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Аграрная экономика - – это часть экономической теории. Она изучает использование ограниченных ресурсов в производстве, переработке, реализации и потреблении продовольствия... (подробнее...)
Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 487

Авторы:
АБ ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г ДЕЖЗИЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С ТУФХЦЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Daniel Deybe, Abigail Fallot
Durban, 2003
Relationships between the greenhouse effect and agricultural activity are usually and firstly considered in terms of the impact of climate change on agriculture. But in reverse, farmers and herders may react to a climate policy imposing a carbon price to GHG-emitting activities, and possibly contribute to the emissions mitigation as well as to carbon sequestration. The degree of efficiency of the reactions will vary across regions of the world and across activities. A methodology considering risk associated with technology changes is proposed for estimating and accounting these reactions under production and resource constraints. For a business-as-usual scenario quantified by the integrated assessment model Image, decisions concerning land-use and alternative practices are modeled. Results indicate that main agricultural activities provide little room for manoeuvre for emissions mitigation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Marijke D'Haese, Wim Verbeke, Guido Van Huylenbroeck, Johann Kirsten, Luc D'Haese
Durban, 2003
Commercial producers, brokers, exporters and spinners dominate the wool supply chain in South Africa. Until recently smallholder farmers in the Transkei region had limited access to a profitable market outlet for their wool. In response, the South African wool industry has taken the initiative to help local farmers by building shearing sheds, under which the local association can bulk the wool and trade directly with the brokers. More direct access to the wool brokers is a prerequisite for the farmer to develop a viable business.

This article investigates on the effect of membership in the local shearing shed association on the farmers. revenue. A two-step regression model of the gross margin is used to analyse whether farmers selling through the local association have better financial records as compared to those who sell their wool to local traders. This article exemplifies how institutional innovation through local marketing associations can contribute to economic development in poor rural areas.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Boubaker Dhehibi, Jose Maria Gil, Ana M. Angulo
Durban, 2003
The objective of this paper is to analyse the Spanish demand for food taking into account the consumer.s concern about the relationship between food diet and health. This concern is forcing food demand analysts to assume that consumer utility is a function of nutrients instead of simply the food products themselves. A CBS demand model has been considered to model the new demand function obtained, which is estimated with a complete panel data set. Ten broad categories, nine nutrients and the most relevant socio-economic variables have been considered. Finally, after an apropriate model selection strategy, expenditure, price and nutrient elasticities, as well as main sociodemographic effects, have been calculated.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Paul Diederen, Hans van Meijl, Arjan Wolters
2002
This paper addresses the question which factors influence a farmer in deciding to adopt an innovation. We differentiate between innovations that are new to the farmer, but already well established in the sector, innovations that are early in their process of diffusion, and innovations that are new to the farmer’s sector. We use an ordered probit approach to relate adoption behaviour to variables that capture characteristics of the farm (labour and financial resources and market position), of the business environment of the farm (type of production and market, degree of regulation) and of the farmer (access to information, capabilities, preferences). We use data on 865 Dutch farms and find that innovation adoption is positively related to labour resources, market position, access to information and past adoption behaviour, and negatively to solvency and the degree of market regulation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Rafaela Dios Palomares, Jose Miguel Martinez Paz
Zaragoza, 2002
This study investigated the efficiency and productivity change of a sample of food distribution units (MERCAs) in Spain over the 1.997-1.999 period, applying non-parametric frontier methodology in a sales efficiency framework. We specified a mean sales model composed of two blocks of variables, the production block, and the marketing management block. Then we applied output oriented DEA methodology to perform the efficiency analysis, also taking into account the overall efficiency decomposition into pure and scale efficiency. The Malmquist index was calculated in order to analyse the components of the productivity change.

The mean pure sales efficiency index was high, around 0.8, the mean scale index being 0,9. As appears from the results, six food distribution units were efficient, but some of the wholesale markets need to adapt their sales technology in order that their input bundle reaches a Most Productive Scale Size unit.

We found no evidence of technical change during the period considered, but concluded that a notable scale efficiency change took place during the studied period.

