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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 16

Книги

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q RS T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Dwijen Rangnekar
2002
Plant breeders face a unique appropriation problem – plants are reproducible, genetic information is heritable and seeds can be multiplied. The paper uses indicators of varietal age as a proxy for durability to examine strategies of planned obsolescence. Using wheat breeding in the UK, evidence of strategies of planned obsolescence is confirmed. This is then corroborated with evidence of tendencies towards increased proliferation of varieties on the market and breeding strategies that focus on incremental productivity improvements (i.e. increased efficiency) and narrow and limited disease resistance (i.e. reduced durability).
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Julian M. Alston, Philip G. Pardey
Berlin, 2000
Estimated rates of return to research are distorted by problems of attributing the credit for particular research results, or for particular research-induced productivity increases, to research expenditures undertaken at different times, in different places, and by different agencies. A comprehensive assessment of the evidence from past economic evaluations of the returns to agricultural R&D indicates that studies generally report high rates of return, with enormous variation among studies, but that much of this evidence has been tainted by inadequate attention to attribution problems. br>
This paper raises these concerns in a general way, and illustrates their importance with reference to two particular types of attribution problem. First, we consider the problem of accounting for locational spillovers in attributing varietal improvement technology among research performers, using U.S. wheat varieties as an example. Second, we consider the temporal aspects of the attribution problem using the specification of research lags in econometric models to illustrate the problem of attributing aggregate productivity gains to research expenditures at different times.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Julian Binfield, Patrick Westhoff, Robert Young
Durban, 2003
In the Mid-Term Review (MTR), the European Commission proposed a series of changes to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). An important part of these changes was significant decoupling of support payments from production. In this paper, a partial equilibrium model of the EU agricultural sector is used to estimate the potential impacts of the MTR proposals on EU and world agricultural markets over the period 2004-2009. Effects of the MTR proposals are evaluated by comparing estimated outcomes under the proposals to those that would result under a current-policy baseline. The changes that are made in the MTR have the effect of reducing the production of the major commodities by varying amounts based on the importance of payments in production and the degree to which these payments are currently production inducing. For example, total area harvested for nine major crops falls by about 2 percent under the MTR proposals. In the livestock sector, however, where current payments are strongly coupled and form a large part of producers’ income, the reductions in production are projected to be more significant.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Soren E. Frandsen, Hans G. Jensen
2002
This article presents and analyses the impacts of the EU sugar policy. Particular attention is given to the modelling of the quite complex policy and the calibration of the global general equilibrium model at the member state level. Two scenarios are analysed, namely a reduction in the intervention price of sugar and the sugar quota. It is found that the economic impacts of the two scenarios are quite different in terms of the effects on European production and trade in sugar as well in terms of efficiency. The impacts for developing countries also differ considerably across the two scenarios.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Berit Hasler, Martin Andersen
Zaragoza, 2002
This paper addresses the combination of environmental regulation and rural development using an integrated economic modelling approach. Specifically, the regional impacts of regulating livestock density at the farm level are analysed in a projected 2010 setting. This scenario is motivated by a concern for nitrogen loads on ground and surface water. The applied model framework includes a macroeconomic CGE-model, an econometric agricultural sector model and a local economic model, and consistent links have been established between these models. The analyses show that the largest relative economic impacts occur in the western parts of Denmark. This occurs in the agricultural sector, because the highest livestock densities are found in the western regions, but also at the general economic level, because agriculture is relatively important for the regional economy in these regions. However, the maximum absolute economic impact on the regional economies in terms of regional GDP is only around one per cent in the most affected region.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Ann-Christin Sorensen, Berit Tennbakk
2002
We have employed a simple model to analyse market regulation in a situation with multifunctional agricultural production, i.e., a public good produced jointly with a private good, and where there is imperfect competition in processing. We have analysed the impact on welfare of two archetype regulatory institutions formed to overcome the market imperfections. The institutions, a Regulatory Marketing Board and a Regulatory Marketing Cooperative, are both represented in the Norwegian agricultural market. Taking into account the cost of public funds, we find that the Board in general ensures the highest social welfare. The Cooperative does not replicate the Board solution unless restricted by a price cap and in combination with a production subsidy. If the restricted Cooperative is able to practise a higher degree of cost sharing than the Board, it may however produce the highest welfare.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jens-Peter Loy
2002
The paper aims at analyzing the potentials for reducing income risk and income variation for slaughter hog producers in Germany and Holland by participating at futures markets in Amsterdam or Hannover. The relative market and hedging efficiency for the Amsterdam stock exchange markets is tested and the optimal hedge ratio is derived for minimizing risk and variance of slaughter hog gross margins (income). Relative market efficiency and a significant impact of hedging on income risk and variance can not be rejected. The results show that the optimal hedge ratio is smaller for variance compared to risk minimizing hedging strategy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Henry W. Kinnucan, Oystein Myrland
Zaragoza, 2002
An agreement between Norway and the European Commission specifies an increase in the export tax on Norwegian salmon entering EU markets from 0.75% to 3.00% effective 1 July 1997. Further, Norway’s exports are subject to a price floor and quantity ceiling, neither of which were binding over the evaluation period. Since the tax’s proceeds are to be used by Norway to fund generic marketing of Atlantic salmon, it is possible that the agreement is winwin, i.e., benefits United Kingdom and Norwegian producers alike. To test this, we use an equilibrium displacement model to estimate the agreement’s effects on prices, trade flows, and producer welfare. Results based on data through 1999 suggest the agreement is indeed win-win, but that currency realignments and feed quota policy can easily neutralize or obscure the effects.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Jens-Peter Loy, Robert D. Weaver
Durban, 2003
Retail pricing strategies incorporate promotions, sales, and rigidities. A number of models have been proposed in particular to explain the occurrence of sales. Focussing on the market for fresh foods the model by Varian and the loss leader argument seem to be intuitively best fitting to the conditions in the fresh food market.

