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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 61

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L MN O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Stavroula Malla, Richard Gray
2002
We model today’s privatized crop research industry as a small number of firms, developing and selling differentiated products to heterogeneous producers. Crop variety research is modeled as a search process, which allows us to differentiate between applied and basic research and recognize research as a stochastic process. We use the framework to develop a number of propositions regarding private research incentives, the spillovers of knowledge, and the impact of public policy. The results suggest an underinvestment in research even when property rights have been established.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Lisa Mancino, Brian Dietz
2002
The purpose of this paper will be to develop and present a new approach for examining the demand for meat by incorporating many of the advances in behavioral economics. By providing a closer approximation to how consumers actually behave, doing so should improve upon existing models. Incorporating findings from behavioral studies will also provide a richer theoretical basis to correct for the longstanding problem of endogeniety in cross-sectional studies. The theoretical model in this study begins with the Becker household production model, where individuals are assumed to maximize utility, subject to their production functions, budget constraint and time constraint. To develop a model that more accurately depicts how individual’s make their food choices, this model additionally assumes that individuals 1) use household time to create food, health and relaxation; 2) make their food and nutrient consumption choices on a per-meal basis; 3) are affected by the prospect of immediate gratification, convenience and time delay, and 4) are more affected by these factors as their hunger increases.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Cristina Marreiros, Mitchell Ness
Zaragoza, 2002
The objectives of this paper are to examine consumers’ perceptions of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) beef on the basis of a survey of consumers and buyers of beef.

The paper identifies a profile of PDO beef consumers, examines their behaviour and perceptions on PDO beef, derives the dimensions of perceptions of PDO beef, and establishes segments based upon those dimensions. The results reveal that PDO consumers are representative of all geographical regions, age and profession groups, are lighter consumers of beef and shop for food mainly in the butchers. Consumers’ perceptions on PDO beef emphasises quality, safety, and control. However, underlying those perceptions are six main dimensions and it is possible to identify three segments of PDO beef consumers: a faithful consumer group, an unaware consumer group, and a sensory, price conscious group.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Philippe Martin
Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1996, 440 с.
Offers a definitive study of agricultural labor in California and an overview of the subject in the Southwest. It explores the agricultural industry, immigration, ethnic relations, agribusiness, agricultural workers, and public policy as related to the region and to the agricultural sector of the U.S. economy.

Исследование труда в сельcком хозяйстве Калифорнии с обзором ситуации на юго-западе США. Рассматривается агроиндустрия штата, иммиграция, этнические проблемы, работники сельского хозяйства, и аграрная политика, как в отношении штата, так и для всего сельского хозяйства США.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Gloria Martin Rodriguez, Jose Juan Caceres Hernandez
2002
The European tomato market is characterised by a constant process of dynamic adjustment toward the equilibrium. Furthermore, Canary tomato exports cause a high seasonal impact on market prices in the winter period. In these circumstances, an adequate distribution of shipments throughout the campaign could contribute to maximize producers’ profits. The goal of this paper is to analyse the seasonal pattern of Canary tomato exports to Europe throughout the first fourteen campaigns following Spanish integration into the European Union. These export levels show some degree of instability, clearly related to the changes in the European Union trade rules, and there is a long period, the summer, without exports. Moreover, we have opted by using weekly data. These factors should be taken into account in order to accurately capture the performance of exports and, specifically, the nature of their seasonal behaviour. Thus, this analysis is carried out inside the frame delimited by the structural approach to time series and the usefulness of spline functions as an alternative to standard seasonal variation models is shown.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Erik Mathijs, Nivelin Noev
2002
Present-day Central and Eastern European agriculture is characterized by a high incidence of small-scale farmers who are not producing for the market. This paper uses household level data from comparative farm surveys in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania to analyze which farm household characteristics and endowments influence commercialization and subsistence farming.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Markus Mau
2002
Supply Chain Management as a business strategy can combine both microeconomic and macroeconomic aspects of preferred value chains. This paper
(1) shows the impact of SCM,
(2) stretches out the three dimensions of performance, costs and quality of the processes along the supply chain and
(3) highlights the SCM-enabler.
The method of a process chain analysis is demonstrated for the allocation of resources. Various results of carried out and studies in progress are given and identified through the classification into economical and management aspects.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Simon Maxwell
Durban, 2003
Rural development has not received the priority and attention warranted by the present and future concentration of poverty in rural areas. Is this perhaps because rural development agencies present conflicting narratives? A framework is presented within which to answer that question, and is then applied to the recent policy statements of the EU, FAO, IFAD and the World Bank. Each policy statement is compelling in its own way, but the strategies are not consistent. A narrative is needed which: recognises the rapid pace of change in rural areas; acknowledges the overriding need for diversification out of agriculture; builds market institutions for growth; and works effectively within the current international consensus on poverty reduction, emphasising opportunity, empowerment and security.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Leigh J. Maynard, Jason Hartell, A. Lee Meyer, Jianqiang Hao
Durban, 2003
An experimental store was created to evaluate initial demand for locally-produced and guaranteed tender steak products as a more realistic alternative to contingent valuation (CV) and dichotomous-choice experimental methods. Strengths of the approach are incentive compatibility, a realistic consumption set, and a familiar choice environment. Consumers selected among USDA Choice, premium quality, lean, guaranteed tender, and locally-produced strip steaks. Double-hurdle count data model indicated initial willingness-topay for locally-produced steak comparable to prior CV results, but demand was highly elastic. Demand for premium quality steak crowded out demand for the guaranteed tender product, contrasting with prior dichotomous-choice experimental results.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Armelle Maze
2002
The optimal level of formalisation of contracts and their dynamic is at stake in the economic literature on the optimum design of ex post renegotiation with third party enforcement. Another theoretical interpretation is that contract adaptations may also reflect mutual learning process between contractors. Why transactors write explicit contract that they know cannot be court enforced ?

The central idea is that explicit contract terms makes it clearer to the transactors what has been agreed upon, thus are decreasing the cost of private enforcement sanctions (Klein, 1996). Empirical evidences are provided by the diachronic analysis of the full set of tri-partite contracts between one of the top-ten french large retailer and its beef suppliers before and after the BSE crisis (period 1993-1999). The analysis emphasizes also the role of this increased codification of supply contracts with a progressive change in the internal retailer’s organization, i.e. increased centralization of decision and supervision mechanisms. Contract design and organizational choices are then strongly interrelated.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Mario Mazzocchi, Gianluca Stefani
2002
The paper develops a measure of consumer welfare losses associated with withheld information about BSE linkage with vCJD. food safety. The Cost of Ignorance (COI) is measured by comparing the utility of the informed choice with the utility of the uninformed one, under condition of improved information. Unlike previous work, based on a single equation demand model, the measure is obtained retrieving a cost function from a dynamic Almost Ideal Demand System. The results indicate that Italian consumers bore a significant loss because of the delayed release of information.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Stephen G. Mbogoh, Florence M. Wambugu, Sam Wakhusama
2003
This article is based on a socio-economic impact study of the introduction and adoption of tissue-culture (tc) technology in banana production in Kenya. It attempts to demonstrate that a prudent introduction and promotion of a new biotechnological innovation in farming can make a positive contribution to the socio- economic status of resource poor farmers in a developing country, such as Kenya. Adoption of tc technology in banana production in Kenya is considered a good example of biotechnological applications in agriculture. Hence the article hopes to make a contribution to recent debates at international levels as to whether biotechnology can make a difference in uplifting the living standards of people in the third world (Qaim, 1999; Graff, et al 2002; Qaim, et al 2002) by showing that it actually does so, using experiences from Kenya. The study utilizes both primary and secondary data sources. The results show that tc-banana production is relatively more capital intensive than non-tc banana production (re: about 70% fixed costs for tc banana versus about 49% fixed costs for non-tc banana). However, tc-banana production is found to offer relatively much higher financial returns than non-tc banana production. The high profitability of tc-banana production relative to traditional (non-tc) banana production and other farm enterprises in the pilot tc-banana project area in Kenya demonstrates the importance of biotechnological applications in rural development and shows that biotechnology can make a difference in uplifting the living standards of people in the third world. Therefore, efforts to promote tc-banana production in Kenya are justifiable from both food security and economic criteria.
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-08-2006
Howard Means
Москва: Аналитика, 2002, 256 с.
Лицо всех отраслей экономики – от торговых судов до микропроцессоров – всегда определялось могущественными лидерами бизнеса, оказывавшими поворотное воздействие на развитие коммерции. Эти пророческие личности появлялись, принося свои продукты и идеи, точно в подходящий момент времени, невольно способствуя свершению определяющей перемены прошлого тысячелетия – перетеканию денег и власти от Церкви и короны к новой светской империи бизнеса.
Эта книга написана на основе одноименного документального сериала CNBC "Деньги и власть" (продюсер и режиссер - Дэвид Грубин (David Grubin), удостоен премии Emmy).
Она ведет читателя в захватывающее путешествие по местам рождения бизнеса – от феодальных поместий средневековой Европы и многолюдных улиц древней Венеции до тихих лабораторий Силиконовой долины. Написанная первоклассным журналистом, редактором и романистом Говардом Минзом (Howard Means), книга знакомит нас с драматической историей того, как магнаты-первопроходцы и их династии прокладывали путь к богатству и процветанию и формировали современный мир. Описывая происхождение ремесел, банковского дела, промышленности, торговли и власти на Востоке и Западе, книга переносит читателя во времени из одного бурлящего делового центра в другой.
Рассказ сопровождается биографическими очерками таких легендарных личностей, как: Св. Годрик (St. Godric), монах, живший в XII веке, чьи неукротимые амбиции помогли ему порвать с предрассудками и создать свое собственное богатство – пока судьба не повела его по другому пути; Роберт Вудрафф (Robert Woodruff), воспользовавшийся эффектом "сжимающегося земного шара" и Второй мировой войной, чтобы создать первую глобальную торговую марку – Coca-Cola; Джеймс Ватт (James Watt) и Мэтью Боултон (Matthew Boulton), предложившие роторный паровой двигатель как раз в то время, когда промышленность выдвинула новые требования к энергоснабжению; Генри Форд (Henry Ford), который создавал не только автомобили, но и рыночный спрос на них – что сделало его богаче, чем даже Карнеги (Carnegies) и Рокфеллеры (Rockefellers); Билл Гейтс (Bill Gates), чьи предпринимательские инстинкты и совершенное знание технологий заслужили ему славу и состояние, ставшие неотъемлемой частью Информационного века.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Patricia Mejias, Consuelo Varela-Ortega, Guillermo Flichman
2003
The interactions of water policies and agricultural policies are increasingly determinant for achieving an efficient management of water resources in many countries. In the EU, agricultural and environmental policies are seeking to converge progressively towards mutually compatible objectives and, in this context, the recently reformed Common agricultural Policy (Agenda 2000) and the EU Water Framework Directive constitute the policy framework in which irrigated agriculture and hence water use will evolve. In fact, one of the measures of the European Water Directive is to establish a water pricing policy for improving water use and attaining a more efficient water allocation. The aim of this research is to investigate the irrigators. responses to these changing policy developments in a self-managed irrigation district in Southern Spain. For this purpose, we have developed a stochastic programming model that estimates the farmers. responses to the application of water pricing policies in different agricultural policies scenarios when water availability is subject to varying climate conditions and water storage capacity in the district.s reservoir. Results show that irrigators are price-responsive but a similar water-pricing policy could have distinct effects on water use, farmers. income and collected revenue by the water authority in different agricultural policy options. Water availability is a determinant factor and pricing policies are less effective for reducing water consumption in drought years. Thus, there is a need to integrate the objectives of Water Policies within the objectives of the CAP programs to avoid distortion effects and to seek a synergy between these two policies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
J. Meyer
2003
Applied econometric analyses of market integration based on price data alone have been criticised, because they neglect the role of transaction costs. To meet this objection threshold vector error correction models are used. Threshold models can account for the effects of transaction costs in price transmission without directly relying upon information about these costs, which are often unavailable. Results from threshold models that are based on two thresholds provide results that are economically more intuitive than those obtained from one threshold models. However there is no adequate econometric test for threshold significance in a two- threshold model available so far; such tests are only available for the one threshold model. In this paper a restricted two-threshold model is developed in which the significance of the thresholds can be tested. This model is therefore amenable to economic interpretation and statistical inference. This model is used to estimate market integration on the European pig market.
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