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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 352

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Tim Lloyd, Steve McCorriston, Wyn Morgan, Tony Rayner
Durban, 2003
This paper is concerned with the impact of the BSE crisis in the UK and focuses on price transmission between retail and farm prices. From a theoretical perspective we show that market power has an effect on price transmission between retail and farm prices following a demand shock. The empirical results suggest that the impact of a food scare on farm prices to be more than double that of retail prices, the direction of this effect being consistent with the impact of oligopoly dominating the effect (if any) of oligopsony.

However, important in assessing the full impact of a food scare is the ability of consumers to switch into substitute products. This is also evident following the BSE crisis with the availability of substitutes contributing significantly to the overall impact on price adjustment.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Hans Lofgren, Sherman Robinson, James Thurlow
2003
Zambia.s strong dependence on copper exports has suppressed other tradables sectors, indicative of a Dutch disease phenomenon. The current copper crisis will have strong economic effects, possibly reversing such Dutch disease effects. We use a computable general equilibrium model built around a 1995 social accounting matrix to simulate the short- and long-run effects of two scenarios that reflect the current crisis, a 20 percent reduction in world copper prices and a complete collapse of copper mining. Compared to the short run, the long run is characterized by more flexibility in production technology and capital allocation. Both scenarios require a significant reduction in the .non-copper. trade deficit, absorption, and household consumption. The strongest effects occur under the short-run mining-collapse scenario where household consumption falls by 13 percent and the real exchange rate depreciates by 42 percent. In the long run, these effects are approximately half as strong. The short- and long-run impacts of a 20 percent fall in world copper prices include a cut in household consumption by 4-5 percent and real depreciation by 7-10 percent. For all scenarios, the welfare losses for rural households are below the national average. Given that per-capita consumption is lower in rural areas, inequality falls. This distributional outcome is driven by the fact that the agro-food-fiber complex, which produces outputs that are relatively tradable, expands relative to the rest of the economy in terms of value-added, employment, and exports, suggesting that the copper crisis may induce an agricultural renaissance.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Daniela Lohlein, Johannes Jutting, Peter Wehrheim
2002
The objective of the paper is to identify the determinants of access to health care in rural Russia. We started out with the observation that the transition process has affected the provision of social services in the Russian Federation in general, and in rural areas in particular, owing to the overlap with agricultural reforms. Based on this observation we asked how the reduced role of the state and the concomitant decentralization of policy making has affected access of the rural populace to social services. A review of the available literature on this topic resulted in the formulation of the following three hypotheses. Firstly, that income is a determinant of access to health care. Secondly, that informal payments play an important role in determining access, and thirdly that there are large differences in access to health care services between districts. The hypotheses were tested using household data from a survey conducted in two regions of Russia in 2000. The results indicate that in the study regions, contrary to expectations, neither income nor informal payments are important determinants of access. However, there are large differences in out-of-pocket expenditures between districts, indicating that access to health care varies between districts.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jens-Peter Loy
2002
The paper aims at analyzing the potentials for reducing income risk and income variation for slaughter hog producers in Germany and Holland by participating at futures markets in Amsterdam or Hannover. The relative market and hedging efficiency for the Amsterdam stock exchange markets is tested and the optimal hedge ratio is derived for minimizing risk and variance of slaughter hog gross margins (income). Relative market efficiency and a significant impact of hedging on income risk and variance can not be rejected. The results show that the optimal hedge ratio is smaller for variance compared to risk minimizing hedging strategy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Jens-Peter Loy, Robert D. Weaver
Durban, 2003
Retail pricing strategies incorporate promotions, sales, and rigidities. A number of models have been proposed in particular to explain the occurrence of sales. Focussing on the market for fresh foods the model by Varian and the loss leader argument seem to be intuitively best fitting to the conditions in the fresh food market.

