Эксоцман
на главную поиск contacts
Мы не берем все книги по признаку формального соответствия темам. Отбираем лучшее по качеству и релевантности. (подробнее...)
Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 352

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Jose A. Gomez-Limon, Laura Riesgo, Manuel Arriaza
2002
In modelling farm systems it is widely accepted that risk plays a central role. Furthermore, farmers’ risk aversion determines their decisions in both the short and the long run. This paper presents a methodology based on multiple criteria mathematical programming to obtain relative and absolute risk aversion coefficients. We rely on multiattribute utility theory (MAUT) to elicit a separable additive multiattribute utility function and then estimate the risk aversion coefficients and apply this methodology to an irrigated area of Northern Spain. The results show a wide variety of attitudes to risk among farmers, who mainly exhibit decreasing absolute risk aversion (DARA) and constant relative risk aversion (CRRA).
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Jose A. Gomez-Limon, Laura Riesgo, Manuel Arriaza
Durban, 2003
In this paper we present a methodology to analyse input use in the agricultural sector. The novelty of the theoretical model explained is that it has been developed considering a multi-criteria environment. Thus, the optimal input use condition is determined by the assessment of "multi-attribute utility" and "multi-attribute marginal utility". We show how the approach adopted in this paper is a generalization of the single-attribute expected utility theory. The theoretical model developed is further implemented in an empirical application that studies water for irrigation use as a particular case. Results show how multi-attribute utility functions elicited for a sample of 52 irrigators explain differences on irrigation water use in relative homogenous agricultural systems, albeit exhibiting similar water partial utility functions. We conclude that these differences come from the dissimilar weights that farmers attached to each attribute in the aggregate utility function. The irrigated area considered as case study is located in North-western Spain.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 10-04-2005
Hamish R. Gow, Johan Swinnen
2002
This paper analyses empirically the effect of "hold-ups" on capital investment in farms using a sample of 318 Hungarian enterprises, surveyed over 1997. A negative relationship arises between capital investment and the incidence of hold-up behaviour. This relationship is affected by farm’s wealth and liquidity position, the quality of legal enforcement of contracts, by whether farms have contracted sales to foreign processors, and whether they are established as successors t pre-reform organisations rather than start-up businesses.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
A. Gracia, Mehrez Ameur
2002
Agrifood firms operate in a more global, saturated and competitive market than other manufacturing firms, and they have smaller size. These firms certainly need to define appropriate strategies related to accessing the international market and to investing in innovative activities. This two decisions are related to firms size because as Krugman states international trade is not only explained by differences in technology between countries but also by firms’ desire to extend their sales in foreign markets to take advantage of the economies of scales. Therefore, it seems to exist a simultaneous relation between firm size, exports and innovative activities. The aim of this paper is to analyse agrifood firms’ decisions on these three strategies: export behaviour, innovative activities and firm’s size in comparison to other manufacturing firms using some modification from the simultaneous model defined by Entorf and Pohlmeier. The study is focused on the Spanish manufactured firms taking special attention to the agri-food ones. Data come from a National Survey (“Encuesta de Estrategias Empresariales”) carried out by the “Fundación Empresa Pública”) from 1990. Results indicate that agri-food manufacturing firms decision process related to their size, export share and innovative activities is not a simultaneous process. Moreover, some differences with the rest of manufactured firms have been detected, In particular, agri-food firms have lower export shares, lower size and lower innovation intensity than Spanish firms in other manufacturing sectors. Spanish firms decision process on strategic variables (size, export share and innovation) is characterized by a recursive decision process where firms firstly decide export intensity, secondly, they decide their size or total sales depending on the previous decision and, finally, they decide their innovative intensity depending on the last two.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
G.R. Griffith, R.J. Farquharson, S.A. Barwick, R.G. Banks, W.E. Holmes
2003
This study aimed at estimating the costs and benefits of all beef cattle genetic improvement activity, across Australia, over the period 1970 to the present. The total cumulative Present Value (PV) of investments by industry, government and other agencies into selection, crossbreeding and grading up since 1963, and of imported genetics, was estimated to be $340m (in $2001 at a 7% discount rate). Using a suite of genetic evaluation models, farming systems models and an industry-level model, the cumulative PV of industry returns were estimated. Within-breed selection generated $944m; crossbreeding in southern Australia $255m; changing breed composition in southern Australia $62m; and changing breed composition in northern Australia $8.1bn. The benefit/cost ratio for this investment was 28:1 over the last 30 years.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Zerihun Gudeta Alemu, Klooper Oosthuizen, Herman D. van Schalkwyk
2003
In Ethiopia, growth in cereal production is accompanied by a more than proportionate increase in the standard deviation of production. This study applies descriptive and variance decomposition procedures to determine the sources of increased instability in cereal production in order to show whether they are caused by policy changes. It was found that production instability was caused more by increased yield instability. Considering the fact that use of high-powered inputs is limited to a small number of farmers, production is at subsistence level and that farmers. responsiveness to policy changes is constrained by infrastructural and institutional constraints and by the existing land policy, instability in yield is predominantly attributed to weather variability.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Giovanni Gulisano, Marco Platania
2002
The strategies for exploiting typical production represents a theme of great interest, above all in the measure in which exploitation brought about via adequate marketing strategies allows these products to shed their anonymity. This paper constitutes a contribution in this direction, since it analyses the potential of a traditional product ('Nduja) using multivariate analysis techniques on a sample of consumers, identified by a specific market research survey. This made it possible to define the main characteristics of the type of consumer of this product and to define suitable market segmentation strategies.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Sevtap Guler Gumus, Emin Isikli
2004
This paper is aiming at an analysis of Rural Development Programs (RDP) in Turkey with special reference to EU Rural Development Policies, Programs and implementations. Concerning to Turkish Programs, it has been reported that over the last 30 years and more particularly during the planned Development Period, special efforts have been made to gain Rural development experience in Turkey. In each five year Development Planning period (DPP), particular goals and instruments of policy for both agricultural development and that of rural areas have been specified and determined. Integrated Rural development Projects and some other typical Rural Development Projects have also been implemented in line with the targets given in each planning period.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Michele Gutierrez, Luciano Gutierrez
2002
This paper analyses, within the new growth theory framework and using panel cointegration techniques, the effect of agricultural international technological spillovers on total factor productivity growth for a sample of 47 countries during the period 1970-1992. The analysis shows that total factor productivity is strongly influenced by domestic as well as foreign public R&D spending in agricultural sector and geographical factors matters. Countries located in temperate zones benefit more than countries located in tropical zones from technological spillovers. Finally, the analysis shows that the rate of return to agricultural R&D spending is higher in tropical countries and this could justify new support and an even greater investment of funds for agricultural R&D for these countries.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Peter Halmai, Andrea Elekes
Zaragoza, 2002
As regards EU accession of Hungary one of the most important questions is how the adaptation of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) will affect the competitiveness of the Hungarian agriculture. Competitive effects of CAP can be revealed in several ways (quantitative, comparative analysis, simulations etc.) but the results may differ significantly. That is why it is interesting to compare the results of different methods.

This paper concentrates on the competitive effects of changing trade policy by comparing the results of comparative analyses (producer prices, export subsidy systems and import protection) and simulations. The results of the simulation confirm the conclusion that the CAP adaptation will favour basically the cereal production. CAP adaptation will intensify the already existing (competitive) differences between the two large sectors of agriculture (plant and animal products). All of the analyses came to the conclusion that the prospects of arable crops are favourable. Less reassuring are the prospects of animal products. There are apparent efficiency problems, and rising feed costs (due to accession) may further weaken the position of this sector. Without basic structural reforms the sustainability of the sector’s competitiveness is questionable.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Markus Hanisch, Volker Beckmann, Silke Boger, Marcus Brem
2002
Studies of the transition process remind us of Stiglitz’s comparison between pathology and the economic analysis of institutions (1989): asking what went wrong and what did not is the essence of understanding the functioning of social systems. Thus, carefully conducted empirical studies of the transition process itself may yield elucidative results applicable not only to theory but also to institutional policy changes in transition. This paper presents the key findings of KATO, a comprehensive research project focussing on the transition process of agriculture in Central and Eastern Europe. From 1997 to 2000, the project empirically examined processes of liberalization and market development, privatization and property rights changes, as well as restructuring and path dependencies in three Central and Eastern Europe countries: Poland, the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. Conclusions on three analytical levels are drawn: (1) the empirical design for analyzing rapidly changing and evolving institutions in transition economies, (2) the suitability of different theoretical approaches for understanding transition, and (3) policy recommendations targeting better governance and an improved institutional framework.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Kathrin Happe, Alfons Balmann
Durban, 2003
The paper analyses various forms of direct payments using the spatial and dynamic model AgriPoliS. In AgriPoliS farms are represented as agents which act and interact individually. This allows for endogenous structural change. The model is fitted to the agricultural region 'Hohenlohe' in Baden-Württemberg which is characterised by intensive livestock farming. The policy simulations show that the fixing of a single income payment and coupling it to the farming of land . as it has been proposed by the EU Commission in the mid- term review does not have significant effects on structural change, competitiveness, and income as compared to the current Agenda 2000 policy. In order to reach a significant and lasting effect on the competitiveness of agriculture, a further decoupling of payments would be necessary, in which direct payments would be completely decoupled from land and farming. Direct payments should rather be offered to farmers or farms, independent of whether or not farming is continued. Furthermore, area payments should be decreased to an extent which is just necessary to maintain certain land management standards. Such a policy would also break with the effect that a large part of subsidies and direct payments is transferred to the land owners rather than to the farmers. It is especially the farms with a growth potential and a high share of leased land which would benefit from such a policy.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Anna Haring
2002
Organic farming is increasingly considered in the European Common Agricultural Policy. Sound evaluations of the effects of policy measures on organic farms in the EU are needed to face the challenges in future policy design. The effects of various policy scenarios on profitability and development strategies of typical organic arable and dairy farms are analysed for the EU countries Germany, Denmark, the United Kingdom and Italy. Based on an approach which integrates simulation modelling and focus groups, profitability of model farms is analysed ex-post for year the 1999 and their potential development simulated until 2008 under Agenda 2000 and three alternative policy scenarios. For each policy scenario potential farm adaptation strategies are analysed.

Size, structure, productivity, achieved output prices and policy surrounding of typical organic farms differ widely between countries and farm types. Great differences in the contribution of payments to total farm profit and farm family labour remuneration are observed. Dairy model farms are expected to slightly benefit from Agenda 2000, while arable farms are more susceptible to price reductions realised in the Agenda 2000 package. In adaptation to Agenda 2000 organic dairy farms are expected to grow, while arable farms are more likely to diversify production or envisage valued adding strategies. The effects of alternative policy scenarios on profitability of typical farms are similar in all countries. The choice of adaptation strategy of farmers in the different countries, however, vary significantly, mainly due to the current market situation.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Anna Haring, Stephan Dabbert
2004
Organic farming has a long tradition in Europe. Policy support played a significant role in stimulating the growth of organic farming. However, large differences in the development stage of the organic sector exist between Member States and regions as the policy environment for organic farming differs significantly between Member States. This paper investigates the relationship between organic farming and measures implemented within the Rural Development Regulation. The status quo of support from second pillar measures for organic farming systems is compared to that of standard production and the impact of these measures on the organic farming sector is identified in 6 selected Member States (Austria, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK and France). The attractiveness of the different RDP measures for farms with organic production compared to farms with conventional production is evaluated via detailed qualitative and where available quantitative analyses of relevant provisions. All nine measures (agri-environmental programmes, investment support, Less Favoured Area payments, support for processing, marketing, and training) are discussed with a focus on the measures ‘agri-environment’, ‘processing and marketing’, ‘investments into agricultural holdings’and ‘training’. Most of the analysed national RDPs have a considerable potential for supporting organic farming. Organic farming is considered as one possible mechanism to achieve the sustainable development objectives and is addressed specifically in certain measures. Nevertheless, most of these priority areas still bear the potential for a more targeted support of organic farming.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Valentina Hartarska
2002
This paper shows that imperfections in the credit market and insecurity of property rights affect nonuniformly the investment of younger and established microenterprises in Russia. The empirical analysis of investment is based on the liquidity constraint model but also accounts for the added challenged that the weak institutional structure and the small size of the enterprises pose. Investment in younger firms is most constrained by the availability of funds, while investment in more established microenterprises is affected by the ability of the entrepreneurs to “secure” their property rights by paying bribes. Financial institutions are unable to distinguish good from bad borrowers but lend to firms that have transparent transactions.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл