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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 61

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L MN O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Klaus Mittenzwei
2002
This paper is concerned with the timing of an agricultural policy reform under uncertainty. The focus is on the opportunity cost of giving up the option to wait when implementing a policy reform. Including the option value in applied policy analysis can help explain why conventional analyses may find observed policies to be Pareto-inferior. Furthermore, it explains why otherwise profitable policy reforms may be delayed. The theoretical model is applied to Norwegian agricultural policy anticipating a prospective WTO agreement. It is argued that the option value should be incorporated into applied policy analysis when high uncertainty prevails.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Elisa Montresor
2002
The purpose of this work is to contribute with some reflections to the debate that has flourished in recent years around two issues: rural development and systemic reading of the territorial articulation of agricultural development. In the numerous investigations conducted in Italy and elsewhere, the analytical approach adopted (institutional level and investigation units, choice of indicators and of the analytical instruments) has profound repercussions on rural policies, according to its wider or narrower formulation. After a brief reflection on the approaches to rural development, highlighting the contradictions of institutional intervention, the study proposes a critical description of some results of the Italian investigations. The aim is to contribute to the definition of an analytical approach for evaluating the dynamics in progress in the agricultural and rural development at different decisional levels (EU, national, regional). The proposed instruments satisfy some requirements: the repeatability of the investigation at different times and in a variety of contexts, the flexibility for the adaptability to the mosaic of situations in the rural world, the applicability at different territorial levels.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Daniele Moro, Paolo Sckokai, Claudio Soregaroli
2002
In this paper we present a partial equilibrium model for the bovine sector (beef and dairy) in Italy, which can be used for simulation and forecasting. The structure of the model follows the vertical chain of the beef and dairy sector, allowing trade of both agricultural raw materials and final products. Since the processing and retailing stage is characterised by an imperfectly competitive structure, the model accounts for market power in modeling the price transmission mechanism. This provides further insights on the vertical transmission of shocks, both at the final level (i.e. the BSE crisis) and at the farm level (i.e. agricultural policy reform).
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-01-2004
Charles Moss, Andrew Schmitz
Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company, 2003, 304 с.
Авторы пытаются определить экономические детерминанты стоимости земли и последствия изменения цены земли на примере США и Канады. Анализ построен на рассмотрении следующих разделов : исторический обзор структуры и поведения земельного рынка в США, связь между стоимостью фермерской земли и аграрной политикой США, рынок капитала и стоимость фермерских земель, механика функционирования рынка фермерской земли с точки зрения издержек по покупке и продаже земельных участков, экология и проблемы расширяющейся урбанизации, государственное регулирование в области запрета на владение фермерской землёй иностранными гражданами и его влияние на стоимость фермерских земельных наделов в Канаде.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Wayne Moyer, Timothy Josling
USA: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1990, 256 с.
Книга об аграрной политике США и ЕС. Рассматриваются различные подходы в области поддержки сельского хозяйства и отношения между ЕС и США. В анализе процесса принятия решений по сельскому хозяйству авторами используются современные модели из теории общественного выбора. Затрагивается международный аспект либерализации торговли сельскохозяйственной продукции и противоречивость внутренних аграрных политик.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Khalid Mushtaq, Phil J. Dawson
2003
We seek to quantify and evaluate the supply (yield) response of wheat and cotton in Pakistan using cointegration analysis and annual data for 1960-96. The results reveal that wheat supply is significantly influenced by the prices of wheat, cotton and fertilizer, the percentage area under high yielding wheat varieties, and the rabi season (winter) water availability. The cotton supply is found to be significantly influenced by the real cotton price, the real fertilizer price, and the irrigated area. The wheat supply was found to be inelastic both in the short- and long-run. However, cotton supply was elastic in the long-run.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Eduardo Segarra, Daniel G. de la Torre Ugarte, Jaime Malaga, Gary W. Williams
Durban, 2003
A non-linear optimization model which maximizes total Ecuadorian social welfare, defined as the sum of Consumers’ and producers’ surpluses for the four major crops (corn, bananas, rice and African palm) is developed to evaluate the tradeoff between welfare and environmental degradation in Ecuador. It was found that a total welfare loss of US$122 million (a 11 percent reduction - from US$ 1.112 billion to US$ 989.66 million) would be expected from a 30 percent reduction in the total pesticide load on the environment in the production of the four major crops. The distributional impacts of the welfare loss were found, however, to be significantly skewed toward the loss of consumers’ surplus. Specifically, a 30 percent reduction of total pesticide load on the environment would result in a reduction of 3.86 percent of producers’ total surplus while consumers would be expected to loose 19.46 percent of their total surplus.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2003
Ron Shaffer, Steve Deller, Dave Marcouiller
Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company, 2004, 384 с.
Книга знакомит читателя с несельскохозяйственной занятостью на селе, проблемами развития и устойчивого развития сельской местности. Основные разделы книги: экономическое развитие села (аграрных общин), теория роста, пространственная теория, концепции сельских рынков, рынки земли, рынки труда и развитие села, рынки капитала, технологии-инновации и развитие села, нерыночные товары и услуги, местное самоуправление - товары общественного сектора и экономика села, институты и общество, моделирование политики и принятие решений, экономическое развитие села в практике, описательные инструменты для анализа экономического развития села, инструменты для анализа экономического развития села - инференциальные модели фиксированной цены, инструменты для анализа экономического развития села - эндогенные модели цены, выводы и взгляд в будущее.

