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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 155


Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
Ruby K. Payne
USA, 2001, 205 с.
A Framework for Understanding Poverty was Dr. Ruby Payne's first book, written for teachers with adaptations for work and community members. Its purpose is to educate people about the differences that separate economic classes and then teaching them strategies to bridge those gulfs. Ruby discusses at length the social cues or "hidden rules" that govern how we think and interact in society – and the significance of those rules in a classroom. Other topics include why students from generational poverty often fear being educated, discipline interventions that improve behavior, and the eight resources that make a difference to success.

Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2007
Chris Pierson
Cambridge: Polity Press, 2006, 288 с.
Over the past decade, Beyond the Welfare State? has become established as the key text on the emergence and development of welfare states. It offers a comprehensive and remarkably well-informed introduction to the ever more intense debates that surround the history and, still more importantly, the future of welfare in advanced industrialised states. Comprehensively revised and re-written, this third edition of the book embraces all of the most important theoretical and empirical developments in welfare state studies of recent years. Working within an explicitly comparative framework, the book draws on a wealth of international evidence to survey what are now the most pressing issues surrounding the future of welfare: among them, globalisation, demographic change, declining fertility, postindustrialism and immigration. It draws extensively on the explosion of work on welfare states that has emerged within the North American political science community over the past ten years as well as giving detailed attention to developments with the UK, continental and northern Europe and beyond. Beyond the Welfare State? remains the most comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the complex of issues that surround welfare reform. It is required reading for anyone who wants to come to terms with what is really at stake in arguments about the future of welfare.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-04-2004
Arthur Cecil Pigou
Москва: Прогресс, 1985, 1, 512 с.
В работе "Экономическая теория благосостояния" А. С. Пигу - последователь А. Маршала - дал глубокий анализ ценовой дискриминации. Он выявил и постулировал общие условия ценовой дискриминации и выделил три ее вида (степени). Согласно Пигу, общие условия, в полной мере благоприятствующие осуществлению ценовой дискриминации, складываются тогда, когда цена спроса на любую единицу товара не зависит от продажной цены любой другой единицы товара. А это возможно лишь в том случае, когда никакая единица товара не может заменить какую-либо другую единицу этого же товара. Предполагается, что: 1) никакую из единиц товара, проданную на одном рынке, нельзя передать на другой рынок; 2) никакую из единиц спроса, предъявленного на одном рынке, невозможно перевести на другой рынок. При этих допущениях на рынке возникнут условия, при которых дискриминация позволит монополисту извлечь наибольшие выгоды - идеальная (совершенная) дискриминация.

Теория, описанная в данной работе А. С. Пигу, в настоящее время вошла во все учебники экономики.

Опубликовано на портале: 15-11-2007
Jonas Pontusson
Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005, 256 с.
What are the relative merits of the American and European socioeconomic systems? Longstanding debates have heated up in recent years with the expansion of the European Union and increasingly sharp political and cultural differences between the United States and Europe. In Inequality and Prosperity, Jonas Pontusson provides a comparative overview of the two major models of labor markets and welfare systems in the advanced industrial world: the "liberal capitalist" system of the United States and Britain, and the "social market" capitalism of northern Europe. These two models balance concerns of efficiency and equity in fundamentally different ways. In the 1990s the much-heralded forces of globalization (together with demographic changes and attendant political pressures) seemed to threaten the very existence of the social-market economies of Europe. Were the social compacts of Sweden and Germany outmoded? Would varieties of capitalism remain possible, or were labor-market and social-welfare arrangements converging on the U.S. norm? Pontusson opposes the notion of inevitable convergence: he believes that social-market economies can survive and indeed flourish in the contemporary world economy. He bases his argument on an enormous amount of highly specialized research on eighteen countries, using national-level data for the last thirty years. Among the areas he explores are labor-market dynamics, income distribution, employment performance, wage bargaining, firm-level performance, and the changing possibilities for the welfare state.
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Опубликовано на портале: 15-07-2005
David Robertson, Josh Hillman
Оценка возможного вклада системы индивидуальных студенческих счетов и банка обучения в финансирование студентов, предоставление высшего образования и в обучение в течение всей жизни.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2004
The ageing of the population has important labour market implication. The dependency ratio will continue to rise as the number of economically inactive people increases relative to those who are economically active.
Author reviews policy and practices for promoting the employment of older workers. identifies weakness in some approaches. and explains the role of the ILO in promoting the employment of older workers.

Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
Theodore W. Schultz
Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2001, 158 с.
Book Info
A theoretical text examining the issue of morality in the economic markets, as it relates to market efficiency. The theory presented by the author focuses on the process of market interaction itself to prove that selfishness alone cannot provide for the common good, as suggested by Adam Smith. DLC: Economics - Moral and ethical aspects.

Book Description
In the late eighteenth century, Adam Smith significantly shaped the modern world by claiming that when people individually pursue their own interests, they are together led towards achieving the common good. But can a population of selfish people achieve the economic common good in the absence of moral constraints on their behavior? If not, then what are the moral conditions of market interaction which lead to economically efficient outcomes of trade? Answers to these questions profoundly affect basic concepts and principles of economic theory, legal theory, moral philosophy, political theory, and even judicial decisions at the appellate level. Walter Schultz illustrates the deficiencies of theories which purport to show that markets alone can provide the basis for efficiency. He demonstrates that efficient outcomes of market interaction cannot be achieved without moral normative constraints and then goes on to specify a set of normative conditions which make these positive outcomes possible.

Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
Amartya Sen
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, 688 с.
Commodities and Capabilities presents a set of inter-related theses concerning the foundations of welfare economics, and in particular about the assessment of personal well-being and advantage. The argument presented focuses on the capability to function, i.e. what a person can do or can be, questioning in the process the more standard emphasis on opulence or on utility. In fact, a person's motivation behind choice is treated here as a parametric variable which may or may not coincide with the pursuit of self-interest. Given the large number of practical problems arising from the roles and limitations of different concepts of interest and the judgement of advantage and well-being, this scholarly investigation is both of theoretical interest and practical import.
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Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
Amartya Sen
Harvard: Harvard University Press, 1995, 224 с.
Sen (economics and philosophy, Harvard U.) shows how all the major approaches to the ethics of social arrangements demand equality of something, but not of the same thing. Because when some things are equal others are not, he argues, let us equalize higher and more basic values, such as the freedom to achieve objectives.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2003
Amartya Sen
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984, 416 с.
The Nobel Laureate (1998) Amartya Sen needs no introduction. But poverty and starvation are better known than he is. Better still, the author is in full realization of this fact. So, no self-elevating adjectives or poignant criticism can be found in the book. The book focuses on starvation in general and famines in particular. At the very outset, Amartya comes out to be a Keynesian in approach rather than a classicist. As his critics would put it - "This paper is not concerned with long-term food policy". This is true to some extent but the author here is trying to fit in a jigsaw puzzle with two or more puzzles thrown in at once. The book can be further divided into three parts for reading purposes: * For layman [Chapter 1-5,10] * Case Studies [Chapter 6-9] * For the erudite economist [Appendix A-D] This is what sets the book apart - a simple treatment of such a complex subject! For an issue as basic as hunger, you do require a simple treatment that masses can understand and not only a Master at some reputed economic school. The first and second section can be read by anyone slightly concerned with the word - Poverty while appendices are for the more learned. Chapter I introduces the elementary concepts of his approach to starvation - "The Entitlement Approach". He clearly distinguishes between the food availability and the relationships between a person and the food available. According to him, a person can get food to which he is legally or socially entitled. He can exchange his owned entitlements for other entitlements. Thus, even if plenty is available in author's words - "Starvation is seen as the result of his inability to establish entitlement to enough food". The second and the third chapter deal with concept of poverty, its identification and aggregation. He presents various methods of poverty evaluation and a critique of each- 1. The most usual head count method (i.e. relative number of poor) 2. Biological and nutritional approach (i.e. minimum amount of nutrition required). The aggregation is dealt with by advocating the axiom of "Ranked Relative Deprivation". This deals with the relative poverty amongst the 'poor'. Chapter III brings out the difference between starvation and famines. It sets a stage for discussion of famines in particular. He distinguishes both on - 1. Time Contrast (Long term and Short Term) 2. Group Contrast (Endemic and Specific Community) Chapter IV critically examines the entitlement approach with explanations of endowment and exchange. He examines the limitations of entitlement approach. The author seems to be very much aware of this e.g. '....some transfers that include violation of entitlement approach as looting'. The Case Studies cover the- * Bengal Famine of 1943 * Ethiopian famine of 1972-4 * Sahel Drought and Famine of 1968-73 * Famine of Bangladesh in 1974. The case studies chosen are of widely different nature and lend credit to his work. He goes about justifying the entitlement approach both in times of low food availability and adequate food availability. The Bengal famine case has been taken to illustrate the failure of FAD (Food Availability Decline). From the data of Famine Inquiry Commission of 1945, he proves that actually per capita availability rose about 9% form 1941-43. Since rural workers were as a community affected the most, exchange entitlement could have been a reason. The 'class-basis of destitution' further corroborates the food entitlement approach. The causes of sharp movements of exchange entitlements in this case can be briefed as- 1. Printing of currency leading to inflationary pressures 2. Speculation and Hoarding (A typical Keynesian!) 3. 'Indifferent' winter crop 4. Prohibition of cereal export 5. An uneven expansion of income and purchasing power 6. Impoverishment of groups not directly related to food production He further examines the bad policy of Bengal govt. at that time. The policy was largely FAD approach based and believed in merely creating supplies of food in the affected region, which, obviously, did not help much. The critics have strongly challenged the validity of Famine Commission report (Sen too is aware of that) and actually contend that crop availability was less than that reported (a large upward bias). This hits at the root of his analysis as he works on the initial analysis that there was actually a rise in food available. Also, the critics lay claim to inefficiency of PDS used to funnel the food into Bengal. To quote-"...and what was put on the market vanished without a ripple". They further proved that the inflation was pretty much the same throughout India. So why this should have only hit Bengal. Sen has neglected the infrastructural breakdown. The Ethiopian Famine, again, according to him proved the validity of entitlement approach, as there was little price rise of commodities. But in Sahel famine decrease in food availability was the causal factor. Sen analysed region wise food output to declare that the effect of famine was actually lower in food deprived areas. The approach of Sen seems to be of a short-term nature but does, indeed, subtly propose a long-term vision too. The focus of govt. should not only be to concentrate on food availability but as Sen points out towards ensuring no sudden changes in exchange entitlements. He advocates govt. intervention in these situations (Keynesian approach!). The critics who oppose the above may please note that that at no time does he propose to completely eliminate the FAD approach. Rather, in opening lines of Chapter I he says- "Starvation is characteristic of some people not having enough to eat. It is not the characteristic of there being not enough to eat. While the latter can be a cause of the former, it is but one of many possible causes". In conclusion, the book is a must read for everyone. This is a simply written book with lots of conviction and healthy refute of the theories he disposes of.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2003
Ред.: Eleanor Bernert Sheldon, Wilbert E. Moore
New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1968
A foundational work in social indicators research, this compendium of articles looks at changes in the U. S. over time, presenting in-depth discussions on the indicators of social change methods and theories used.

