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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 352

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Roland Herrmann, Anke Moser
Zaragoza, 2003
In many industrialized countries, the grocery-retailing sector exhibits a strong and increasing market concentration. Hence, it is important to understand retail pricing for many questions related to market power in the marketing chain and to agricultural and food policies. We analyze intertemporal pricing of grocery retailers in Germany with a large set of scanner data for processed foods. In theory, food prices could be rather variable, e.g. due to fluctuating commodity prices in a competitive world, or rather rigid, e.g. due to price adjustment costs. We elaborate that retail sales are crucial and raise food price variability at the points of sale. Despite this, prices are rather rigid and often do not change for many weeks. Moreover, pricing strategies for identical brands vary strongly across retailers. Retailers seem to have differential pricing strategies and, thus, market power. This casts substantial doubt on the assumption of a competitive price transmission in the marketing channel underlying most analyses in agricultural economics.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Senhui He, Wojciech J. Florkowski, Jeffery L. Jordan
2002
This paper addresses the issue of rationality of responses in contingent valuation. We found a significant portion of respondents stated a positive willingness-to-pay for a project they perceived to be worthless. The irrational responses had a significant impact on the mean stated willingness-to-pay and the effect can not be removed by simply excluding the those observations from estimation. The dichotomous-choice elicitation format helps to mitigate the effect of the irrational responses, but can not completely solve the problem.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Gerhard Hovorka
2004
The landscape in Austria is characterised by the high proportion of less-favoured areas (LFA). These cover 81 % of the total Austrian land area. Most is classified as mountain area (70%) with a small part classified as other types of less-favoured area. Mountain farming has the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system and thereby the multifunctional landscape and the general living and working space. The mountain area still possess a high environmental quality and environmentally friendly agriculture and forestry extends over most of the mountain area. This is also important for tourism, which plays a major role in the Austrian economy. Austria has gained considerable experience with mountain farming subsidies and regional programmes specific to the mountain area over recent decades. Since the early 1970s a differentiated classification system has been the basis for defining support levels for mountain farmers. A revised classification system has been applied since 2001. The dominant objective for mountain farming policy is to maintain an agricultural and forestry sector based on environmental principles and small family farms. Under the 2000 – 2006 Rural Development Programme major alterations to the support scheme have been undertaken and support levels have been improved considerably for LFA farmers, and particularly for mountain farmers. The ex-ante evaluation and the mid-term evaluation were undertaken by the Federal Institute for Less-Favoured and Mountainous Areas in Vienna. This paper addresses key questions regarding the evaluation and the achievements of the new compensatory allowances schemes in Austria and will focus on the extent to which it meets the main objectives for mountain areas and other less favoured areas. The complementary contributions of other RDP measures, such as the agri-environmental programme to fulfil the main objectives, will also be discussed. In addition, a review of less–favoured-area payments of some other EU member states will be presented.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Richard Howitt, Arnaud Reynaud
2002
In this paper we develop a dynamic data-consistent way for estimating agricultural land use choices at a disaggregate level (district-level), using more aggregate data (regional-level). The disaggregation procedure requires two steps. The first step consists in specifying and estimating a dynamic model of land use at the regionallevel. In the second step, we disaggregate outcomes of the aggregate model using maximum entropy (ME). The ME disaggregation procedure is applied to a sample of California data. The sample includes 6 districts located in Central Valley and 8 possible crops, namely: Alfalfa, Cotton, Field, Grain, Melons, Tomatoes, Vegetables and Subtropical. The disaggregation procedure enables the recovery of land use at the district-level with an out-sample prediction error of 16%. This result shows that the micro behavior, inferred from aggregate data with our disaggregation approach, seems to be consistent with observed behavior.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jikun Huang, Ruifa Hu, Hans van Meijl, Frank van Tongeren
2003
China has made a major investment in biotechnology research. Genetically modified (GM) cotton is widely adopted and the list of GM technologies in trials is impressive. At the same time there is an active debate on when China should commercialize its GM food crops. The overall goal of this paper is to provide an economy-wide assessment of these issues under various scenarios. Based on a unique data from empirical micro-level study and field trial in China and a modified GTAP model, our results indicate that the development of biotechnology has an important impact on China.s production, trade and welfare. Welfare gains far outweigh the public biotechnology research expenditures. Most gains occur inside China. Policy makers should put less weight on the international dimension in making their decisions on biotechnology development.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Rui Huang, Lilyan E. Fulginiti, E. Wesley Peterson
