impacts of this process, also from intensity of farming, are addressed and measured as a diversity index. 3. Policies can be selected that maintain farm income and correct for negative ecological effects of field size changes. For this reason we suggest a principal agent approach and offer objective functions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Ernst-August Nuppenau
2002
The paper explores the question of diversity in agricultural practice as related to bio-diversity and landscape appearance. It starts with the observation that, in the past, diverse natural conditions have considerably impacted on adapted modes of agricultural production, more than today, and that previously performed farm practices were strongly affiliated with specific natural conditions. These practices positively contributed to a modified, diverse and man-made environment which is frequently considered a beautiful landscape. This has changed dramatically. Particularly, where the European countryside is regarded a natural heritage, today, the public seems to be worried about modern farm practices. After the adoption of modern techniques, farmers prefer to apply unified production technologies and tend to set-up uniform farm structures and product mixes as well as land cultivation practices based on purchased inputs. Farm operations equalise natural conditions and contribute to uniform land rents. However, a rising public concern for the preservation of bio-diversity is asking for change and new measures. Additional to regulations on farm practices governments seek to compensate farmers for nature preservation and production of bio-diversity. Presuming that high biodiversity is dependent on diversity in agricultural practice and landscape appearance due to preserved natural conditions, the paper develops a model that links payments to diversity in farm practice and natural conditions. The applied model is landscape-oriented and classifies farm behaviour according to agronomic conditions. A reference system for a unified technology is presented and implications for payments are discussed using a behavioural approach. This behavioural approach focuses on regional dynamics in natural condition as major determinants for bio-diversity and payments as determinants for farm practices. Payments are directed to re-establish diversity in farm practices, counteract current technology dominance, and assure a new exposure to nature, though only partly. Diversity becomes prevalent; notably according to an economic calculus of costs and benefits from taxpayers' point of view.
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Опубликовано на портале: 07-04-2005
S. O'Donnell, Gerhard Kunz
Москва: Прогресс, 1981, 495 с.
Книга представляет собой фундаментальное исследование организации управления, специализации управленческих функций, их содержания, а также процедур, связанных с осуществлением этих функций. Важное место уделяется рассмотрению концепций, определяющих развитие современной теории управления в США, а именно теории систем и ситуационной теории, а также методов управления, разработанных на их основе.

Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Theresia Oedl-Wieser
2004
This paper will discuss the difficulties to implement the requirement of the application of the EU-wide concept of “gender mainstreaming” in respect to the “Rural Development Programme for Austria” (RDP). Experiences and results from the study “Fundamental principles of ‘Gender-sensitive Regional Development’” commissioned by the Federal Chancellery, Department of Regional Policy, and from the Evaluation on the cross-cutting theme “Equal Opportunities between women and men“ of the RDP are the basis for this paper. They show that most stakeholders in the various administrative and spatial levels dealing with RDP do have difficulties in understanding and implementing “gender mainstreaming” in their field of activity.
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