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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 21

Книги

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL MN O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
David Vanzetti, Ralf Peters
2003
Proposals for agricultural trade reform put forward by the main protagonists remain far apart, with little sign of convergence. In an attempt to progress the negotiations towards a successful outcome, the chairman of the WTO Committee on Agriculture has proposed a compromise. The alternative proposals by the United States, the European Union and the WTO are analysed with the Agricultural Trade Policy Simulation Model, a static, multi-commodity, multi-region, partial equilibrium trade model. The estimated annual global welfare gains are $26 billion, $12 billion and $17 billion respectively. Least developed countries, as a group, gain from the US proposal but are made worse off under the WTO and EU proposals. Furthermore, in the best case many individual countries experience welfare losses. However, all countries enjoy increased export revenues and tariff revenues hold up quite well under the two less stringent proposals.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
John Sumelius, Zoran Grgic, Milan Mesic, Ramona Franic
Durban, 2003
The aim of this paper is to identify optional ways of preventing NO3-levels from rising within Croatian farming systems, and the implications from the viewpoint of the manager. More specifically, the purpose is to

1) Determine whether Croatian farmers exceed profit maximising levels of N-fertiliser use in maize cultivation, and its possible influence on NO3-N-levels.

2) To estimate the marginal abatement cost (MAC), at the farm level, of reducing NO3-N leaching through the following instruments: a tax on optimal N-doses, a product tax and an N-fertiliser quota and a requirement for all instruments to correspond to the same abatement level.

Based on N-response experiment from feld trial for maize N-response curves were estimated. A sample of 20 family farms was used for calculating intensity, nutrient content in manure, and the prices paid for N and obtained for maize. Profit maximising doses from the field trials were compared with the use of nutrients on farms. An effluent production function was estimated based on experiments with NO3-N contents in lysimeter water for the same treatment levels as those in the N-response experiments. The results indicate that farmers use higher than optimal levels of N-fertilisers, if the manure is fully accounted for. In this case the estimated NO3-N/l level in groundwater is 162-192 % higher than the critical level stipulated by the Nitrate Directive. Neglecting the N-content in manure shows close to profit maximising nutrient levels . At this fertlising level the estimated NO3/l is approximately 62 mg NO3/l or clearly higher that the critical level stipulated by the nitrate directive (50 mg NO3/l). Through any of the three instruments a 76% NO3-leaching reduction could be obtained. It was concluded, however, that the quota has the lowest MAC (0.92 euro/mg NO3/l), followed by the N-fertiliser tax (3.65 euro/mg NO3/l), and the product tax comes in third place (9.32 euro/mg NO3/l). Management practices that may increase yield levels, and correspondingly NO3-leaching in the short and long run, were also identified. One way to achieve a quick improvement might be a system of cross compliance, stipulating a code of good agricultural practices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: Vittorio Santaniello, David Zilberman, Robert Evenson
2002, 368 с.
Книга представляет собой сборник работ, представленных на конференции, организованной Международным консорциумом по исследованиям биотехнологий в сельском хозяйстве (The International Consortium on Agricultural Biotechnology Research) в Равелло, Италия, 2000г. Тематика исследований является актуальной и широко обсуждаемой на мировом уровне – производство и потребление генетически-модифицированной продукции (ГМП). Основные части книги – отношения потребителя на информацию о ГМП, вопросы государственного регулирования, отношения фермеров к генетически-модифицированному сырью, изменения в промышленной организации наук и продовольственных секторах.

Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Karl M. Ortner
2004
The evaluation of rural development programs in the EU should provide information on the implementation and impacts of EAGGF co-financed programs in accordance with Council Regulation (EC) Nr. 1257/1999, help to re-orient existing programs in terms of their goals and budget allocation in order to improve the administration, implementation and the achievements of their targets. This presents an overview of mi-term evaluation results of measures to improve marketing of agricultural quality products in Austria. They are offered in the rural areas of all federal states and received 2.4 Mio. € of public assistance in the years 2000 to 2002; 179 projects were approved during that period. The effects of the measures undertaken were estimated according to the guidelines of the European Commission, DG AGRI, on the basis of monitoring data collected at the application stage and data from a questionnaire. The results are discussed with a view to isolate indicators which would allow for an unambiguous ranking of programs.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Ludwig H. Lauwers, Guido Van Huylenbroeck
Durban, 2003
A new method for analysing environmental efficiency, based on the materials balance, is proposed. With this method, an environmental allocative efficiency measure can be defined analogously to the more commonly used economic allocative efficiency. Nutrient surplus in pig fattening, a typical balance indicator, is used to illustrate the concept in a two input - one output case. The materials balance based efficiency analysis is elaborated using data envelopment analysis (DEA). Results are compared with those of more common, merely input or output oriented DEA approaches. A main conclusion is that, ignoring the balance feature of environmental issues such as nutrient surplus might be a main reason why traditional integral analyses of economic and environmental efficiency yield contradictory conclusions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
J. Meyer
2003
Applied econometric analyses of market integration based on price data alone have been criticised, because they neglect the role of transaction costs. To meet this objection threshold vector error correction models are used. Threshold models can account for the effects of transaction costs in price transmission without directly relying upon information about these costs, which are often unavailable. Results from threshold models that are based on two thresholds provide results that are economically more intuitive than those obtained from one threshold models. However there is no adequate econometric test for threshold significance in a two- threshold model available so far; such tests are only available for the one threshold model. In this paper a restricted two-threshold model is developed in which the significance of the thresholds can be tested. This model is therefore amenable to economic interpretation and statistical inference. This model is used to estimate market integration on the European pig market.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Alessandro Corsi, Silvia Novelli
Durban, 2003
In this paper, models for estimating the maximum price consumers are willing to pay (MPWTP) for organic beef meat, and the maximum quantity-constrained price (i.e., when buying the same quantity they bought of regular meat) consumers are willing to pay (MQCP), are presented. To this purpose, the relevant theoretical and econometric approaches are presented, based on the RUM model and on a Contingent Valuation technique.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2003
Arega D. Alene, Rashid M. Hassan
Durban, 2003
This paper employed a robust stochastic efficiency decomposition technique that accounts for scale effects to derive the technical, allocative, and overall productive efficiency of two samples of farmers, participants and non-participants in the New Extension Program (NEP), in two agro-climatic zones in eastern Ethiopia. Using data for the 2001/2002 agricultural year, we find that both groups of farmers in the two zones have considerable overall productive inefficiencies. In the wet highlands, although the participants in NEP used a superior technology and have higher technical efficiencies, their allocative efficiencies turned out to be lower than the non-participant farmers, relative to their respective technologies. However, both groups exhibit similar productive efficiencies. In the dry lands, apart from using homogeneous production technologies, the two groups do not have significantly different technical and allocative efficiencies and that they have similar productive efficiencies.

