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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 535

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
F. Rosa
2002
Structuring preferences has been developed with econometric models using functional flexible parametric form and the exploring the perceptions about expressed and latent needs using different multivariate approaches. Purpose of this research is to explore the demand for a new drink using the mean-end chain (MEC) theory and multivariate SEM procedure. The first part is dedicated to description of specialty foods for their capacity to create new niche markets. The MEC theory is introduced to explain the relations between attributes and consumers’ perceptions of secondary needs revealed as benefit and values. The second part is dedicated to the empirical investigation of demand of a drink obtained from the “Olivello spinoso” a spontaneous plant. Empirical data were collected with “face to face sensorial test”, and used to test the consumer perceptions for the product’s attributes and preferences using the SEM approach. Conclusive remarks are in terms of suggestions about the modification of the product’s attributes to increase the demand.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Johannes Roseboom, Paul Diederen, Arie Kuyvenhoven
2003
Appeals for targeting agricultural R&D in developing countries more explicitly to the needs of poor smallholders in marginal areas are often countered by arguments of efficiency. Others, however, taking a political economy perspective, argue that there is a bias in the selection of agricultural R&D projects towards commercial farmers in the better agricultural areas. In this paper, we try to bring the two perspectives together and illustrate how they interact. We analyze R&D budget allocation assuming two distinct R&D opportunity curves, one for poor smallholders and one for large commercial farmers. We find that, in contrast to the actual allocation of research resources, an efficient allocation (i.e., equalizing the marginal rate of return between the two portfolios) would increase the budget for smallholder projects by 29% and decrease that of commercial farmer projects by 26%. Total economic welfare would increase with 2.1% and there is a modest distributional effect: smallholder welfare increases by 14% and commercial farmer welfare decreases by 11%. In other words, more efficiency in the selection of agricultural R&D projects favors poor smallholders. We also analyze the effects of a premium on research benefits accruing to smallholders and find them to be limited. Rather than trying to shift the R&D opportunity curve artificially, we conclude that policies that can help to increase the profitability of research investments across the board (such as investment in infrastructure, development of markets, and education) and hence shift the R&D opportunity curve for poor smallholders outwards should be pursued more vigorously.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Mark W. Rosegrant, Claudia Ringler, Michael S. Paisner
Berlin, 2000
In order to understand the future of food supply and demand and food security, it is essential to focus on the long-term, fundamental drivers, such as income and population growth, and technological change in agriculture as influenced by investments in agricultural research, irrigation, and other factors.

In the remainder of this paper we take a new look into the future role of agricultural research and technology development in world food markets based on alternative scenario simulations with IFPRI’s IMPACT model. The paper starts out by very briefly describing the model, and then presents and discusses alternative scenarios with a focus on the role of technological change.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Arjan Ruijs, Caspar Schweigman, Clemens Lutz
2003
Reductions in transport and transaction costs are expected to have a major effect on the functioning of food markets in developing countries. For many developing countries, this is a relevant issue as it may have important consequences for the food markets in urban and rural deficit areas. A partial equilibrium model is presented to analyze the effects of reduced costs on cereal price formation, inter-regional cereal trade, and farmers' and traders' storage strategies for the case of Burkina Faso. Our results show that the high expectations with regard to the direct effects of cost reductions on food prices and food availability require some nuance. First, the effects of even a huge reduction of transport costs only will be small. Secondly, an element which is often neglected is that constructing a road between two cities may have unintended negative consequences on the competitive position of farmers and traders in other regions. Finally, it is concluded that only if transport and transaction costs are reduced simultaneously, both consumers and farmers will benefit significantly.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ford Runge, Willard Cochrane
Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1992, 288 с.
Авторы, являясь высокими специалистами в области аграрной экономики, описывают процесс принятия политических решений в области сельского хозяйства США, программы развития и поддержки сельского хозяйства с анализом их воздействия на экономических агентов и окружающую среду. Книга может быть использована в курсе «Анализ государственной аграрной политики».
