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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 40

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А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 
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все А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш ЩЭ Ю Я
1 A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P QR S TU V W XYZ
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2003
Austan Goolsbee
2003
This paper shows that tax policy toward investment, by changing the relative prices of capital varieties, can have a direct effect on the quality of capital goods that firms purchase. The empirical results indicate that this impact is economically important and readily apparent in disaggregated data on farming, mining, and construction machinery. The paper also applies a general method for aggregation using index number theory which suggests that all of the investment increase generated by tax subsidies comes from buying higher quality capital goods as opposed to buying a larger number of capital goods. It shows, further, that the supply of capital is upward sloping with an elasticity of about one. The tax induced quality changes documented in the paper imply a tax distortion whose deadweight loss is neglected in the conventional literature but whose magnitude indicates may represent a substantial efficiency cost from capital taxation (or subsidy).

Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2003
Lans Arij Bovenberg, Johan J. Graafland, Ruud A. de Mooij
2003
This paper employs MIMIC, an applied general equilibrium model of the Dutch economy, to explore various tax cuts aimed at combating unemployment and raising labor supply. MIMIC combines modern labor-market theories, a firm empirical foundation detailed description of Dutch labor-market institutions. We develop a small aggregate model which contains the core of MIMIC, namely wage setting, job matching, labor supply demand. In addition to illustrating the main economic mechanisms in MIMIC shows the advantages of employing a larger, more disaggregated model that accounts for heterogeneity, institutional details, and more economic mechanisms. Targeting in-work benefits at the low skilled is the most effective way to cut economy-wide unemployment quality and quantity of labor supply. Cuts in social security contributions paid by employers and subsidies for hiring long-term unemployed reduce unskilled unemployment most substantially. Tax cuts in the higher tax brackets boost the quantity and quality of formal labor supply but are less effective in reducing unemployment and in raising unskilled employment and female labor supply.

Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003
J. Stan Metcalfe
2003
This paper was prepared as a background document for the forthcoming World Industrial Development report for UNIDO in 2001. While the link between technological knowledge and economic development is difficult to unravel, nonetheless, technological disparities play an immensely important role in explaining the diversity of development experience. Here we explore recent advances in the study of innovation processes, viewed through two different lenses, neoclassical and evolutionary theories of the firms. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for innovation policy in developing economies. We conclude that a central task of policy is to create a rich ecology of organisational and institutional support for the absorption of knowledge and the generation of innovative capabilities.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Klaus M. Leisinger
Berlin, 2000
At the beginning of the new millennium, a 150-year-old conceptual skeleton—the “political economy”—is rattling loudly in the closet. Marx described early on in his work that there is a close and circular relationship between the social conditions of a nation and its conditions for production—and consequently the economic development. In this context, institutional structures and social values as well as ways of thinking and attitudes of members of civil society are very important. In the current discussion of agricultural biotechnology for developing countries, this part of the Marxian analysis seems highly relevant, particularly for urban impoverished groups as well as resource-poor farmers and their families. This paper looks at the impact that today’s politicized discussion in Europe is having on public research for the developing world and proposes elements for building a bridge over the troubled waters currently dividing proponents and opponents of agricultural biotechnology.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-12-2003
В 1984 году английский экономист Сэр Ричард Стоун получил премию памяти Альфреда Нобеля по экономике за вклад в развитие систем национального счетоводства и разработку базы для эмпирического экономического анализа. Данная публикация представляет собой его нобелевскую лекцию. В ней автор рассказал основные аспекты теории национальных счетов, включая её историю и роль в экономическом анализе, а также виды и способы построения. Лекция написана простым английским языком. Она находится в открытом доступе на официальном сайте.
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Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002
Morten Huse, Jonas Gabrielsson
2002
Considerable attention has been directed towards corporate governance issues in recent years. There are however various limitations in the international mainstream research on boards of directors. Few studies address research questions beyond investigating the relationship between board composition and company performance. Most research is moreover based on empirical evidence from large publicly held US corporations. This paper summarises the accumulated knowledge from 100 student reports on boards of directors in Scandinavia. The contributions of the reports show the need to explore the influence of various contingencies, and also to take various stakeholder perspectives into account when researching corporate governance and boards of directors. The reports also show the need to go beyond counting only numbers of directors to gain insight into board working structures and relationships between directors and managers. Several advantages compared to the US mainstream research tradition can in this connection be found in Scandinavian research about boards of directors.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
David Card
Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1999, cерия "Handbooks in Economics", vol. 3a
Education plays a central role in modern labor markets. Hundreds of studies in many different countries and time periods have confirmed that better-educated individuals earn higher wages, experience less unemployment, and work in more prestigious occupations than their less-educated counterparts.1 Despite the overwhelming evidence of a positive correlation between education and labor market status, social scientists have been cautious to draw strong inferences about the causal effect of schooling. In the absence of experimental evidence, it is very difficult to know whether the higher earnings observed for better-educated workers are caused by their higher education, or whether individuals with greater earning capacity have chosen to acquire more schooling.

