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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 25

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Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D EF G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 13-01-2004
Daniel Berkowitz, David N. DeJong
Berlin, 2000
In previous work BERKOWITZ and DEJONG, used regional commodity-price data covering the period 1993-96 to document the existence of an internal economic border that divides Russia into two distinct economic regions: the ‘Red Belt’ and the ‘rest of Russia’. The Red Belt represents a group of regions that have broadly resisted the implementation of federally initiated market reforms. Here, we extend this work by quantifying two economic implications of this internal border. First, we show that the Red-Belt border has limited the transmission of price signals to regions within the Red Belt. Second, we show that regions within the Red Belt have experienced extremely poor growth performances relative to Russia as a whole.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jikun Huang, Ruifa Hu, Hans van Meijl, Frank van Tongeren
2003
China has made a major investment in biotechnology research. Genetically modified (GM) cotton is widely adopted and the list of GM technologies in trials is impressive. At the same time there is an active debate on when China should commercialize its GM food crops. The overall goal of this paper is to provide an economy-wide assessment of these issues under various scenarios. Based on a unique data from empirical micro-level study and field trial in China and a modified GTAP model, our results indicate that the development of biotechnology has an important impact on China.s production, trade and welfare. Welfare gains far outweigh the public biotechnology research expenditures. Most gains occur inside China. Policy makers should put less weight on the international dimension in making their decisions on biotechnology development.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Melinda Smale
Berlin, 2000
This paper organizes evidence on the problem of in situ conservation for rice, wheat, and maize around the decision-making criterion of the minimum viable reserve (Krutilla, 1967). Put simply, Krutilla argued that while technological change can compensate for the depletion of some stocks, amenities that members of post-industrial society (and developing societies) consume may be lost. Acknowledging that too little was known about the instrumental variables in this dynamic problem, he recommended the identification, based on scientific assessments, of a minimum reserve. He argued that these reservations should meet not only scientific purposes but also the demand for “esoteric” or recreational consumer tastes, such as the enjoyment of the existence of a grand scenic wonder. Similarly, though modern biological techniques can in some instances modify the size of the crop genetic resource stock, proponents of in situ conservation of cultivated crops would argue that certain alleles may be lost as the spatial pattern of crop varieties grown in the fields of the world’s farmers changes with economic development. Furthermore, some food-related amenities around which culture is now defined in local communities and “esoteric” (luxury) food attributes for which consumers in post-industrial societies could eventually be willing to pay may also disappear.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Bahaeddin Najafi, Mohammad Bakhshoodeh
2002
To evaluate the government intervention effects on growth of rice production in Iran, the nominal protective rate was calculated and a Nerlove supply model was applied to a time series of 1983- 1998. The results showed that in the majority of these years, producers has not been supported and therefore, redirecting the rice market is recommended. In order to get more efficient approach than the government intervention, diminishing the share of the government in the market and strengthening the private sector may be listed on the top of a list that could be regarded as a plan for making rice production profitable.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Laszlo Karpati, Zsolt Csapo, Laszlo Kozar
2002
The change of the political Hungarian regime in 1990 affected deeply the economy of the country. This change made effects in each national branch, thus in the agriculture, as well. A lot of new companies dealing with agricultural production and trading has also been established in these years. Since the early ‘90s a lot of EU support programmes were available targeting these enterprises and providing them to strengthen their competitiveness. One of these programmes was the PHARE IPP Project for the subsidisation of the agricultural investments (between 1996-1998). The University of Debrecen was involved in the implementation, monitoring and assessment process of this project. Based on the results and suggestions of the university, new supporting elements have been built into the subsidisation programme of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development in the recent years, further enhancing the position of Hungarian farms before joining to the EU.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
John Helming, Jack Peerlings
Durban, 2003
A modelling system is presented and used to analyse the effects of EU dairy policy reform (Agenda 2000 and milk quota abolition with and without decoupled direct income payments) on Dutch agriculture and economy. The modelling system consists of a regionalised, agri-environmental, partial equilibrium, mathematical programming model of agriculture supply in the Netherlands integrated into a mixed input- output model. It was e.g. found that decoupling of direct income payments gives an extra stimulus to milk production after milk quota abolition. However, the increase in milk production is restricted by nutrient and manure policies in the Netherlands. It is also found that, although the total effect on Dutch GDP is limited, the income effects for individual industries can be large. Moreover, economy wide effects for non- agricultural industries exceed changes for agriculture.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Rafaela Dios Palomares, Jose Miguel Martinez Paz
Zaragoza, 2002
This study investigated the efficiency and productivity change of a sample of food distribution units (MERCAs) in Spain over the 1.997-1.999 period, applying non-parametric frontier methodology in a sales efficiency framework. We specified a mean sales model composed of two blocks of variables, the production block, and the marketing management block. Then we applied output oriented DEA methodology to perform the efficiency analysis, also taking into account the overall efficiency decomposition into pure and scale efficiency. The Malmquist index was calculated in order to analyse the components of the productivity change.

