Эксоцман
на главную поиск contacts
Мы не берем все книги по признаку формального соответствия темам. Отбираем лучшее по качеству и релевантности. (подробнее...)
Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 352

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Johannes Jutting
2002
Community based health insurance schemes are becoming increasingly recognized as an instrument which help farmers in rural areas of low income countries to better manage health. Health risks present a permanent threat to the income earning capacity of poor people. Beside direct economic cost for treatment and lost working time, indirect cost such as a reduction in labor supply materialize which increases the vulnerability of the household. It is often hypothesized that community based health insurance improve social protection, but quantitative analysis is largely missing. Against this background, this paper analyzes if members in a mutual health insurance scheme have a better access to health care than non-members taking “les mutuelles de santés” (mutual health organization) in rural Senegal as an example. Limited dependent and log linear regressions are used to capture the impact of health insurance on the probability of visiting a health care provider and the out-of-pocket expenditure at the point of use . The results of the analysis show that while community based health insurance schemes reach otherwise excluded people, the poorest of the poor in the communities are not covered. Regarding the impact on the access to health care, members have a higher probability of using hospitalization services compared to non-members and pay substantially less when they need care. Given the results from this study, community financing schemes have the potential to improve the risk management capacity of rural households.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2003
Luka Juvancic, Emil Erjavec
Durban, 2003
The paper attempts to quantify determinants influencing dynamics of employment decisions on agricultural households in Slovenia and to test specific aspects of labour reallocation during transition period by application of agricultural household model. Through the use of 1991 . 2000 panel data for 22,055 farm households, quantitative analysis of intertemporal employment decisions of farm holders is carried out by the use of probit techniques. Determinants tested refer to personal characteristics of reference persons (gender, age, education level, opportunity off-farm income), household characteristics (size, structure), characteristics of the agricultural holding (economic size, labour input, labour intensity) and local labour market conditions. The model results generally confirm the existing empirical evidence on asymmetrical and irreversible participation of holders at the labour market. Despite intensive restructuring of agriculture and profound changes in non-farm labour market in the analysed period, labour supply of farm holders remains rigid. Mobility of labour supply is lower than expected, which can be attributed to the importance of structural problems constraining intersectoral mobility. A marked tendency towards upkeeping of the same employment status is more distincted in the case of holders employed on the farm. A low level of labour supply mobility worsens efficiency of labour allocation on agricultural holdings in Slovenia. Elements of this problem emerge on both, supply (e.g. low level of educational and professional attainment of reference persons) and demand side of labour market (e.g. unfavourable local labour market conditions).
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Luka Juvancic, Emil Erjavec, Morten Kvistgaard, Jens P. Olsson
2004
The paper reports on the experiences gained from conducting the mid-term evaluation of SAPARD Program in Slovenia. The methodological approach lies in comparative analysis of two approaches: empirical approach, based on the application of Input-Output model and conventional approach based on application of evaluation techniques as proposed by the Guidelines prescribed by the European Commission. Limited scale of implementation has raised problems in economy-wide assessment of the impact and success of the Program. In some cases, quantitative relationships were also hard to assess due to the impact of external influences. Important limitations were found also in the case of conventional evaluation approach. The analysed case encountered some data-related problems (deficient monitoring data, almost exclusive dependence on primary data). There is also a more systemic problem of a limited contextual scope of this evaluation approach, which fails to provide sufficient information in the policy formation phase. Apart from comparison of alternative evaluation approaches, the paper also attempts to provide some wider implications for adoption of 'evaluation paradigm' in rural development policy in countries without a previous experience in this field.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Martin Kapfer, Jochen Kantelhardt, Elizabeth Osinski
2003
In comparison to large-scale natural landscapes separated from extensively used agricultural production landscapes in North America or Australia, German and Central Europe landscapes are all characterised by predominantly agricultural landscapes with few “rests of nature”. Due to the high population density, different types of land users demand different functions of the landscape. In addition to food production, there is a high demand for protection of cultural heritage by caring for e.g. hedgerows in the landscape. The aim of this study was to estimate the costs arising from the maintenance of landscape elements in landscapes situated on land with different site conditions. As an example, the distribution of hedgerows on sites of varying agricultural quality were considered. The calculations were undertaken on the entire area of Baden- Wuerttemberg in Southwest Germany, comprising various administrative districts. The association between ecological and economic information was analysed statistically and with the help of GIS. The results indicate that the costs for landscape element protection differ within the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg and that there is a lot of economic pressure against hedgerow biotopes existing in certain districts. Measures for protection such as agri-environmental programmes should consider the different landscape-dependent costs.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Giannis Karagiannis, Peter Midmore, Vangelis Tzouvelekas
2002
The objective of this paper is to develop a tractable approach for recovering and quantifying all sources of TFP changes (namely, technical change, changes in technical and allocative efficiency, and scale economies) from the econometric estimation of an input distance function which also fully describes the production technology. The proposed theoretical framework relies on Bauer’s TFP decomposition framework and the duality between input distance and cost functions. Hence, instead of using a system approach to estimate a cost frontier, all necessary information for decomposing TFP changes are recovered from its dual counterpart.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Giannis Karagiannis, Alexander Sarris
Zaragoza, 2002
In this paper we apply the technical inefficiency effect model to a set of eight different crop products (i.e., wheat, mixed arable crops, tobacco, cotton, olive oil, fruits, vegetables, and greenhouse horticulture) in Greek agriculture.