Economists' interest in this issue was stimulated in the late 1950s by growth accounting exercises which found that rising education levels could explain much of post-war US productivity growth, leaving little room for technological change (see, e.g., Becker, 1964; Griliches, 1970). Skeptics noted that this conclusion was only valid if the observed cross-sectional earnings differences between education groups reflected true productivity differentials, rather than inherent ability differences that happened to be correlated with education (e.g., Denison, 1964). The emergence of large-scale microeconomic datasets in the 1960s led to an outpouring of research on education and earnings, much of it focussed on the issue of "ability bias" in the earnings differentials between more- and less-educated workers. In his landmark survey of the 1960s and 1970s literature, Griliches (1977) concluded that such biases were small - potentially even smaller than other biases that lead measured earnings differences to understate the causal effect of education. In his earlier review of the evidence, Becker (1964) had similarly concluded that ability biases were overstated by critics of the human capital paradigm.2 Despite the careful reasoning of these earlier surveys, however, many analysts continue to believe that the measured partial correlation between schooling and earnings significantly overstates the true causal effect of education, and that findings to the contrary are counter-intuitive.
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Опубликовано на портале: 21-03-2004
Данная публикация представляет нобелевскую лекцию американского экономиста Джеймса Бьюкенена по случаю получения им в 1986 году премии памяти Альфреда Нобеля по экономике за исследование договорных и конституциональных основ теории принятия экономических и политических решений. Лекция посвящена рассмотрению основных принципов и правил, по которым должна проводиться экономическая политика; написана она простым английским языком и находится в открытом доступе на официальном сайте.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2003
Martin S. Feldstein
2003
This paper evaluates the welfare gain from achieving price stability and compares it to the cost of the transition. In calculating the gain from price stability, the paper emphasizes the distortions caused by the interaction of inflation and capital income taxes. Because inflation exacerbates the tax distortions that would exist even with price stability, the annual deadweight loss of a two percent inflation rate is a surprisingly large one percent of GDP. Since the real gain from shifting to price stability grows in perpetuity at the rate of growth of GDP, its present value is a substantial multiple of this annual gain. Discounting the annual gains at the rate that investors require for risky equity investments (i.e., at the 5.1 percent real net-of-tax rate of return on the Standard and Poors portfolio of equities from 1970 to 1994) implies a present value gain equal to more than 35 percent of the initial level of GDP. Since the estimated cost of shifting from two percent inflation to price stability is about five percent of GDP, the gain substantially outweighs the cost of transition.

Опубликовано на портале: 05-12-2003
В 1979 году американский экономист Теодор Шульц получил премию памяти Альфреда Нобеля по экономике новаторские исследования экономического развития в приложении к проблемам развивающихся стран. Данная публикация представляет собой его нобелевскую лекцию; в ней автор подробно останавливается на различных вариантах решения проблем бедности в современной экономике. Лекция написана простым английским языком. Она находится в открытом доступе на официальном сайте.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Ред.: Clive R. Belfield, Henry M. Levin
2003, 736 с.
Сборник научных статей по экономике образования
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: John M. Antle, Vincent H. Smith
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000, 300 с.
В книге анализируется современная ситуация на рынке пшеницы, основные страны экспортёры и импортёры, даётся прогноз развития международного рынка. Авторы уделяют внимание таким странам, как Россия и Китай, чья роль на мировом рынке пшеницы значительно изменилась за последнее время. Анализируются и стратегии традиционных экспортёров пшеницы на мировом рынке - США, ЕС, Канады, Аргентины и Австралии. Поведение и развитие рынка пшеницы рассматривается через призму международных торговых соглашений. Под редакцией Д.Антл и В.Смит.

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: Pranab Bardhan
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992, 416 с.
These specially commissioned essays apply new analytical methods to study the origins, maintenance, and adaptation of agrarian institutions in a variety of regions and cultures.

Книга представляет собой сборник эссе, написанных ведущими экономистами (Д.Стиглиц, Л.Путтерман, Т.Сринивасан, Х.Бинсвангер, Д.Ньюбери) в области развития институтов в аграрном секторе. Авторами предлагаются методы анализа для изучения причин, поддержки работы и адаптации аграрных институтов применительно к разным регионам и культурам. Под редакцией П. Бардхан. Книга может быть использована при изучении курсов: «Международное сельское хозяйство», «Международное сельскохозяйственное развитие», «Экономика развития», «Институциональная экономика».
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Опубликовано на портале: 21-03-2004
Данная публикация представляет нобелевскую лекцию американского экономиста Гэри Стэнли Беккера по случаю получения им в 1992 году премии памяти Альфреда Нобеля по экономике за расширение области применения микроэкономического анализа к широкому кругу проблем человеческого поведения и взаимодействия, включая поведение вне рыночной сферы. В лекции автор пытается описать жизнедеятельность индивида, используя экономические модели. Сообщение написано простым английским языком и находится в открытом доступе на официальном сайте "Премии".
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Michael Kopsidis
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 221-238 с.
Regional grain production in the Russian Federation has developed in a number of different ways over the last years. The same is true for grain marketing. Not only the prices on local markets but also those in the nation-wide grain trade seem to be at least strongly influenced by regional authorities.

However, it is very likely that only a small part of the grain trade is exchanged interregionally. The growing independence of the Russian Federation’s political subjects seems to be primarily responsible for regional differences concerning grain production and marketing. The 1998 economic crisis is likely to obstruct the development of an efficient domestic grain market further.
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