From these models we derive several hypotheses that are tested for a unique data set of the German fresh food retail market. The data set consists of weekly prices for ten food items in 131 grocery shops over the period from 1995 to 2000. Following Varian sales should lead to reduced expenditures, while the loss leader argument assumes that consumers are lured into the shop by promotional sales which are covered by higher prices for other products. The results indicate that expenditures decrease with the number of sales in the short run but this effect is outweighed by a dynamic price adjustment thereafter.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Maria Bielza, Alberto Garrido, Jose M. Sumpsi
2002
Various forms of revenue insurance have been applied in Canada and in the US with relative success. In this paper different combinations of traditional agricultural policies and revenue and yield insurance are analysed for the Spanish olive oil sector. Taking a database containing about half million Spanish olive growers during 8 campaigns, five possible policies are studied and the results are examined according to different criteria including average revenue and its variability, growers utility gains, taxpayers cost and the transfer efficiency of support. The policies analysed are:
(1) non-intervention;
(2) the policy currently in force in Spain that combines a production aid with a yield insurance;
(3) a revenue insurance, only;
(4) revenue insurance combined with a production aid; and
(5) an aid per tree in combination with revenue insurance.

The methodology is based on Monte-Carlo simulations performed on about 100 groups of growers that have been grouped according to their expected yields and variability. Assuming and estimating olive oil price and yields correlations for each group of growers, the analysis allows for consistent policy comparisons at a very disaggregate level. Using the results for all analysed groups, policies are ranked based on the above criteria at the provincial and national levels. Results show that the current regime of EU production aids of olive oil eliminates the advantage of extending the current yield insurance to a revenue insurance. It is also shown that the level of support delivered by production aids cannot be reached with revenue insurance even with completely subsidised premiums. Finally, it is shown that the policy that combines tree aids with revenue insurance exhibits good results for all examining criteria.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Dirk J. Bezemer
2002
The replacement of wage-labour farms by family farms in Central and Eastern Europe during the transformation has been more limited than was initially expected. In this paper a formal framework is developed in order to analyse the behaviour of family farms and socialist-style farms in the presence of risk, given the typical post-socialist environment. Management incentives, ownership structure, lump-sum transfers and consumption choices are shown to have the potential to limit the size of family farms relative to socialist-style farms. The hypotheses are tested with survey data collected by the author in the Czech Republic.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Elisa Montresor
2002
The purpose of this work is to contribute with some reflections to the debate that has flourished in recent years around two issues: rural development and systemic reading of the territorial articulation of agricultural development. In the numerous investigations conducted in Italy and elsewhere, the analytical approach adopted (institutional level and investigation units, choice of indicators and of the analytical instruments) has profound repercussions on rural policies, according to its wider or narrower formulation. After a brief reflection on the approaches to rural development, highlighting the contradictions of institutional intervention, the study proposes a critical description of some results of the Italian investigations. The aim is to contribute to the definition of an analytical approach for evaluating the dynamics in progress in the agricultural and rural development at different decisional levels (EU, national, regional). The proposed instruments satisfy some requirements: the repeatability of the investigation at different times and in a variety of contexts, the flexibility for the adaptability to the mosaic of situations in the rural world, the applicability at different territorial levels.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Татьяна В. Блинова
2002
The objective of this paper is to study the link between rural regional development strategies and unemployment reduction in agricultural regions. Based on empirical data, the paper presents the assessment of the “diversification effects” for the regional labor demand achieved through the development of the non-state sector, small businesses and the service market on the regional labor markets’ behavior. By using the regression models we analyze how labor market performances depend on the patterns of the employment structure. Special attention is paid to the comparative analysis of agrarian and industrial regions. It is shown that high rates of employment in the agriculture weaken the position of the region on the labor market. However, diversification of the employment structure of the agricultural regions is a factor reducing the risk of rural unemployment. In rural regions the development of non-agricultural employment produces positive effects on the regional labor markets’ behavior. We study the relationships of the labor market performance with the key directions of the economic reform like changes in the ownership structure, development of small businesses and the service market.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Elena Saraceno
2004
This paper tries to bring together the various arguments that make a reform of rural development policies desirable and useful for the stakeholders involved. The policy implications of a desirable reform are also considered. CAP, in its long story has established powerful interest groups in the administrations, in the sector and even in expert’s circles. Past shortcomings of reform attempts suggest that a consensus on reform is difficult to achieve and requires a clear and shared outline of what will agricultural and rural policy look like after the reform process. A transition period, the inclusion of wider interest groups than those directly concerned by the policy, the possibility of regionally adapted versions rural policy appear to be important components for insuring a strengthened support and a more effective policy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Demetrios Psaltopoulos, Eudokia Balamou, Kenneth J. Thomson
2004
This paper presents an analysis and evaluation of the impacts of rural development policies implemented in the rural town of Archanes, an area in Crete which has received considerable rural development funds during the CSF I and II. A hybrid interregional Social Accounting Matrix approach is used to describe interlinkages between Archanes and neighbouring rural and urban localities. Then, preliminary results are reported on the diffusion- patterns of rural development policy impacts in terms of generated output and income. Results show that policy-related economic benefits leak primarily to the ’affluent’ urban area of Heraklion and marginally to the less-developed rural area of N. Kazantzakis. Taking account of the significant rural development policy investment that has taken place in Archanes in recent years, this finding raises doubts on the contribution of these policies towards the core EU policy-objective of cohesion.
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