Therefore, we find no empirical evidence of a positive impact of NEP on overall productive efficiency in both agro-climatic zones. An investigation of the influence of several socioeconomic and institutional factors revealed that education, credit, previous participation in extension programs, off-farm income and the share of the leading cropping system have a positive impact on efficiency.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Takashi Yamano, T. S. Jayne
Durban, 2003
Using a two-year panel of 1,422 Kenyan households surveyed in 1997 and 2000, we measure how working age adult mortality affects rural households’ size and composition, crop production, asset levels, and off-farm income. First, the paper uses adult mortality rates from available data on an HIV-negative sample to predict the proportion of deaths observed between 1997 and 2000 due to AIDS. Next, using a difference-indifferences estimation, we measure changes in outcomes between households afflicted by adult mortality vs. those not afflicted over the three-year survey period. The effects of adult mortality are highly sensitive to the gender and position of the deceased family member in the household. Households suffering the death of the head-of-household or spouse incurred a greater-than-one person loss in household size. The death of a male head-of-household between 16 and 59 years is associated with a 68% reduction in the net value of the household’s crop production. Female head-of-household or spouse mortality causes a greater decline in cereal area cultivated, while cash crops such as coffee, tea, and sugar are most adversely affected in households incurring the death of a male head-of-household. Off-farm income is also significantly affected by the death of the male head-of-household, but not in the case of other adult members. The death of other working-age family members is partially offset by an inflow of other individuals into the family and has less dramatic effects on the households’ agricultural production, assets, and off-farm income. The effects of adult mortality are also sensitive to the household’s initial asset levels. Lastly, there is little indication that households are able to recover quickly from the effects of working-age head-of-household adult mortality; the effects on crop and non-farm incomes do not decay at least over the three-year survey interval.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Catherine Benjamin, Isabelle Piot
2002
The European Union beef market regulation is largely influenced by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). With the 1992 CAP reform, there was a partial shift by the EU from product price support to a more direct form of income support by way of direct payments. For beef there was a move to direct payments on intermediate products which was essentially a direct payment for the possession of various categories of animals and these were linked to a land resource base. The Agenda 2000 reform consists in a further price decrease associated with an increase in direct payments. The objective of this paper is to assess how the behaviour of beef producers is sensitive to changes in production prices and to changes in premiums. The analysis relies on an analytical framework which allows to take into account the dynamic feature of beef production and the subsidies provided by the Common Agricultural Policy. We studys how the beef supply response is modified when various exogenous variables like prices or premiums are changed. The application focuses on the dynamics of beef supply response in the French beef sector.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Karin Eckstein, Helmut Hoffmann, Jutta Gloeggler
2004
In the context of the mid-term evaluation of rural development programmes (EU regulation 1257/99) the Bavarian agri-environmental programme, the so-called Kulturlandschaftsprogramm Part A” (KULAP-A), was evaluated. By means of this programme, only agricultural land related measures are supported. The measures may refer to the whole agricultural enterprise, parts of it or the individual plot. The guideline of the EU-commission demand analysis about the effects of the programme on biotic and abiotic environmental resources such as soil, water, species and their habitat and landscape. This paper focuses on the results concerning the protection of soil erosion and water contamination. For this, statistical data corresponding the supported measures were analysed. Additionally a survey of farmers participating and non-participating at the programme was conducted. In this study the dead-weight-effect is discussed as an effect which can be excluded in cases when: due to the programme an intensification of management is prevented, a low intensive management is reached or the abandonment of farming could at least be delayed.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Caroline Saunders, Anita Wreford
Durban, 2003
This paper focuses on the impact of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) on agricultural trade. In particular, the paper assesses the impact on New Zealand (NZ), which is highly reliant on agricultural trade, with a high percentage of its total GHG emissions are originating in the agricultural sector. The paper also analyses the impact of mitigation strategies in the European Union (EU), which has a low proportion of GHG coming from agriculture, a highly protected agriculture sector, and is a major market and competitor for NZ. Results from a partial equilibrium trade model, the LTEM, show clearly that while these mitigation strategies achieve the goal of GHG reduction, producer returns are also negatively affected. The value of these changes in emissions are then calculated, based on US$15/tonne of carbon dioxide (CO2), and producer returns adjusted for this. Although this value of CO2 goes some way towards offsetting the reduction in producer returns, it would need to be considerably greater in order to provide any significant compensation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Thia Hennessy
2002
This paper examines intergenerational succession on Irish dairy farms. The factors that influence the decision to enter dairying farming are examined using a binary choice logit model. Reasons that are frequently published in the popular farming press as being an obstacle to intergenerational succession are analysed and the significance of their effect is quantified. Results show that the level of education of the heir is the most significant factor in the succession decision. Heir’s with third level education are 30% less likely to enter dairy farming than their second level only educated counterparts. The sizes of milk quota and income that are associated with high probabilities of succession are identified.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Javier Calatrava-Leyva, Alberto Garrido
2002
Water availability in semiarid regions usually exhibits patterns of extreme variability. Even in intensively controlled basins, some users are subject to low levels of water reliability, and more vulnerable to periods of extreme scarcity. To reduce their risk exposure more flexible instruments, such as voluntary exchanges of water among users, are required. Recent changes in the Spanish water Law have given an initial impulse to allow for leases of water use rights. Properly designed and monitored, this instrument provides some flexibility to water management, and may increase the economic use efficiency as well as mitigate the adverse economic effects of droughts.

This paper looks at the risks and uncertainty dimensions of water markets, which have not been paid much attention in the literature. It analyses, from theoretical and empirical standpoints, the role that uncertainty plays in market participants’ decisions and its impact on gains from trade. Two models have been developed to carry out the empirical application. One is a stochastic and two-stage discreet programming model which simulates irrigators behaviour and the other is a spatial equilibrium model to compute market exchange and equilibrium. Water market price endogeneity is solved by an iterative process, which characterise price uncertainty from the results obtained from the spatial equilibrium model. Hydrological risk is characterised at the irrigation farm level through the variation of the water allowances served for irrigation. The application is performed on eleven irrigated farms in a district of the Guadalquivir Valley (Southern Spain). It is shown how water availability uncertainty reduces farmers’ benefits because of the fact that they must take ex – ante decisions. However, if market participation is allowed once water allowances become known, even at an uncertain price, the benefit losses are partly mitigated. From a methodological standpoint, these results suggest that the agricultural water market benefits estimates found in the literature may be undervalued as a result of omitting the option to participate in the market in the mix of possible strategies. Exchanging water in annual spot markets allows for the reduction of farmers’ economic vulnerability caused by the variability and uncertainty of water supply within an irrigation season.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Paul Diederen, Hans van Meijl, Arjan Wolters
2002
This paper addresses the question which factors influence a farmer in deciding to adopt an innovation. We differentiate between innovations that are new to the farmer, but already well established in the sector, innovations that are early in their process of diffusion, and innovations that are new to the farmer’s sector. We use an ordered probit approach to relate adoption behaviour to variables that capture characteristics of the farm (labour and financial resources and market position), of the business environment of the farm (type of production and market, degree of regulation) and of the farmer (access to information, capabilities, preferences). We use data on 865 Dutch farms and find that innovation adoption is positively related to labour resources, market position, access to information and past adoption behaviour, and negatively to solvency and the degree of market regulation.
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