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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 8


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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Peter Tillack, Eberhard Schulze
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 447-470 с.
The transitional countries have adopted different approaches toward privatizing and restructuring farms. This paper shows that large family farms and agribusinesses may be more efficient than small farms and that the property rights of land and asset owners in Russia and the Ukraine are restricted.

A survey conducted in Novosibirsk province reveals that 78.6 percent of the respondents working in agriculture disapproved of the selling and buying of farmland. Finally, farm and management structures in the transition countries of central and eastern Europe are outlined, and the relative dissimilarity of land distribution is assessed through the use of Gini coefficients
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Richard B. Freeman
Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987, cерия "Handbooks in Economics", vol. 1
The human capital "revolution" of the 1960s and 1970s turned the previously peripheral topic of demand for education into a major area of research for labor economists. Analysis has focused on a variety of questions relating to the role of education in an economy, individual decision-making with respect to demand for education, and social provision of education. At the societal level, the important questions are: What is the contribution of educated labor to national output? What is the substitutability between educated labor and other inputs in production? To what extent does demand for educated labor change with economic development and growth? And, on the wage side: How responsive are educational wage differentials to market conditions? At the level of individual decision-makers the questions are: How well does the economic model of investment in human capital explain individual demands for education and thus the supply of educated labor? How elastic are the supplies of workers to various educational categories? With respect to earnings, we want to know the fraction of the variance in earnings that can be explained by differences in education. Because of the significant public role in education markets, another important question is: What determines public funding for education?

In this chapter I examine the theoretical and empirical findings from the past two or so decades of work on these issues. The chapter shows, I believe, that we have made considerable progress along the paths developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s by T. W. Schultz, G. Becker and others on the economic analysis of demand for education.1 While there are exceptions, the past two decades' work supports the general proposition that economic analysis of rational behavior under specified market and informational conditions goes a long way to understanding the interplay between education and the economy.

The evidence on which this conclusion is based, and the specific findings on the social, individual, market, and public finance questions of concern, are presented in the remainder of this chapter. I begin with the demand for education by the society as a whole, then turn to individual decision-making and wage determination, and conclude with the issues relating to public funding.
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Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
David Lam
Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1997, Volume 1B
This paper surveys a variety of areas in which demographic variables may play an important role in the distribution of income. The first issue considered is the relationship between age structure and inequality, analyzed in Section 2. In addition to its direct importance, the case of age structure is instructive because it demonstrates the need to carefully model the effects of compositional changes when working with measures of dispersion. While compositional effects on measures of dispersion are considerably more complex than compositional effects on means, they often lend themselves to useful analytical decompositions.

Many researchers argue that households, rather than individuals, should be used as the basis for analysis of the distribution of income. Using the household as the unit of analysis introduces a host of demographic issues relating to marriage, fertility, and household living arrangements. Section 3 focuses on the large literature that has analyzed the effects on the distribution of income among married couples of marital sorting and the joint labor supply behavior of husbands and wives. Section 4 extends the analysis beyond married couples to the household, analyzing issues related to the choice of recipient unit and the treatment of family size.

Another important topic with broad applications is the issue of changing population composition due to differential fertility, migration, and mortality by income classes. Section 5 analyzes the effects of differential fertility across income classes on the distribution of income. The analysis includes consideration of the role of intergenerational mobility across income classes.

Section 6 discusses the attention given to the effects of population growth on relative wages by the classical economists and considers theoretical issues in the link between changes in factor supplies and changes in the distribution of income. Empirical evidence on the link between population growth, wages, and inequality in historical and modern populations is briefly surveyed.

