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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 67

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S TU V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Rhung-Jieh Woo, Hsin-Yeh Tsai
2003
Chrysanthemum is the primary flower Taiwan exports. However, the exports showed decreasing trend in recent years. The volumes exported were 826,596 kilograms in 2001, and Japan was the major market. About 99% of the chrysanthemum exports went to the Japanese market. Quarantine procedure is one of the measures Japanese government adopts to protect its domestic agricultural production. When chrysanthemum exports fail to pass the quarantine procedure, fumigation is required. According to statistics, the fumigated rate for Taiwan.s chrysanthemum exports to Japan reached 90Ѓ“ during 1996-1997, and was 70% in 1998. Fumigation could damage the quality and the reputation of Taiwan.s chrysanthemum exported. However, the degree of strictness of quarantine applied to the exports varied from time to time, hence caused the chrysanthemum exports facing with trade uncertainty. In addition, quality unevenness of exports, or standards that are not uniformly enforced could also cause trade uncertainty (not all exports are allowed to enter into the importing market).

It is suspected that the strictness of quarantine of a certain commodity is influenced by the domestic market conditions of supply and demand in Japan. During the seasons when Japan can produce enough chrysanthemum domestically, Japan might take stricter quarantine procedure to prevent foreign chrysanthemum exports from entering the Japanese domestic market. Trade uncertainty hence increased since not all of the amount exported each time is allowed to enter into Japan.s chrysanthemum market.

Since global agricultural trade liberalization is an unavoidable trend, non-tariff trade barriers are to be disciplined, it is expected that trade uncertainty of chrysanthemum trade between Taiwan and Japan will be reduced gradually during the process of agricultural trade liberalization in Japan.

The main objective of this study is to explore the possible influences of reducing trade uncertainty of chrysanthemum trade between Taiwan and Japan through quantitative analyses.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Mona Sur, Dina Umali-Deininger
2003
Public investments in surface irrigation in India have been important in generating agricultural growth and in reducing the threat of poverty and food insecurity. The expansion of irrigation infrastructure and subsidized delivery of irrigation water, along with improved fertilizers and agro-chemicals, facilitated the rapid diffusion of modern high yielding varieties of crops. Irrigation also led to increases in cultivated area, higher cropping intensities and shifts in cropping patterns to higher value-added crops. Water from surface irrigation systems has provided additional benefits as a source of drinking water supply, and in generating power, for industry and residential consumers. Over time the costs of providing and expanding surface irrigation have increased but revenues from irrigation have fallen short of expenditures. The accumulation of financial losses in the irrigation sector has contributed to mounting fiscal crises in Indian states (World Bank 1997, World Bank 2000a,b, World Bank 2001b, World Bank 2003a, Gulati and Sudnarayan 2003) Limited irrigation revenues have also resulted in inadequate expenditures on operation and maintenance (O&M), contributing to the deterioration of existing irrigation infrastructure. Furthermore, the under-pricing of surface irrigation water has encouraged inefficient use, contributing to environmental problems including salinity and waterlogging (Joshi and Tyagi 1995, World Bank 1999, Gulati and Sudanarayan 2003). The social justification of the subsidies are also increasingly debated, particularly how these subsidies are distributed across the population and whether they benefit the poor. The equity consequences of public surface irrigation subsidies are the focus of this paper. Understanding the equity dimension of these subsidies in public surface irrigation systems2 is important not only in determining whether the subsidies benefit the poor, but also in providing policy directions in designing cost-recovery strategies. In order to minimize or eliminate any adverse impacts of cost recovery measures on poor and vulnerable groups, it is necessary to identify how the various users of irrigation water are affected. This paper is organized as follows. Section 1 reviews the structure of surface irrigation charges and the trends in irrigation expenditures and revenues in India. Section 2 discusses the measurement of irrigation subsidies and the data. Section 3 examines the incidence of surface irrigation subsidies and section 4 summarizes the magnitude of these subsidies. Section 5 elaborates the policy implications of the findings of the study.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Maria Raquel Ventura-Lucas, Maria de Lurdes Ferro Godinho, Rui Sousa Fragoso
2002
Sustainable agriculture implies the exploitation of natural resources now, without compromising the natural resources stocks for the future generations. In the context of the paper, agricultural sustainability takes place at the interface between agriculture and the environment. The focus is on the interplay between farming systems and agrienvironmental policies. Agricultural policies have major impacts on soil and water quality and on bio-diversity. Support commodity price policies have lead to serious problems of water pollution; high levels of soil erosion; nitrate losses and lost of biodiversity. The semi decoupeted income support policies and the introduction of the agrienvironmental schemes under the 1992 CAP reform were the first attempts to correct the negative aspects of the production-orientated policies. For the first time farmers were regarded as countryside and landscape keepers and as environmental conservationists. Under the 2000 Agenda similar emphasis was given to the sustainability of agriculture. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the different agri-environmental policies on typical farming systems and consequently their effects on water pollution, soil erosion and bio-diversity/landscape. A bio-economic model, integrating a mathematical programming model and crop growth simulation model, is applied to estimated the changes in the levels of nitrogen leaching and soil erosion, and in the degree of bio-diversity under the current and proposed agricultural policy scenarios. The following farming systems are studied: dry land cereal farming systems (intensive and extensive), livestock and irrigated farming systems using conventional and conservation farming technologies. The results show The results show that the main changes on water pollution, soil erosion levels and biodiversity are mainly due to changes in price and arable compensatory payments. The agri-environmental measures are more important as farm income source than as a policy instrument to influence environmental parameters.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Neil Harl
Iowa: Iowa State Press, 1990, 305 с.
Книга повествует о глубоком кризисе за всю историю американского сельского хозяйства – долговом финансовом кризисе 1980х годов. Раскрываются причины кризиса и экономические последствия для американского фермерства.

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Rosa Gallardo, Fernando Ramos, Eduardo Ramos
2002
The evolution of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and its successive Reforms, has caused a loss of both internal coherence and social legitimacy. On the other hand, the Agenda 2000 has situated agriculture within the objective of competitiveness. What may well be asked is whether indeed the different European agricultural systems are converging towards this objective of competitiveness. To be able to reply to this question it is necessary to change from a “meso” analysis of the CAP to a “micro” analysis of farms referring to specific regions.

Starting from this context and problem, this paper analyses how the agriculture of the region of Andalusia can be affected by the competitiveness approach in an area which is in an advanced process of modernization but nevertheless maintains a strong agricultural character and a dependence on the CAP. For this analysis, we have started from the fact that farmers make strategic decisions so as to adapt to a changing political situation. The main objective of this work is to contrast the importance of a combination of structural and strategic variables to explain the differences in the competitive position of agricultural systems compared with different situations of the CAP. In order to achieve this objective, analytical instruments of competitive and strategic approaches, normally designed for individual enterprises in other economic sectors, have been used, adapting them to the agricultural system as a whole. The results allow the affirmation that the farmers who obtain the best competitive positions are those who adopt a strategic position concerning their activity, with a greater coherence between the definition of their objectives and of the resource allocation strategies they design in order to achieve them.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Rakhal Sarker, Yves Surry
2002
Since the early 1990s, researchers have routinely used count data models (such as the Poisson and negative binomial) to estimate the demand for recreational activities. Along with the success and popularity of count data models in recreational demand analysis during the last decade, a number of shortcomings of standard count data models became obvious to researchers. This had led to the development of new and more sophisticated model specifications. Furthermore, semi-parametric and non-parametric approaches have also made their way into count data models. Despite these advances, however, one interesting issue has received little research attention in this area. This is related to the fast decay process of the dependent variable and the associated long tail. This phenomenon is observed quite frequently in recreational demand studies; most recreationists make one or two trips while a few of them make exceedingly large number of trips. This introduces an extreme form of overdispersion difficult to address in popular count data models. The major objective of this paper is to investigate the issues related to proper modelling of the fast decay process and the associated long tails in recreation demand analysis. For this purpose, we introduce two categories of alternative count data models. The first group includes four alternative count data models, each characterised by a single parameter while the second group includes one count data model characterised by two parameters. This paper demonstrates how these alternative models can be used to properly model the fast decay process and the associated long tail commonly observed in recreation demand analysis. The first four alternative count data models are based on an adaptation of the geometric, Borel, logarithmic and Yule probability distributions to count data models while the second group of models relied on the use of the generalised Poisson probability distribution. All these alternative count data models are empirically implemented using the maximum likelihood estimation procedure and applied to study the demand for moose hunting in Northern Ontario. Econometric results indicate that most of the alternative count data models proposed in this paper are able to capture the fast decay process characterising the number of moose hunting trips. Overall they seem to perform as well as the conventional negative binomial model.and better than the Poisson specification. However further investigation of the econometric results reveal that the geometric and generalised Poisson model specifications fare better than the modified Borel and Yule regression models.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Marcel Fafchamps, Bart Minten
Durban, 2003
This paper investigates the relationship between theft and poverty in rural areas. Following a disputed presidential election, fuel supply to the highlands of Madagascar was severely curtailed in early 2002, resulting in a massive -- if temporary -- increase in poverty. This situation constituted a natural experiment of the effect of poverty on theft. Using original survey data collected in June 2002 at the height of the crisis, we find that crop theft increases with poverty and that an increase in law enforcement personnel reduces cattle theft, a form of organized crime. Results suggest that theft is used by some of the rural poor as a risk coping strategy. Increased transport costs led to a rise in cattle and crop theft, suggesting that isolation raises crime.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Javier Guillem Carrau, Raul Compes Lopez
2002
The United States is the leading country in the application of biotechnology to agricultural methods. One of the principal reasons for this is the flexibility of its legislation on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). A significant part of its production of soya or corn is already genetically modified, so that its companies need to avoid technical barriers to their exports in the world markets?. In the EU, negative public opinion has contributed to the adoption by the authorities of exigent legislation in order to avoid the possible risks to human health and the environment posed by GMO. The EU’s authorisation procedure for these organisms is long and meticulous.

Furthermore, a compulsory labelling system has been adopted for products, which contain GMO or genetically modified materials (GM materials). In 1998, American interests started to be adversely affected by European legislation. The USA Administration threatened to sue the EU before the World Trade Organisation (WTO). These threats have yet to be followed up with any action. The rules of international trade are regulated by agreements signed up to by the members of the WTO. The EU can argue that its authorisation procedure is designed to reduce the risks to health and the environment. This line of argument is compatible with the Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). The compulsory labelling system is also compatible with the Agreement on TBT if the WTO accepts that a product in which GM material is detected is not similar to a conventional one. The Protocol of Biosafety further supports the EU position since it advocates a cautious approach exemplified by the fact that the Protocol permits consideration of non-scientific risks during risk assessment. However, the Protocol is not yet in force, it is pending ratification by at least 50 countries and, now more than ever, it is uncertain whether the United States will be willing to ratify the Protocol. However, we cannot be sure that there will be future commercial controversy, which will show the contradictions between the commercial agreement and the environmental one.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Tim Lloyd, Steve McCorriston, Wyn Morgan, Tony Rayner
Durban, 2003
This paper is concerned with the impact of the BSE crisis in the UK and focuses on price transmission between retail and farm prices. From a theoretical perspective we show that market power has an effect on price transmission between retail and farm prices following a demand shock. The empirical results suggest that the impact of a food scare on farm prices to be more than double that of retail prices, the direction of this effect being consistent with the impact of oligopoly dominating the effect (if any) of oligopsony.

However, important in assessing the full impact of a food scare is the ability of consumers to switch into substitute products. This is also evident following the BSE crisis with the availability of substitutes contributing significantly to the overall impact on price adjustment.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Katinka Weinberger
Durban, 2003
Micronutrient malnutrition, particularly of iron, is widespread on the South Asian subcontinent and economic losses due to reduced productivity of afflicted population groups are believed to be substantial.