The mean pure sales efficiency index was high, around 0.8, the mean scale index being 0,9. As appears from the results, six food distribution units were efficient, but some of the wholesale markets need to adapt their sales technology in order that their input bundle reaches a Most Productive Scale Size unit.

We found no evidence of technical change during the period considered, but concluded that a notable scale efficiency change took place during the studied period.

To summarise, we conclude that improvement in sales efficiency could be reached in the studied sector in both the pure and the scale efficiency.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Cristina Brasili
2003
In the course of the past decades major transformations in the Italian food industry induced considerable structural changes: on one hand, the creation of large industrial groups, with substantial input of foreign capital and, on the other, the concentration and geographic specialisation of numerous small and medium enterprises, with the formation of specific and typical agri-food local system(districts).To take account of the presence of food districts the analysis of the Italian food industry could not be conducted at national and regional level but it has to be studied at province and local level. It is also useful to analyse the food industry with reference to the different sub-sectors.

We will conduct an in-depth analysis of the local systems(districts) of two sectors meat and fruit and vegetables processing. We will use balance-sheet data of the processing firms that were active in the meat (446 firms) and fruit and vegetables (227 firms) sub-sector in the years from 1996 to 1999. The analysis will consider the most significant balance sheet ratios, such as returns, productivity and labour cost in these local systems. Then, we will consider the economic assessment of the firms belonging to local systems of the two sectors and compare with the non district firms .For the efficiency analysis will estimate a stochastic frontier production function in order to determine the ‘district effect’. This analysis will also be directly correlated with investment in technological innovation. The economic and efficiency analysis confirms for many aspects the presence of a ‘district effect’ in the Italian food industry.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Irene Tzouramani, Konstadinos Mattas
2002
Latest developments in investment analysis offer a number of valuable insights into how to evaluate investment opportunities encountering the weaknesses of net present value criterion. More specific, irreversibility, uncertainty and the choice of timing are conditions that net present value does not include but they alter the investment decision in critical way. Employing contingent claims analysis in tangible investments several assumptions made by discount cash flow method are concerned and better assessment results can be derived. In this work, an attempt is made to apply real options methodology in agricultural investments. Many agricultural investors face a growing uncertainty environment with high sunk investments and net present value criterion has been extensively used that may be lead to incorrect decisions. Both discount cash flow method and real options approach are employed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new technology project under uncertainty returns in agriculture. Discount cash flow approach indicates that the adoption of a new technology project under uncertainty is feasible while real options approach differentiates the results. The corollary is that real options approach can be proved conducive in assessing projects with uncertainty and irreversibility and it can furnish a new way of examining agricultural investment decisions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Irene Tzouramani, Konstadinos Mattas
2004
New policy measures have studied and introduced to transform Europe’s agriculture into a more environmental friendly agriculture. Adopting environmental friendly production systems involves risk and uncertainty and to overcome this well designed policy schemes are required. This study attempts to examine the effects of income variability upon the decision on adopting or not environmental friendly production systems in order to evaluate the organic financial incentives to farmers by introducing the real options methodology. The real options procedure revealed that the investment in environmental friendly production systems must be postponed and the option of investment must be kept alive until the expected returns are high enough to offset the risk and uncertainty. Therefore, policy makers have to reconsider the current financial incentives if they want faster adoption of sustainable production systems.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Markus Lips, Peter Rieder
2002