Опубликовано на портале: 03-01-2004
Ron Shaffer, Steve Deller, Dave Marcouiller
USA: Blackwell Publishing Company, 2004, 384 с.
Книга знакомит читателя с несельскохозяйственной занятостью на селе, проблемами развития и устойчивого развития сельской местности. Основные разделы книги: экономическое развитие села (аграрных общин), теория роста, пространственная теория, концепции сельских рынков, рынки земли, рынки труда и развитие села, рынки капитала, технологии-инновации и развитие села, нерыночные товары и услуги, местное самоуправление - товары общественного сектора и экономика села, институты и общество, моделирование политики и принятие решений, экономическое развитие села в практике, описательные инструменты для анализа экономического развития села, инструменты для анализа экономического развития села - инференциальные модели фиксированной цены, инструменты для анализа экономического развития села- эндогенные модели цены, выводы и взгляд в будущее.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Antje Springer, Georgios Papastefanou, Asterios Tsioumanis, Konstadinos Mattas
2002
As biotechnology evolves new methods of genetic engineering are now being applied to the production and processing of foods. This paper is trying to explore the attitudes of the European consumers towards genetic modification of food. Using survey data of the EU member countries the proposed research paper is planned to have a threefold output: 1) providing a comparative ranking of the EU member countries in relation to the prevalence of rejection of genetically modified food, 2) uncovering intra-european differences in genetic food engineering rejection as being based on socio-demographic and informational resp. knowledge based differentials between EU countries and 3) specifying the importance of socio-economic and informational determinants of a potential defender of genetically modified food by estimating the partial effects of age, gender, education, income, family status, size of household, knowledge on genetical food engineering and information use behavior in a multivariate model of the attitudes towards genetically modified food. This causal approach will be followed in selected EU countries representing extreme positions in the EU attitude ranking. By these empirical results the paper is trying to reveal intra-EU differentials of consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food, which is a necessary baseline for adequate and efficient policies in order to satisfy consumer needs for quality and security. The results will also prove helpful to the food industry providing differential information for marketing decisions and focusing adjustments in different EU food markets.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Daniela Storti, Roberto Henke, Maria Carmela Macrì
2004
The paper looks at the debate on economic development in rural areas and its influence on the evolution of European rural policies and on the concept of rurality itself, in order to clarify the main factors explaining the ‘logic of economic development’ in rural areas. To accomplish such objective, the main approach to rurality will be reviewed together with theories on economic development in rural regions and the changes in the nature and content of European rural policies over the last few decades. Secondly, the paper analyses the content of rural development regulation (RDR) in the EU, pointing out the enduring centrality, in the framework of EU policies, of agricultural concerns and the lack of a truly innovative place based rural policy, together with the emergence of a genuine tendency to the valorisation of the multifunctional role of agriculture. The objective is to verify at what degree the practice of rural development policies in different Member states incorporates new concerns linked to multifunctionality, environment and to the creation of new opportunities of rural employment. To accomplish this objective this paper presents a comparative analysis of the Rural Development Programmes, attaining at the “second pillar” of CAP, of three countries in the EU.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
John Sumelius, Zoran Grgic, Milan Mesic, Ramona Franic
Durban, 2003
The aim of this paper is to identify optional ways of preventing NO3-levels from rising within Croatian farming systems, and the implications from the viewpoint of the manager. More specifically, the purpose is to

1) Determine whether Croatian farmers exceed profit maximising levels of N-fertiliser use in maize cultivation, and its possible influence on NO3-N-levels.