To summarise, we conclude that improvement in sales efficiency could be reached in the studied sector in both the pure and the scale efficiency.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Sabrina Di Pasquale, Vittorio Gallerani, Davide Viaggi
2002
Water management for irrigation requires suitable policy tools able to meet social objectives and private behaviour. The legal framework in the EU is today faced with the new water framework directive (60/2000), that sets up new criteria for water management, regulation and pricing. Among other things, the water framework directive introduces the principle of full cost recovery and the polluter pays principle for water users. For many areas of Italy, this may be a significant shift compared to present payment criteria, based on traditional rights, political prices, partial running cost coverage or others. The aim of this paper is to analyse the problem of water regulation in agriculture as applied to irrigation issues. This is made by setting up and testing a simulation model based on the integration of a mathematical decision making model at farm level and a principal agent model at the level of irrigation boards. The model allows to quantify water demand and the optimal regulation from the point of view of the policy maker. The results show major impacts of water availability and prices on farm income. The adoption of a mix of pricing instruments related at the same time to crop rotation, water consumption and pollution can significantly improve water policy efficacy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Cynthia Donovan, Linda Bailey, Edson Mpyisi, Michael Weber
Durban, 2003
In Rwanda for the past decade, rural households have lived with civil unrest and genocide, changing land laws, large population flows both into and out of the country, and climatic threats with droughts and floods. The illness and untimely death of prime age adults from a number of health problems (increasingly HIV/AIDS) adds to the stress of these households and has lasting effects on the ability of households to survive. In this research, the authors use household and member level survey data to increase understanding about what is happening in households with such shocks and how they may be different from other Rwandan rural households.

This research finds that households affected by adult illness and death strive to maintain their agricultural production, and work to avoid selling assets, yet some households appear to be in a downward spiral, losing assets and income earning potential. They rely heavily on social networks for labor and skills, but clearly these networks will be stretched beyond their means in any continuing epidemics. Female-headed households in particular struggle to find labor with neighbors or work more themselves. If special programs are developed for the affected families, focusing on increasing land and labor productivity fits into their own strategies. Since households with prime age death and disease appear to be similar to other Rwandan households in the poorest two quintiles, such programs would be beneficial to rural households in general, and possibly strengthen social networks through generalized agricultural and income growth.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Paul Dorosh, Moataz El-Said, Hans Lofgren
2003
In Uganda, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, poverty is concentrated in rural areas. Because agriculture accounts for a large share of incomes for these households, policies and external shocks that affect agriculture, including shifts in world prices, changes in agricultural productivity, and reductions in marketing costs, may have significant effects on rural poverty. In this paper, we use a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model of the Ugandan economy, explicitly designed to capture regional variations in agricultural production and household incomes, to examine the implications of these policy changes and shocks.

Simulation results suggest that a doubling of area planted to coffee (the government.s target) would increase rural consumption by less than 2.0 percent, because of an estimated 10 percent decline in the world price of robusta coffee and an 11.3 percent real exchange rate appreciation of the Ugandan shilling. Smaller productivity increases in food crops may have greater potential to raise rural incomes, provided that markets perform well and producer incentives are maintained. A five percent increase in agricultural productivity raises consumption by 1.3 to 2.1 percent among rural households and lowers food prices by 3.4 to 3.8 percent relative to the CPI, thus benefiting households with high food consumption shares. Reducing agricultural marketing margins by 30 percent leads to increases of 2.3 to 4.1 percent in consumption of farm households, with the largest gains in regions where consumption out of own production is lower.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
W. Dunne, John J. O'Connell
2002
For decades the CAP has been the major influence in shaping EU agriculture and food production. The economic and policy environment in the EU is now very different from that which prevailed in the earlier decades. The future economic, social and geographic diversity of the EU will be further increased by enlargement. Agricultural policies and the related operational frameworks will inevitably change to accommodate this added diversity and the changing societal and consumer values. This paper evaluates how the current shape of EU agriculture has been influenced by the reforms to date. It also attempts to focus on where EU farming may be, or wish to go, over the next decade. The evaluation is restricted to the beef sector as it has been to the forefront in the policy reforms of the last decade and because the adjustments were inevitably complex due to the scale of the oversupply problems, the biological and market intricacies involved.

This evaluation concluded that the current EU beef policy is severely constrained with poor targeting of the income supports, high production costs, based on an administratively complex and expensive control system without any clear benefit to either society or taxpayer for a rather large expenditure. In the past, agricultural policy in the EU was primarily driven by the need for a secure food supply and with the objective of sustaining the economic and social needs of farmers. But, in the well fed and affluent EU society of the 21 st century, agricultural policy will be mainly driven by the economic and social goals which are rapidly changing. This society places a declining value on extra units of food production, but an increasing value on any public goods consumed in the production process. As a consequence, the mix of agricultural production and public goods that this society is prepared to support financially is changing rapidly. The level and components of farm incomes in the EU in the 21 st century will reflect these changes. Farm revenue will likely consist of a mix of payments for conventional agricultural products and public goods. The public good payments will be conditional on the level and type of inputs used, farming practices, types of products produced and a societal vision of the role of farming. This will affect production costs, scale of operation and the future configuration of agriculture and rural society. To meet this evolving situation the paper also develops and outlines a multi-commodity framework by which the EU could reorient its direct payment (DP) system to incorporate a range of public good values to the mutual benefit of consumers, taxpayers and farmers.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Pierre Dupraz, Isabel Vanslembrouck, Francois Bonnieux, Guido Van Huylenbroeck
2002
This paper examines the factors influencing farmers' participation in several agri-environmental schemes. A multinominal logit model is used to separate between participating and nonparticipating farmers. In addition this model allows to predict farmers participation in one measure as well as in different measures simultaneously. Data stems from a survey conducted in eight European countries and includes a description of both farmer and farm characteristics. Three categories of schemes have been analysed: landscape maintenance, biodiversity protection and restriction of intensive farming practices. The combination of these three types of schemes provides eight possible packages which can be selected by eligible farmers.

The multinominal logit model shows the importance of both farm and farmer as well as attitudinal characteristics on the participation in different combinations of schemes. For instance, the environmental concern favours landscape maintenance and biodiversity protection as well as their combinations with schemes requiring restrictions of intensive practices. However, it has a negative effect on the single participation in schemes requiring restrictions of intensive practices only. Our analysis confirms a number of previous findings. In addition, it shows the importance for policy makers to take into account that farmers have the opportunity to enter several schemes simultaneously. Indeed, due to cost complementarities, joint participation provides both private and public benefits.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Karin Eckstein, Helmut Hoffmann, Jutta Gloeggler
2004
In the context of the mid-term evaluation of rural development programmes (EU regulation 1257/99) the Bavarian agri-environmental programme, the so-called Kulturlandschaftsprogramm Part A” (KULAP-A), was evaluated. By means of this programme, only agricultural land related measures are supported. The measures may refer to the whole agricultural enterprise, parts of it or the individual plot. The guideline of the EU-commission demand analysis about the effects of the programme on biotic and abiotic environmental resources such as soil, water, species and their habitat and landscape. This paper focuses on the results concerning the protection of soil erosion and water contamination. For this, statistical data corresponding the supported measures were analysed. Additionally a survey of farmers participating and non-participating at the programme was conducted. In this study the dead-weight-effect is discussed as an effect which can be excluded in cases when: due to the programme an intensification of management is prevented, a low intensive management is reached or the abandonment of farming could at least be delayed.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Ред.: Carl Eicher, John Staatz
USA: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998, 625 с.
Книга представляет собой сборник статей, написанных по проблематике международного сельскохозяйственного развития. В сборник вошли работы таких известных экономистов, как В.Руттан, Й.Хайями, Д.Стиглиц, А.МакКалла, Д.Меллор, Д.Норт, П.Тиммер, Р.Дорнбуш, А Сен и др. Основные разделы : вызов (работы по темам - сельское хозяйство и потребности в продовольствии в будущем, помощь и сельское хозяйство как локомотив роста), исторические и теоретические перспективы (экономическое развитие сектора, модели развития, трансформация), политика (макроэкономика и сельское хозяйство, либерализация торговли сельскохозяйственной продукцией), аграрная трансформация и экономическое развитие сельской местности (институциональные аспекты развития, роль человеческого капитала, использование технологий), уроки из стран с переходной экономикой (примеры из стран Азии, Африки, Латинской Америки).

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Uwe Eiteljorge, Monika Hartmann
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 243-269 с.
The collapse of the former Soviet Union has led to a sharp decline in the trading of agricultural products between its successor states. There have been attempts to revive these trade relations by means of bilateral and regional trade agreements. In addition, almost all member states of the CIS are in the process of negotiating accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). Because of its size and agricultural production potential, the Russian Federation is of primary importance in this respect. The integration of the Russian Federation in the world economy, which is expected to result from its accession to the WTO, will have a sizeable impact not only on its own agricultural sector, but also on the world markets for agricultural products.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Sone Ekman
Zaragoza, 2002
This paper evaluates the consequences of considering environmental and economic risk in the analysis of cost-effective nitrogen abatement options in crop production. A farmlevel mathematical programming model incorporating nitrogen leaching variability, field time variability, yield variability, and output price variability is developed.

The empirical results reveal that requiring a high reliability with respect to a desired abatement target can be extremely costly, due to the high variability of nitrogen emissions. It appears to be sufficient to reduce average nitrogen load in order to reduce the environmental risk associated with nitrogen leaching variability, since a change to crops with lower average load also results in lower variability of nitrogen emissions. A farmer’s degree of risk aversion has some effect on the economically optimal choice of crop mix. However, it is more important to consider the utilisation of machinery and labour resources and crop rotation effects, than considering risk aversion.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Frank Ellis
Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2003, 328 с.
Книга по экономике фермерских домохозяйств в развивающихся странах. Основные рассматриваемые темы – эффективность, риск, распределение времени, род, сельскохозяйственные контракты, размер фермерских хозяйств и технологические изменения. Дополненное издание содержит новые главы по экологическим проблемам, связанным с применением экстенсивных методов ведения сельского хозяйства.
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