This paper discusses an approach to implement output quotas in the GTAP model which permits an endogenous adjustment of both the supplied quantity and the quota rent. Since the quota rent is interpreted as additional earnings of the factors used no change of the worldwide GTAP data base is required. Several modifications of the GTAP model and two exogenous coefficients are necessary. Considering uncertain values of one of the coefficients, systematic sensitivity analysis is applied. The abolishment of the raw milk quota in the European Union would lead to a remarkable decrease in raw milk prices in most member countries. The raw milk production increases in Denmark, Ireland, Luxembourg and the Netherlands while it declines in Greece and Portugal. In the other member countries the raw milk production changes slightly.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Emilio Galdeano Gomez, Jose Cespedes Lorente, Manuel Rodrigues
2002
This paper analyses the effect of environmental and quality improvement practices on the value added of the fruit and vegetable sector. These practices form part of the incentive-based programmes established by the Common Agricultural Policy. Taking the investment in quality-environmental activities as knowledge capital, we propose a specific analysis that evaluates the effect of the factors of the production function and of the current subsidies over the value added. In general, the share of qualityenvironmental activities in the rise of the product's market value is quite high. The analysis reflects that the expenditure on these activities is still higher than their benefit, and that the current subsidies can hardly be considered encouraging factors for the development of the above-mentioned practices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Carlo Russo, Massimo Sabbatini
2002
In this paper, equity management practices of Italian agricultural cooperatives are described and discussed. Financial statements of 1.483 cooperatives are analyzed in order to provide empirical support to the study. Data confirm cooperative undercapitalization and disclose the existence of diversity in equity management practices even within the same business sector. Thus, in order to highlight the relations between cooperative market strategies and equity management practices a cluster analysis is proposed. Seven main strategic approaches for Italian cooperatives are identified and the emerging equity management practices are discussed. The empirical analysis supports the conclusion that a large number of Italian are implementing “perverse” approaches, such as dependence from public funding and minimization of equity and investments. Considering increasing competition, without an innovative equity management approach, the majority of the analyzed cooperative is expected to suffer of relevant competitive disadvantage.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
G.R. Griffith, R.J. Farquharson, S.A. Barwick, R.G. Banks, W.E. Holmes
2003
This study aimed at estimating the costs and benefits of all beef cattle genetic improvement activity, across Australia, over the period 1970 to the present. The total cumulative Present Value (PV) of investments by industry, government and other agencies into selection, crossbreeding and grading up since 1963, and of imported genetics, was estimated to be $340m (in $2001 at a 7% discount rate). Using a suite of genetic evaluation models, farming systems models and an industry-level model, the cumulative PV of industry returns were estimated. Within-breed selection generated $944m; crossbreeding in southern Australia $255m; changing breed composition in southern Australia $62m; and changing breed composition in northern Australia $8.1bn. The benefit/cost ratio for this investment was 28:1 over the last 30 years.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Martin Kapfer, Jochen Kantelhardt, Elizabeth Osinski
2003
In comparison to large-scale natural landscapes separated from extensively used agricultural production landscapes in North America or Australia, German and Central Europe landscapes are all characterised by predominantly agricultural landscapes with few “rests of nature”. Due to the high population density, different types of land users demand different functions of the landscape. In addition to food production, there is a high demand for protection of cultural heritage by caring for e.g. hedgerows in the landscape. The aim of this study was to estimate the costs arising from the maintenance of landscape elements in landscapes situated on land with different site conditions. As an example, the distribution of hedgerows on sites of varying agricultural quality were considered. The calculations were undertaken on the entire area of Baden- Wuerttemberg in Southwest Germany, comprising various administrative districts. The association between ecological and economic information was analysed statistically and with the help of GIS. The results indicate that the costs for landscape element protection differ within the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg and that there is a lot of economic pressure against hedgerow biotopes existing in certain districts. Measures for protection such as agri-environmental programmes should consider the different landscape-dependent costs.
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