Durban, 2003
A three period overlapping generations model is developed to investigate the impact of shorter life expectancy due to disease, on human capital investment decisions and income growth. This research is particularly relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa given the dramatic reduction in life expectancy due to HIV/AIDS and the potential lasting effects on growth. Our results indicate that as life expectancy shortens so does schooling inducing a lower growth rate of income. These relationships are even more pronounced for the African continent than for the rest of the world.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Lionel G. Hubbard, Imre Ferto
2002
Intra-industry trade in agri-food products between Hungary and the EU is shown to be low and dominated by vertically rather than horizontally differentiated products, suggesting higher economic adjustment costs. Following recent empirical studies, we then test econometrically for the determinants of this trade using different measures of horizontal and vertical trade, and employing an array of popular explanatory variables. Results suggest that separating the measure of intra-industry trade into vertical and horizontal provides for better estimation and supports the contention that the determinants may differ by type of trade. In the regression analysis, the level of intra-industry trade is found to serve as a better dependent variable than the degree or share of intra-industry trade.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Annette Hurrelmann
2002
Land markets have received a considerable amount of attention in economic literature. Since the treatment of the topic covers various approaches, areas, and questions, it seems desirable to attempt an overview of the results. This paper devises a way in which to present a complete picture of the land market by drawing together the various contributions. The first step is to establish a method by which a market in its entirety can be defined. It is suggested that the application of Oliver Williamson’s “Four levels of social analysis” is an appropriate approach to be used in this endeavour. In the second step, the contributions to land market research are reviewed, according to Williamson’s scheme, within four broad categories:
(1) embeddedness,
(2) institutional environment,
(3) governance and
(4) resource allocation.
The topics covered include cropshare tenancy, land titling and registration, communal land ownership, farmland policies, credit access and land reform. The paper closes with some proposals for further research and a discussion of the value of the approach used.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Eva Iglesias
2002
This paper proposes an Economic Drought Management Index (EDMI) that could assist water managers to inter-temporally manage water reservoirs. The index’s main appeal is that it can be easily interpreted and that encompasses in a single number hydrological processes, structural constraints, water institutions’ rules and the economic benefits of the customers served from the supply system. An empirical application of EDMIs is performed for two irrigation districts in Andalusia (Southern Spain), that are managed under different institutional arrangements. Results for one district show that the region’s vulnerability to drought could be reduced following the interpretation of the EDMIs. For the other district, the index shows that water stocks are managed under nearly optimal criteria. This last result shows that there is an efficient level of drought vulnerability, and that increasing supply security levels would result in welfare losses.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Constantine Iliopoulos
2002
During recent years, dramatic changes in the world food system have led to unprecedented competition between agribusiness firms. To compete in this environment, agricultural cooperatives should invest substantially in long-term activities such as R&D and advertisement. Co-operatives have a difficult problem in acquiring equity capital because the residual claimant (benefactor) is the patron of the firm, not the investor. This organizational design poses to cooperatives three investment constraints:
a) the free rider problem,
b) the horizon problem, and
c) the portfolio problem.
Empirical analysis utilizing a latent variable structural equation model and a large dual response survey suggests that in the U.S. member-patrons are more likely to invest in co-operatives which adopt well defined property rights policies and structures than traditional co-operatives characterized by vaguely-defined property right structures. Agribusiness co-operatives in the European Union are gradually adopting long-term financing methods that possess one or more of the characteristics found in successful U.S. ‘New Generation Cooperatives.’ However, it seems that they have paid less attention in designing their organizational structures (e.g., membership policies). This may inhibit their efforts to gain a competitive advantage over investor-owned firms.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
E.E. Imad, Rifaat Ahmed Abdel Karim
Durban, 2003
This paper assesses and quantifies the consequences of world trade liberalization in agriculture on trade and food security of Sudan. Sudan, with the agricultural sector as the main sector of economy, is characterized by its small open economy, and is classified as one of the least developed countries. Thus, Sudan becomes more vulnerable to any changes in international agricultural markets. The liberalization of international agricultural trade has a great influence on Sudan's food security and on the whole economy. An extended form of a multi-market model for Sudan is developed and used for the analysis. The model embodies important characteristics of agriculture in Sudan like substitution effects and stages of production.

As agriculture is the main sector of Sudan's economy, the model is extended to explicitly integrate some of the key important macroeconomic linkages, and to establish certain feedback effects between agriculture and the macro-economy. The model simulations reveal that a higher world market price would overall lead to measurable gains in food security and agricultural trade of the country. However, when the effect of a higher cost of production is considered, the positive results are reversed. Furthermore, the results of the model simulations show that the domestic policy environment matters very much with respect to the potential impact of world trade liberalization of agriculture. The paper concludes that Sudan should reorient its national policies towards export promotion in order to benefit from the new emerging trading opportunities in world markets. However, to capture a greater benefit from the new environment in the international markets, Sudan should consider and manage carefully all factors, domestically or internationally - e.g. quality standard, loss of preference, dumping effects - that hinder its economic and trade growth.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Xavier Irz, David Hadley
2003
To improve the welfare of the rural poor and keep them in the countryside, the government has been spending 40% of the value of agricultural GDP on agricultural support services. But can investment make smallholder agriculture prosperous in such adverse conditions? This paper derives an answer by applying a two-output six-input stochastic translog distance function, with inefficiency effects and biased technical change to panel data for the 18 districts and the commercial sector, from 1979 to 1996. This model demonstrates that herds are the most important input, followed by draft power, land and seeds. Multilateral indices for technical change, technical efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) show that the technology level of the commercial sector is more than six times that of traditional agriculture and that the gap has been increasing, due to technological regression in traditional agriculture and modest progress in the commercial sector. Since the levels of efficiency are similar, the same pattern is repeated by the TFP indices. This result highlights the policy dilemma of the trade-off between efficiency and equity objectives.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
T. S. Jayne, Takashi Yamano, James Nyoro
2003
This paper addresses the potential for interlinked credit/input/output marketing arrangements for particular cash crops to promote food crop intensification. Using panel survey data from Kenya, we estimate a household fixed-effects model of fertilizer use per hectare of food crops, using an instrumental variables approach for addressing the endogeneity of participation in interlinked credit arrangements. Results indicate that households engaging in interlinked marketing programs for selected cash crops applied considerably greater fertilizer on other crops (primarily cereals) not directly purchased by the cash crop trading firm. These findings suggest that, in addition to the direct stimulus that interlinked cash crop marketing arrangements can have on small farmer incomes, these institutional arrangements may provide spillover benefits for the productivity of the farmers. other activities such as food cropping.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Nancy L. Johnson, Ruth Suarez, Mark Lundy
2003
This paper characterizes and measures the contribution of social capital to the performance of 50 agroenterprises in Colombia. Using qualitative analysis we document the functions that social capital performs within firms. To estimate social capital’s contribution to firm structure and performance, quantitative indicators of firm-level use of social capital are developed based on the number and strength of external relationships that firms maintain. Econometric analysis finds that firm-level returns to relationships are positive and higher than to physical or human capital. The results suggests that while firms can increase their economic performance by investing in social capital, ameliorating the effects of the market failures that lead to use of social relations for business purposes could also improve both equity and efficiency.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Roel Jongeneel
2002
This paper analyses the impact of the dairy quota scheme on the size distribution of the Dutch dairy industry. A non-stationary Markov model approach is used, where the transition probabilities are explained by a set of exogenous (policy) variables. Using an information theoretical approach, a model is estimated for The Netherlands and used to simulate the impacts of alternative EU dairy policies. Several results emerged:
a) There is an autonomous over time decline in farm numbers (implying increase in farm size).
b) The dairy quota regime positively influences 'small' and 'medium' farm sizes;
c) Abolition of the dairy quota will negatively affect the total number of active farms and favours further increase of farm scale.
d) Targeting support according to needs increases the number of active dairy farms as compared with the status quo.
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