Section 7 discusses the substantial changes in wage inequality observed in the US in recent decades, and considers evidence on the role of demographic variables, especially age structure, in those changes. Most research suggests that changes in labor supply associated with the baby boom played a substantial role in some of the changes in relative wages observed in the 1970s and 1980s. The empirical evidence also demonstrates, however, that demographic variables are considerably less important than changes in the structure of labor demand. Section 8 concludes the paper.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-03-2004
Данная публикация представляет нобелевскую лекцию американского экономиста Майрон Шоулз по случаю получения им в 1997 году премии памяти Альфреда Нобеля по экономике за изучение вопросов ценообразования на опционы. В своём докладе автор описывает функционирование финансового рынка в зависимости от изменений внешней среды. Лекция написана простым английским языком и находится в открытом доступе на официальном сайте.
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Опубликовано на портале: 15-08-2007
The paper demonstrates the theatrical model of mass media in the instance a genuine of an actual plot (formation of national identity) in the press of the examined countries. Within the framework of this model of interaction of the mass media, authorities and the public there coexist the practices of “spectacle” and “carnival”. Jan Ekecrantz examines these two forms as the ideally typical models, making distinctions, while our purpose is to check them in real practice, to find principles of their coexistence and osculation using the concrete examples.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-03-2004
Arjun Appadurai
Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Company, 2000, 411 с.
А. Аппадурай на основе сравнительного анализа развития кросс-культурных контактов в более ранние исторические эпохи и на современном этапе делает вывод о том, что сегодня мы живем в принципиально новых условиях сосуществования различных культур. При этом ключевой проблемой современных глобальных взаимодействий он считает столкновение двух противоположно направленных тенденций - культурной гомогенизации (американизации и/или коммодитизации) и культурной гетерогенизации (сохранения культурной самобытности).
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Опубликовано на портале: 01-09-2003
James Michael Poterba
The design of budget rules and institutions, long a neglected area in public finance and macroeconomics, has recently been thrust to center stage by the debate over a balanced budget amendment and other deficit-reduction measures in the United States. This paper describes the existing evidence on how budget rules affect fiscal policy outcomes. It contrasts the `institutional irrelevance view,' which holds that budget rules can be circumvented by modifying accounting practices and changing the nominal timing or other classification of taxes and expenditures, with the `public choice view' in which fiscal institutions represent important constraints on the behavior of political actors. Several distinct strands of empirical evidence, from the U.S. federal experience with anti-deficit rules, from U.S. state experience with balanced budget rules, and from international comparisons of budget outcomes in nations with different fiscal institutions, suggest that fiscal institutions do matter. These results reject the institutional irrelevance view. The existing evidence is not refined enough, however, to provide detailed advice on how narrowly-defined changes in budget rules might affect policy outcomes.

Опубликовано на портале: 27-07-2004
This paper utilizes a unique new dataset of credit card accounts to analyze how people respond to changes in credit supply. The data consist of a panel of thousands of individual credit card accounts from several different card issuers, with associated credit bureau data. We estimate both marginal propensities to consume (MPCs) out of liquidity and interest-rate elasticities. We also evaluate the ability of different models of consumption to rationalize our results, distinguishing the Permanent-Income Hypothesis (PIH), liquidity constraints, precautionary saving, and behavioral models. We find that increases in credit limits generate an immediate and significant rise in debt, counter to the PIH. The average 'MPC out of liquidity' (dDebt/dLimit) ranges between 10%-14%. The MPC is much larger for people starting near their limits, consistent with binding liquidity constraints. However, the MPC is significant even for people starting well below their limit. We show this response is consistent with buffer-stock models of precautionary saving. Nonetheless there are other results that conventional models cannot easily explain, e.g. why so many people are borrowing on their credit cards, and simultaneously holding low yielding assets. Unlike most other studies, we also find strong effects from changes in account-specific interest rates. The long-run elasticity of debt to the interest rate is approximately -1.3. Less than half of this elasticity represents balance-shifting across cards, with most reflecting net changes in total borrowing. The elasticity is larger for decreases in interest rates than for increases, which can explain the widespread use of temporary promotional rates. The elasticity is smaller for people starting near their credit limits, again consistent with liquidity constraints.
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