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Carlo Russo, Massimo Sabbatini
2002
In this paper, equity management practices of Italian agricultural cooperatives are described and discussed. Financial statements of 1.483 cooperatives are analyzed in order to provide empirical support to the study. Data confirm cooperative undercapitalization and disclose the existence of diversity in equity management practices even within the same business sector. Thus, in order to highlight the relations between cooperative market strategies and equity management practices a cluster analysis is proposed. Seven main strategic approaches for Italian cooperatives are identified and the emerging equity management practices are discussed. The empirical analysis supports the conclusion that a large number of Italian are implementing “perverse” approaches, such as dependence from public funding and minimization of equity and investments. Considering increasing competition, without an innovative equity management approach, the majority of the analyzed cooperative is expected to suffer of relevant competitive disadvantage.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Mariorara Rusu
2002
The deep transformations brought about by the progressive and steady commitment of Romanian economy to the market economy have determined, among others, the modification of the role and status of rural household in the economic activity. Rural household changed from a simple participant, constrained to act in a certain way under a centralised, equalising and levelling system during the communist period, to a participant that carries out its activity in a competing environment in which initiative, creativity and efficiency are defining elements. Based on field surveys conducted at national level, the present paper intends to identify the evolution of economic behaviours specific to rural households under the influence of agricultural policy measures in the period 1997-2000. The conclusions of this study reveal that in this period, most of rural households operated under a subsistence system, according to an economic rationality in which market economy mechanism are lacking. However, the economic picture is far from being a homogeneous one: the emergence of a nucleus of agricultural entrepreneurs, i.e. those who assume the risk of shifting from subsistence to competitive agriculture, those who are trying to turn the peasant household into a farm managed on the capitalist principles, has induced new economic behaviours in the rural communities.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Klaus Salhofer, Erwin Schmid, Герхард Штрейхер, Friedrich Georg Schneider
Durban, 2003
The study evaluates the efficiency of government intervention using a vertical structured model including imperfectly competitive agricultural input markets, the bread grain market, and the imperfectly competitive food industry. To test for policy efficiency the actually observed bread grain policy is compared to a hypothetical efficient policy. To account for the sensitivity of the results in regard to the model parameter values computer-intensive simulation procedures and surface response functions are utilized.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Klaus Salhofer, Герхард Штрейхер
2004
Since participation in agri-environmental programmes is voluntary, associated with opportunity costs (most of these programmes aim at reducing output), and financial compensation for participation is typically a fixed amount per hectare, a tendency is likely to arise for some sort of self selection: farms in favourable regions which face high opportunity costs from foregone output are less likely to participate than other, more disadvantaged farms. When trying to estimate the effects of such programmes on agricultural output, this self-selection bias can pose severe problems, as a direct comparison of participants with non-participants is likely to lead to erroneous results. This paper tries to highlight the effects of this self-selection process in the context of the Austrian OEPUL programme and its effects on grain yields. After identifying various sources of this problem, some possible remedies are presented and discussed. The empirical analysis is based on farm-level accounting data linked with the official agricultural support data (INVEKOS) for a sample of 1327 Austrian grain farms. Two years of data before (1993 and 1994) and one year (1997) after EU accession are utilized to estimate programme effects on grain yields.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: Vittorio Santaniello, David Zilberman, Robert Evenson
2002, 368 с.
Книга представляет собой сборник работ, представленных на конференции, организованной Международным консорциумом по исследованиям биотехнологий в сельском хозяйстве (The International Consortium on Agricultural Biotechnology Research) в Равелло, Италия, 2000г. Тематика исследований является актуальной и широко обсуждаемой на мировом уровне – производство и потребление генетически-модифицированной продукции (ГМП). Основные части книги – отношения потребителя на информацию о ГМП, вопросы государственного регулирования, отношения фермеров к генетически-модифицированному сырью, изменения в промышленной организации наук и продовольственных секторах.

Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Elena Saraceno
2004
This paper tries to bring together the various arguments that make a reform of rural development policies desirable and useful for the stakeholders involved. The policy implications of a desirable reform are also considered. CAP, in its long story has established powerful interest groups in the administrations, in the sector and even in expert’s circles. Past shortcomings of reform attempts suggest that a consensus on reform is difficult to achieve and requires a clear and shared outline of what will agricultural and rural policy look like after the reform process. A transition period, the inclusion of wider interest groups than those directly concerned by the policy, the possibility of regionally adapted versions rural policy appear to be important components for insuring a strengthened support and a more effective policy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Rakhal Sarker, Yves Surry
2002
Since the early 1990s, researchers have routinely used count data models (such as the Poisson and negative binomial) to estimate the demand for recreational activities. Along with the success and popularity of count data models in recreational demand analysis during the last decade, a number of shortcomings of standard count data models became obvious to researchers. This had led to the development of new and more sophisticated model specifications. Furthermore, semi-parametric and non-parametric approaches have also made their way into count data models. Despite these advances, however, one interesting issue has received little research attention in this area. This is related to the fast decay process of the dependent variable and the associated long tail. This phenomenon is observed quite frequently in recreational demand studies; most recreationists make one or two trips while a few of them make exceedingly large number of trips. This introduces an extreme form of overdispersion difficult to address in popular count data models. The major objective of this paper is to investigate the issues related to proper modelling of the fast decay process and the associated long tails in recreation demand analysis. For this purpose, we introduce two categories of alternative count data models. The first group includes four alternative count data models, each characterised by a single parameter while the second group includes one count data model characterised by two parameters. This paper demonstrates how these alternative models can be used to properly model the fast decay process and the associated long tail commonly observed in recreation demand analysis. The first four alternative count data models are based on an adaptation of the geometric, Borel, logarithmic and Yule probability distributions to count data models while the second group of models relied on the use of the generalised Poisson probability distribution. All these alternative count data models are empirically implemented using the maximum likelihood estimation procedure and applied to study the demand for moose hunting in Northern Ontario. Econometric results indicate that most of the alternative count data models proposed in this paper are able to capture the fast decay process characterising the number of moose hunting trips. Overall they seem to perform as well as the conventional negative binomial model.and better than the Poisson specification. However further investigation of the econometric results reveal that the geometric and generalised Poisson model specifications fare better than the modified Borel and Yule regression models.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Alexander Sarris
2003
The paper considers the benefit to agricultural producers from commodity price insurance that provides in every year, but in advance of the resolution of production and price uncertainty, a minimum price for a fixed or variable portion of production. Under the assumption that producers do not change their long term production and income diversification pattern, the theoretical framework suggested leads to explicit formulas for the benefit from providing this type of insurance. The theoretical framework is implemented for Ghana, using the GLSS data to specify various classes of cocoa producing households, and monthly price data for both domestic and international prices to formulate appropriate models for ascertaining price risks faced by producers. Empirical estimates of the actuarially fair premium are given, and it is shown that they are smaller than market based put option prices from organized exchanges. The overall benefit to households, however, turns out to be substantially higher than the actuarially fair premiums, as well as the market based put option prices, due both to the magnitudes of the uncertainties facing the households, as well as their risk and consumption smoothing behavior.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Caroline Saunders, Anita Wreford
Durban, 2003
This paper focuses on the impact of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) on agricultural trade. In particular, the paper assesses the impact on New Zealand (NZ), which is highly reliant on agricultural trade, with a high percentage of its total GHG emissions are originating in the agricultural sector. The paper also analyses the impact of mitigation strategies in the European Union (EU), which has a low proportion of GHG coming from agriculture, a highly protected agriculture sector, and is a major market and competitor for NZ. Results from a partial equilibrium trade model, the LTEM, show clearly that while these mitigation strategies achieve the goal of GHG reduction, producer returns are also negatively affected. The value of these changes in emissions are then calculated, based on US$15/tonne of carbon dioxide (CO2), and producer returns adjusted for this. Although this value of CO2 goes some way towards offsetting the reduction in producer returns, it would need to be considerably greater in order to provide any significant compensation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Riccardo Scarpa, Laura Viganò, Davide Bortolozzo
2004
A farmer’s choice to part-take into an on farm investment programme can be modelled as a discrete choice. The idea of this paper is to test the possibility of using discrete choice models in the field of the evaluation of structural policies. Farmers choose to take part into agricultural programmes according to their preferences, their structural type and their economic environment. Adhesion to a voluntary scheme or policy can be cast as a discrete choice problem. Hence, discrete choice models are adequate to describe probability of choice, especially against a framework of utility maximization. First, we want to explore if the choice of investing in schemes supported by EAGGF depends on farms’ characteristics, such as Used Agricultural Area, Standard Gross Margin, Farm type, Possession of lands, Form of Farm Management, Standard Work Unit, class of European Size Unit, Fixed costs, etc.. We use is the binomial logit model to explain the probability of making an on-farm investment with regard to Italian Central and Northern Regions. The estimation of such a model allows us to identify the determinants of such a decision. We also use discrete choice analysis to identify the significant determinants of the probability of selection of on-farm investment across 12 investment categories within the Regulation (EC) No 950/97. These include – amongst others – land purchase, system for refusal treatment, land improvement, agricultural machinery, agricultural and non-agricultural farm buildings, land improvements, permanent cultivations etc. We find such an approach to be insightful on the basis of data from the Italian RICA business farm survey, and hence propose to develop it further.
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