2) To estimate the marginal abatement cost (MAC), at the farm level, of reducing NO3-N leaching through the following instruments: a tax on optimal N-doses, a product tax and an N-fertiliser quota and a requirement for all instruments to correspond to the same abatement level.

Based on N-response experiment from feld trial for maize N-response curves were estimated. A sample of 20 family farms was used for calculating intensity, nutrient content in manure, and the prices paid for N and obtained for maize. Profit maximising doses from the field trials were compared with the use of nutrients on farms. An effluent production function was estimated based on experiments with NO3-N contents in lysimeter water for the same treatment levels as those in the N-response experiments. The results indicate that farmers use higher than optimal levels of N-fertilisers, if the manure is fully accounted for. In this case the estimated NO3-N/l level in groundwater is 162-192 % higher than the critical level stipulated by the Nitrate Directive. Neglecting the N-content in manure shows close to profit maximising nutrient levels . At this fertlising level the estimated NO3/l is approximately 62 mg NO3/l or clearly higher that the critical level stipulated by the nitrate directive (50 mg NO3/l). Through any of the three instruments a 76% NO3-leaching reduction could be obtained. It was concluded, however, that the quota has the lowest MAC (0.92 euro/mg NO3/l), followed by the N-fertiliser tax (3.65 euro/mg NO3/l), and the product tax comes in third place (9.32 euro/mg NO3/l). Management practices that may increase yield levels, and correspondingly NO3-leaching in the short and long run, were also identified. One way to achieve a quick improvement might be a system of cross compliance, stipulating a code of good agricultural practices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Irene Tzouramani, Konstadinos Mattas
2002
Latest developments in investment analysis offer a number of valuable insights into how to evaluate investment opportunities encountering the weaknesses of net present value criterion. More specific, irreversibility, uncertainty and the choice of timing are conditions that net present value does not include but they alter the investment decision in critical way. Employing contingent claims analysis in tangible investments several assumptions made by discount cash flow method are concerned and better assessment results can be derived. In this work, an attempt is made to apply real options methodology in agricultural investments. Many agricultural investors face a growing uncertainty environment with high sunk investments and net present value criterion has been extensively used that may be lead to incorrect decisions. Both discount cash flow method and real options approach are employed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new technology project under uncertainty returns in agriculture. Discount cash flow approach indicates that the adoption of a new technology project under uncertainty is feasible while real options approach differentiates the results. The corollary is that real options approach can be proved conducive in assessing projects with uncertainty and irreversibility and it can furnish a new way of examining agricultural investment decisions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Irene Tzouramani, Konstadinos Mattas
2004
New policy measures have studied and introduced to transform Europe’s agriculture into a more environmental friendly agriculture. Adopting environmental friendly production systems involves risk and uncertainty and to overcome this well designed policy schemes are required. This study attempts to examine the effects of income variability upon the decision on adopting or not environmental friendly production systems in order to evaluate the organic financial incentives to farmers by introducing the real options methodology. The real options procedure revealed that the investment in environmental friendly production systems must be postponed and the option of investment must be kept alive until the expected returns are high enough to offset the risk and uncertainty. Therefore, policy makers have to reconsider the current financial incentives if they want faster adoption of sustainable production systems.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Mieke Vandermersch, Erik Mathijs
2002
To assess the performance of a farmer and to identify best practice among a group of farmers, the assumption is often made that all farmers maximize profits and thus share the same business goals. However, performance differs due to personal characteristics, objectives and strategies. A survey carried out among 73 Belgian dairy farmers revealed that for only 34% of the farmers ‘profit maximization’ is a primary objective. A regression analysis revealed that self-declared profit maximizers only obtained a higher farm income per liter, not per labour unit. Through cluster analysis, four main groups of farmers were found with similar objectives and management ideas:
(A) risk-taking and progressive cow farmers,
(B) riskaverse and progressive labour savers,
(C) risk-neutral and relatively conservative profit maximizers and
(D) risk-averse and conservative cow farmers.
Gross margin per liter was highest for the labour savers. Other performance parameters were higher for cluster B only compared to cluster D. Scale economies were found for all performance parameters except for gross margin per liter.
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