This paper examines the impact of micronutrient intake on productivity of household engaged in agricultural labor in India by applying a two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation technique. The micronutrient under investigation is iron. The results indicate that productivity, measured in wages is indeed affected through insufficient intake, and that wages would on average be 5 to 17.3 percent higher, if households would achieve recommended intake levels of the micronutrient discussed here. The results demonstrate that policy interventions that aim at enhancing micronutrient intake can be regarded as investments in improved productivity and higher household incomes. Enhancing micronutrient intake will contribute significantly to overall economic growth and development.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
John Helming, Jack Peerlings
2002
A modelling system is presented and used to analyse the impact of milk quota abolishment on Dutch agriculture and economy. The modelling system consists of a regionalised, agri-environmental, partial equilibrium, mathematical programming model of agriculture supply in the Netherlands integrated into a mixed input-output model. It was found that abolition of the milk quota system has large impacts on milk production and livestock numbers and composition. The latter is explained by the strict mineral and manure policies in the Netherlands; an increase in the numbers of dairy cows leaves less room for other livestock. It is also found that, although the total effect on gross value added in the Dutch economy is limited, the effects for individual industries can be large.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Colin Thirtle, Lin Lin, Jenifer Piesse
2003
Twenty percent of the world population, or 1.2 billion live on less than $1 per day; 70% of these are rural and 90% in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Research led technological change in agriculture generates sufficient productivity growth to give high rates of return in Africa and Asia and has a substantial impact on poverty, currently reducing this number by 27 million per annum, whereas productivity growth in industry and services has no impact. The per capital cost of poverty reduction by means of agricultural research expenditures in Africa is $144 and in Asia $180, or 50 cents per day, but this is covered by output growth. By contrast, the per capita cost for the richer countries of Latin America is over $11,000.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Arjan Ruijs, Caspar Schweigman, Clemens Lutz
2003
Reductions in transport and transaction costs are expected to have a major effect on the functioning of food markets in developing countries. For many developing countries, this is a relevant issue as it may have important consequences for the food markets in urban and rural deficit areas. A partial equilibrium model is presented to analyze the effects of reduced costs on cereal price formation, inter-regional cereal trade, and farmers' and traders' storage strategies for the case of Burkina Faso. Our results show that the high expectations with regard to the direct effects of cost reductions on food prices and food availability require some nuance. First, the effects of even a huge reduction of transport costs only will be small. Secondly, an element which is often neglected is that constructing a road between two cities may have unintended negative consequences on the competitive position of farmers and traders in other regions. Finally, it is concluded that only if transport and transaction costs are reduced simultaneously, both consumers and farmers will benefit significantly.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
E.E. Imad, Rifaat Ahmed Abdel Karim
Durban, 2003
This paper assesses and quantifies the consequences of world trade liberalization in agriculture on trade and food security of Sudan. Sudan, with the agricultural sector as the main sector of economy, is characterized by its small open economy, and is classified as one of the least developed countries. Thus, Sudan becomes more vulnerable to any changes in international agricultural markets. The liberalization of international agricultural trade has a great influence on Sudan's food security and on the whole economy. An extended form of a multi-market model for Sudan is developed and used for the analysis. The model embodies important characteristics of agriculture in Sudan like substitution effects and stages of production.

As agriculture is the main sector of Sudan's economy, the model is extended to explicitly integrate some of the key important macroeconomic linkages, and to establish certain feedback effects between agriculture and the macro-economy. The model simulations reveal that a higher world market price would overall lead to measurable gains in food security and agricultural trade of the country. However, when the effect of a higher cost of production is considered, the positive results are reversed. Furthermore, the results of the model simulations show that the domestic policy environment matters very much with respect to the potential impact of world trade liberalization of agriculture. The paper concludes that Sudan should reorient its national policies towards export promotion in order to benefit from the new emerging trading opportunities in world markets. However, to capture a greater benefit from the new environment in the international markets, Sudan should consider and manage carefully all factors, domestically or internationally - e.g. quality standard, loss of preference, dumping effects - that hinder its economic and trade growth.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Nancy L. Johnson, Ruth Suarez, Mark Lundy
2003
This paper characterizes and measures the contribution of social capital to the performance of 50 agroenterprises in Colombia. Using qualitative analysis we document the functions that social capital performs within firms. To estimate social capital’s contribution to firm structure and performance, quantitative indicators of firm-level use of social capital are developed based on the number and strength of external relationships that firms maintain. Econometric analysis finds that firm-level returns to relationships are positive and higher than to physical or human capital. The results suggests that while firms can increase their economic performance by investing in social capital, ameliorating the effects of the market failures that lead to use of social relations for business purposes could also improve both equity and efficiency.
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