Authors and articles in this book include the following:

Sheldon, Eleanor Bernert and Wilbert E. Moore, "Monitoring social change in American society."

Taeuber, Conrad, "Population: trends and characteristics."

Sametz, A. W., "Production of goods and services: the measurement of economic growth."

Lebergott, Stanley, "Labor force and employment trends."

Bell, Daniel, "The measurement of knowledge and technology."

Mitchell, Joyce M. and William C., "The changing politics of American life."

Goode, William J., "The theory and measurement of family change."

Demerath III, N.J., "Trends and anti-trends in religious change."

Moss, Milton, "Consumption: A report on contemporary issues."

Ennis, Philip H., "The definition and measurement of leisure."

Moriyama, Iwao M., "Problems in the measurement of health status."

Duncan, Beverly, "Trends in output and distribution of schooling."

Duncan, Otis Dudley, "Social stratification and mobility: problems in the measurement of trend."

Merriam, Ida C., "Welfare and its measurement."

Опубликовано на портале: 21-12-2006
Ред.: Bo Sodersten
New-York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, 264 с.
With contributions from leading thinkers such as J. Bhagwati and Robert Solow, this edited collection examines some hotly debated issues in today's world. The significance of globalization and its effects on welfare states is discussed and analyzed. A special chapter is devoted to terrorism, and it is explained why some people are willing to sacrifice their lives to gain 'heavenly goods'. The role of multinationals in the globalization process is examined as is the importance of changing and evolving social norms regarding work and leisure for the survival of today's welfare states.
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Опубликовано на портале: 15-07-2005
James Steel, Colin Sausman
Один из отчетов Национального комитета по изучению проблем высшего образования в Великобритании. Характеризуются показатели вклада выпускников высших учебных заведений в экономику. Коэффициент окупаемости затрат на обучение, который подсчитывается для выпускников вузов, имеет большое значение для планирования развития высшего образования и его финансирования на перспективу.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2007
Brian Steensland
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2007, 330 с.
Today the United States has one of the highest poverty rates among the world's rich industrial democracies. The Failed Welfare Revolution shows us that things might have turned out differently. During the 1960s and 1970s, policymakers in three presidential administrations tried to replace the nation's existing welfare system with a revolutionary program to guarantee Americans basic economic security. Surprisingly from today's vantage point, guaranteed income plans received broad bipartisan support in the 1960s. One proposal, President Nixon's Family Assistance Plan, nearly passed into law in the 1970s, and President Carter advanced a similar bill a few years later. The failure of these proposals marked the federal government's last direct effort to alleviate poverty among the least advantaged and, ironically, sowed the seeds of conservative welfare reform strategies under President Reagan and beyond. This episode has largely vanished from America's collective memory. Here, Brian Steensland tells the whole story for the first time--from why such an unlikely policy idea first developed to the factors that sealed its fate. His account, based on extensive original research in presidential archives, draws on mainstream social science perspectives that emphasize the influence of powerful stakeholder groups and policymaking institutions. But Steensland also shows that some of the most potent obstacles to guaranteed income plans were cultural. Most centrally, by challenging Americans' longstanding distinction between the "deserving" and "undeserving" poor, the plans threatened the nation's cultural, political, and economic status quo.
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Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
Ред.: Dominique van de Walle
USA: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, 248 с.
Queries whether public spending is meeting its objective of improving equity by promoting the redistribution of income, focusing on the meagerness of theoretical and analytic tools to guide policy makers. Contributors report evidence from rich and poor countries on the outcome of spending for education and health, cash transfers, food subsidies, and public employment. Others consider such aspects as the political economy of targeting, measurement tools, and administrative costs.