For each product, a panel data set covering the period 1991- 1995 is used and separate econometric results are obtained for each product. A particular set of socioeconomic and demographic variables is used to explain technical efficiency differentials among Greek farmers, including the direct subsidies given to each farmer, and the concordance of these efficiency determinants is discussed across the eight different crop products considered.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Laszlo Karpati, Zsolt Csapo, Laszlo Kozar
2002
The change of the political Hungarian regime in 1990 affected deeply the economy of the country. This change made effects in each national branch, thus in the agriculture, as well. A lot of new companies dealing with agricultural production and trading has also been established in these years. Since the early ‘90s a lot of EU support programmes were available targeting these enterprises and providing them to strengthen their competitiveness. One of these programmes was the PHARE IPP Project for the subsidisation of the agricultural investments (between 1996-1998). The University of Debrecen was involved in the implementation, monitoring and assessment process of this project. Based on the results and suggestions of the university, new supporting elements have been built into the subsidisation programme of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development in the recent years, further enhancing the position of Hungarian farms before joining to the EU.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Stelios D. Katranidis
2002
This paper examines the welfare effects of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) cotton, maize and sugar beet regimes practiced in Greece after its 1981 entry into the European Union. These markets are considered as horizontally related because there are usually the same farmers that use the same areas to produce various combinations of the relevant products. We use bootstrap techniques to conduct a statistical analysis of the estimated welfare measurements. The welfare analysis indicates that the income amounts transferred to farmers rose significantly in the period between 1981 and 1992. The 1992 CAP reform slowed down this trend, and transfers have remained at an almost statistically constant level since 1992.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Michiel Keyzer, Max Merbis, Ferdinand Pavel
2002
The paper argues that current long-term projections of global meat and feed demand may underestimate future consumption patterns for mainly two reasons. First, they do not explicitly consider increased demand for protein foods of animal origin with rising incomes in some developing contries, and second they do not allow for changes in livestock technology, in particular feed demand. We then project the impact of both mechanisms to show the empirical relevance of our comments and suggest ready-to-use tools to consider them within standard projection models.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Renee Kim, Milton Boyd
2002
Country of origin labeling and brand labeling play important roles in affecting purchasing behavior of buyers in the Korean beef supply chain. This paper presents a model which explain differences in the attitudes and purchase behaviors of three marketing groups regarding country of origin and other important quality attributes. The results show some of the diversity of buyers’ attitudes, preferences and willingness to pay for different country of origin and brand of foreign packers in three marketing groups.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Henry W. Kinnucan, Oystein Myrland
Zaragoza, 2002
An agreement between Norway and the European Commission specifies an increase in the export tax on Norwegian salmon entering EU markets from 0.75% to 3.00% effective 1 July 1997. Further, Norway’s exports are subject to a price floor and quantity ceiling, neither of which were binding over the evaluation period. Since the tax’s proceeds are to be used by Norway to fund generic marketing of Atlantic salmon, it is possible that the agreement is winwin, i.e., benefits United Kingdom and Norwegian producers alike. To test this, we use an equilibrium displacement model to estimate the agreement’s effects on prices, trade flows, and producer welfare. Results based on data through 1999 suggest the agreement is indeed win-win, but that currency realignments and feed quota policy can easily neutralize or obscure the effects.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Steen Koekebakker, Gudbrand Lien
2002
Empirical evidence suggests that agricultural futures price movements have fat-tailed distributions and exhibit sudden and unexpected price jumps. There is also evidence that the volatility of futures prices contains a term structure depending on both calendar-time and time to maturity. This paper extends Bates (1991) jump-diffusion option pricing model by including both seasonal and maturity effects in volatility. An in-sample fit to market option prices on wheat futures shows that our model outperforms previous models considered in the literature. A numerical example illustrates the economic significance of our results for option valuation.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Julia Koerner
2002
Germany is the second important coffee market in the world, just overshadowed by the United States. Coffee is the most famous beverage in Germany – even more popular than beer. On the supply side dominate few roasters. Market structure influences the market outcome and explains the processors’ ability to exercise market power. This paper aims at studying the pricing behavior in the German market for roasted coffee. Respectively, it discusses the impact of three different explanations. First, market power may be due to low price elasticity related to a high level of consumption. Second, pricing behavior may be influenced by the industry concentration. And finally, pricing behavior may be change over time due to exogenous shocks. In particular, the degree of competition has changed as a consequences of a merger. Further, cyclical demand changes induce pricing behavior. Empirical results are derived using data on the aggregate market for roasted coffee in Germany during 1992:1 to 2000:12.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Ulrich Koester
2003
In contrast to expectations held by western observers in 1990, the farm structure in the Central and Eastern European Countries and the Countries of Independent States has not converged to the one prevailing in the West. In particular, remarkable changes in Russian agriculture in recent years have let to the emergence of new agricultural holdings combining under one umbrella many large farms. Does this unexpected development, unprecedented even in the West, contradict conventional wisdom about the determinants of farm size in agriculture? This paper argues that in transition economies external institutions seem to be more important than economies of scale and transaction costs on the farm in determining farm size. Whilst the birth of family farms in Russia seems to have been mainly constrained by embedded institutions of could-be family farmers and partly by second level institutions, the survival and the creation of holdings has been strongly supported by second and third level institutions, but embedded institutions have played also a role. Consequently, recent developments in Russia do not support the view that large farms or even holdings are more efficient than small or medium size family farms in an environment, which prevails in western market economies.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
W. Erno Kuiper, Clemens Lutz, Aad van Tilburg
2002
This paper considers vertical price relationships between wholesalers and retailers on five local maize markets in Benin. We show that if the common factor and the long-run disequilibrium error are not explicitly taken into account in testing the channel model, one can easily be wrong about how restrictions on the error-correction structure must be interpreted in terms of economic power in the channel. The empirical results show interesting differences between markets and reveal that retailers play a more prominent role in the price formation process than generally assumed in the literature. Retailers in the two major towns do not allow wholesalers to behave as vertical price leaders, but in the two larger rural centers, wholesalers involved in arbitrage among urban markets are able to influence price formation.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл