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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 63

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
AB C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
David Grigg
USA: Routledge, 1995, 256 с.
Учебник начального уровня по географии сельского хозяйства. Рассматриваются различные факторы, повлиявшие на становление и развитие сельского хозяйства во всём мире: климатические, географические, экономические, социальные, культурные институциональные. Основные разделы книги – введение, биология сельского хозяйства, климат и сельскохозяйственные культуры, почвы и фермер, высота и сельское хозяйство, спрос на сельскохозяйственные продукты, экономическое поведение фермеров, модернизация сельского хозяйства, государство и сельское хозяйство, рынки и транспорт, сельское хозяйство и урбанизация, население-предложение труда -сельское хозяйство, размер ферм и владение землёй, инновации в сельском хозяйстве, культурный аспект в сельском хозяйстве, сельское хозяйство и окружающая среда.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Maurice Buckett
Europe: Butterworth Heinemann, 1998, 338 с.
Учебник начального уровня по организации и управлению сельскохозяйственным производством.

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Manfred Zeller, Manohar Sharma, Carla Henry, Cecile Lapenu
Zaragoza, 2003
Many development projects seek to reach the poorest in the provision of agricultural inputs, extension, credit, education, and many other services. However, low-cost and reliable methods for assessing whether a project reaches the poor are lacking at present.

In this paper, we present an operational method that was designed during a two-year research project from 1999-2001 with the support of an international donor- coordination office. The objective of the research was to develop and test a new method that could be later used by development practitioners to assess the poverty level of beneficiaries of development projects that target the poor in relation to the general population in the intervention area. The method constructs a poverty index using principle component analysis, and is based on a range of indicators that describes different dimensions of poverty and for which credible information can be quickly and inexpensively obtained. To ensure the method’s usefulness to a wide number of countries and projects, the method was tested in collaboration in rural and urban areas in four countries: Nicaragua (urban and rural), Kenya (urban and rural), Madagascar (rural), and India (rural). We present results from these studies. We conclude that the method has a promising potential for monitoring and evaluation purposes of development organizations. Since 2001, the method has been used in over 20 project assessments.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Karin Reiter, Wolfgang Roggendorf
2004
The regulation for the promotion of rural areas (Reg. (EC) No 1257/1999) and its subsequent regulation (Reg. (EC) No 1853/2003) serve as the basis for EU agricultural structural policy for the promotional period 2000 to 2006. Promotional areas established through the individual regulations such as agricultural development measures, measures to improve competitiveness and the previously accompanying measures of the agricultural reform in 1992, as well as compensatory allowences for disadvantaged areas, are initially consolidated in these two regulations. The Commission’s overall intention is to adjust the promotional areas in terms of time and content and thus to target promotional synergy. A further change in the promotional approach is that the nine promotional areas of the regulation are to be evaluated by independent evaluators according to a Commission designed European-wide evaluation grid (European Commission, 2000). The processing of the common evaluation questions is obligatory, should a question or part of the questionnaire not be answered, an explanation must be included (ibid., P. A-3). The Commission reserves the right to stop EU co-financing should the evaluation not meet its criteria. This paper places a focus on critical reflection about the evaluation grid required by the Commission with regard to its use in the evaluation process using the example of agri-environmental measures.
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Опубликовано на портале: 09-12-2003
Richard A. Posner
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001, 304 с.
When it was first published a quarter of a century ago, Richard Posner's exposition and defense of an economic approach to antitrust law was a jeremiad against the intellectual disarray that then characterized the field. As other perspectives on antitrust law have fallen away, Posner's book has played a major role in transforming the field of antitrust law into a body of economically rational principles largely in accord with the ideas set forth in the first edition. Today's antitrust professionals may disagree on specific practices and rules, but most litigators, prosecutors, judges, and scholars agree that the primary goal of antitrust laws should be to promote economic welfare, and that economic theory should be used to determine how well business practices conform to that goal.

In this thoroughly revised edition, Posner explains the economic approach to new generations of lawyers and students. He updates and amplifies his approach as it applies to the developments, both legal and economic, in the antitrust field since 1976. The "new economy," for example, has presented a host of difficult antitrust questions, and in an entirely new chapter, Posner explains how the economic approach can be applied to new industries such as software manufacturers, Internet service providers, and those that provide communications equipment and services.

"The antitrust laws are here to stay," Posner writes, "and the practical question is how to administer them better-more rationally, more accurately, more expeditiously, more efficiently." This fully revised classic will continue to be the standard work in the field.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Daniele Moro, Paolo Sckokai, Claudio Soregaroli
2002
In this paper we present a partial equilibrium model for the bovine sector (beef and dairy) in Italy, which can be used for simulation and forecasting. The structure of the model follows the vertical chain of the beef and dairy sector, allowing trade of both agricultural raw materials and final products. Since the processing and retailing stage is characterised by an imperfectly competitive structure, the model accounts for market power in modeling the price transmission mechanism. This provides further insights on the vertical transmission of shocks, both at the final level (i.e. the BSE crisis) and at the farm level (i.e. agricultural policy reform).
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Tassew Woldehanna, Arie Oskam
2002
There is some confusion in the literature on the consumption behaviour of farmers. We try to clear up some of the issues surrounding this confusion by elaborating and testing a model. Euler equations have been derived from a constant relative risk aversion utility function for total consumption expenditure, household expenditure and other expenditure, which includes durable goods. According to a test of Euler equations, farm households are not simply optimising lifetime utility. Rather, these households follow simple consumption rules, strongly influenced by habit formation. In line with most of the literature, we find that farm households are not borrowing constrained in their consumption expenditures.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Andrea Bonfiglio, Emilio Chiodo
2004
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the overall impact produced by the application of European development policies for rural areas of the Italian Marche region for the period 2000-2003. Towards this aim, the input-output approach is adopted. A Marche regional I-O table is firstly constructed using a hybrid method. To evaluate the overall impact throughout the territory, two models are developed and applied recursively: an interregional I-O model and a gravity model. As for the former, sub-interregional I-O tables are constructed, where the regions under study are, on one hand, the functional area receiving funds and, on the other hand, the rest of the Marche region. The gravity model is instead used to allocate among the other areas the impact calculated for the rest of the region. To show how the impact is distributed among regional areas, a Geographical Information System is used. The paper concludes illustrating the main results in terms of overall impact generated by policy and providing some considerations related to policy effectiveness.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Rajeev Ahuja, Johannes Jutting
2003
Community based micro insurance has aroused much interest and hope in meeting health care challenges facing the poor. In this paper we explore how institutional rigidities such as credit constraint impinge on demand for health insurance and how insurance could potentially prevent poor households from falling into poverty trap. In this setting, we argue that the appropriate public intervention in generating demand for insurance is not to subsidise premium but to remove these rigidities (easing credit constraint in the present context).

Thus from insurance perspective as well, our analysis highlights the importance of having appropriate savings and borrowing instruments for the poor.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Ulrich Koester
2003
In contrast to expectations held by western observers in 1990, the farm structure in the Central and Eastern European Countries and the Countries of Independent States has not converged to the one prevailing in the West. In particular, remarkable changes in Russian agriculture in recent years have let to the emergence of new agricultural holdings combining under one umbrella many large farms. Does this unexpected development, unprecedented even in the West, contradict conventional wisdom about the determinants of farm size in agriculture? This paper argues that in transition economies external institutions seem to be more important than economies of scale and transaction costs on the farm in determining farm size. Whilst the birth of family farms in Russia seems to have been mainly constrained by embedded institutions of could-be family farmers and partly by second level institutions, the survival and the creation of holdings has been strongly supported by second and third level institutions, but embedded institutions have played also a role. Consequently, recent developments in Russia do not support the view that large farms or even holdings are more efficient than small or medium size family farms in an environment, which prevails in western market economies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Christos Pantzios, Stelios Rozakis, Vangelis Tzouvelekas
2002
Utilizing the stochastic frontier approach, this paper estimates output and input-oriented technical and scale efficiency levels for a sample of cotton-growing farms in Thessaly, Greece. The empirical results suggest that Greek cotton farm operations are technically and scale inefficient. There is a considerable scope for improvement in resource use and thereby in farm income of cotton farms; Greek cotton farmers could reduce production costs by 20.4%, making more efficient utilization of the existing production technology. Factors responsible for the technical efficiency differentials observed among cotton-growers include the farmer’s age and education as well as the farm’s land fragmentation and output specialization.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Chittur S. Srinivasan
2003
Many developing countries are attempting to address the inequities of plant breeders' rights by incorporating farmers' rights provisions in their Plant Variety Protection legislations to reward the role of farmers as conservers and enhancers of agro-biodiversity. Developing countries expect to generate substantial revenues for biodiversity conservation or for community reward schemes through the application of farmers' rights provisions. This paper applies a patent-renewal model to assess the economic returns appropriated by plant breeders from new (protected) varieties in developed countries. The estimates confirm a widely held view in the literature that plant variety protection is a relatively weak form of IPR protection which allows plant breeders to appropriate only limited returns from their innovations. Consequently, the application of farmers' rights provisions in a manner akin to breeders' rights is unlikely to be a source of significant revenue to developing countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Ernst Berg
2002
This paper investigates the farm level impacts of multiple peril yield and revenue insurance in an expected value-variance framework. The analysis is conducted using stochastic simulation jointly with numerical optimisation. Simulation is used to compute the means and variances of revenues as affected by the insurance schemes under consideration. In a second step these results are incorporated in a whole-farm programming approach, which optimises a portfolio that consists of crop production and insurance activities. The results of a case study indicate that from the farmer's point of view there is an incentive to buy multiple peril crop insurance, because it significantly reduces the variability of income. The risk reduction through insurance in turn leads to a specialisation of the production program. The farm level benefit of crop insurance strongly depends on the decision maker's degree of risk aversion. Furthermore, risk free parts of the total income reduce the economic attractiveness of insurance schemes. This applies e.g. to the area payments under the European agricultural policy, which therefore limit the potential demand for crop insurance.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Gudbrand Lien
2002
Stochastic budgeting is used to simulate the business and financial risk and the performance over a six-year planning horizon on a Norwegian dairy farm. A major difficulty with stochastic whole-farm budgeting lies in identifying and measuring dependency relationships between stochastic variables. Some methods to account for these stochastic dependencies are illustrated. The financial feasibility of different investment and management strategies is evaluated. In contrast with earlier studies with stochastic farm budgeting, the option aspect is included in the analysis.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Julian Binfield, Gary Adams, Robert Young, Patrick Westhoff
Zaragoza, 2002
Most of the large scale modeling systems used in the analysis of agricultural policies produce deterministic projections. In reality, however, the agricultural sector is subject to a high degree of uncertainty as a result of fluctuations in exogenous factors such as the weather or macroeconomic variation. A stochastic approach can provide additional information to policy makers regarding the implications of this uncertainty, through the use of stochastically generated projections.

This paper also shows how deterministic analysis may result in systematic errors in the projection of some variables. As an applied example, the FAPRI model of the US agricultural sector is simulated stochastically to analyse the impact of proposals for the new US farm bill.
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