From these models we derive several hypotheses that are tested for a unique data set of the German fresh food retail market. The data set consists of weekly prices for ten food items in 131 grocery shops over the period from 1995 to 2000. Following Varian sales should lead to reduced expenditures, while the loss leader argument assumes that consumers are lured into the shop by promotional sales which are covered by higher prices for other products. The results indicate that expenditures decrease with the number of sales in the short run but this effect is outweighed by a dynamic price adjustment thereafter.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Jens-Peter Loy, Christoph Weiss
2002
Only a few studies have analysed staggering and synchronisation in pricing behaviour of multi-product firms. These studies used low-frequency data in an environment of high rates of inflation. This paper investigates staggering and synchronisation of weekly prices for ten food products in 131 grocery stores in Germany over the period from May 1995 to December 2000 (296 weeks). Different forms of staggering and synchronisation (across-store synchronisation, within type-of-store synchronisation, within retailer synchronisation or across-product synchronisation) have been analysed. None of these forms of synchronisation is supported empirically however. In contrast, perfect staggering can only be rejected in very few cases.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Larisa Lupini
2004
The paper illustrates the theme of policies and especially the ones that could be applied for integrated catchment management and sustainable use of water, in the light of the implementation, in the EU, of the Water Framework Directive, by which, within 2015, all the member States and all the candidates, should reach a “good status” of water resources. The purpose of the paper is to clarify the double link existing, in complex systems, between policies and sustainable development of rural areas, where sustainability has to do with the conservation of natural resources and, in the specific case, water. This is also one of the central topics of the EU research project called SLIM. SLIM stands for Social Learning for the Integrated Management and Sustainable Use of Water at a Catchment Scale. It is a multidisciplinary European research project which main theme is the investigation of the socio-economic aspects of the sustainable use of water. Within this theme, its main focus of interest lies in understanding the application of social learning as a conceptual framework, an operational principle, a policy instrument and a process of systemic change.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Karen Macours
2002
This paper analyzes the functioning of land rental markets in the Dominican Republic using a new data set collected specifically to characterize the entire market. We analyze the choice of the landlords and the tenants in the search for the optimal partner. We show how insecure property rights leads to segmentation in the tenancy markets along socio-economic group and hence severely limits access to land for the rural poor.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Karen Macours, Johan Swinnen
Berlin, 2000
This paper analyzes the causes of the differences in transition performance in agriculture. The analysis draws on three empirical studies in which we estimated the impact of reform policies and initial conditions, and their 'intermediate results', (i.e. changes in relative prices, farm restructuring, changes in property rights and overall economic liberalization), on performance, i.e. agricultural productivity and output.

Two studies (Macours and Swinnen, 1999, 2000b) use aggregate data for 15 transition countries (as presented in figure 3); the third (Macours and Swinnen, 2000a) uses annual data on crop output for eight CEECs.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Olivier Mahul
2002
The demand for hedging against price uncertainty in the presence of crop yield and revenue insurance contracts is examined for two French wheat farms. The rationale for the use of options in addition to futures is first highlighted through the characterization of the first-best hedging strategy in the expected utility framework. It is then illustrated using numerical simulations. The presence of options is shown to allow the insured producer to adopt a more speculative position on the futures market. Futures are shown to be performing, in terms of willingness to receive. Options are weakly performing when futures markets are unbiased, while they are more performing when futures markets are biased.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Riitta Maijala, Jukka Peltola
Zaragoza, 2002
When joining the EU, Finland was granted a permission to run its own food safety policy concerning Salmonella. The policy is called Finnish Salmonella Control Program (FSCP) and it covers the main animal production lines: pork, beef, poultry, and also the products thereof e.g. meat and eggs. By committing to follow an EU Commission approved national program Finland received so called additional guarantees from the EU. These guarantees allow it to require respective salmonella protection levels from similar products imported to the country. In order to continue the program its economic efficiency has to be thoroughly evaluated.

The objective of FCSP is that no more than 1 % of the animals and meat should be contaminated with Salmonella at the national level. Respectively, at the abattoir or meat cutting plant level the goal is 5 % . These quite strict objectives were reached well in 1995-2001. The industry is responsible for running the program in practice. National authorities have their emphasis in coordination, collecting of data and supervision. The costs of the program are almost fully carried by the industry. This paper evaluates the efficiency and viability of FSCP as a whole. It can be concluded, that money used running the program is well-spent: health benefits produced, estimated either using a cost-of-illness type of calculations or a willingness-to-pay measure from a consumer survey are many times larger than the costs of the program. In the end it can be concluded that FSCP is a good example of economically viable tool for sustaining public health.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Stavroula Malla, Richard Gray
2002
We model today’s privatized crop research industry as a small number of firms, developing and selling differentiated products to heterogeneous producers. Crop variety research is modeled as a search process, which allows us to differentiate between applied and basic research and recognize research as a stochastic process. We use the framework to develop a number of propositions regarding private research incentives, the spillovers of knowledge, and the impact of public policy. The results suggest an underinvestment in research even when property rights have been established.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Lisa Mancino, Brian Dietz
2002
The purpose of this paper will be to develop and present a new approach for examining the demand for meat by incorporating many of the advances in behavioral economics. By providing a closer approximation to how consumers actually behave, doing so should improve upon existing models. Incorporating findings from behavioral studies will also provide a richer theoretical basis to correct for the longstanding problem of endogeniety in cross-sectional studies. The theoretical model in this study begins with the Becker household production model, where individuals are assumed to maximize utility, subject to their production functions, budget constraint and time constraint. To develop a model that more accurately depicts how individual’s make their food choices, this model additionally assumes that individuals 1) use household time to create food, health and relaxation; 2) make their food and nutrient consumption choices on a per-meal basis; 3) are affected by the prospect of immediate gratification, convenience and time delay, and 4) are more affected by these factors as their hunger increases.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Cristina Marreiros, Mitchell Ness
Zaragoza, 2002
The objectives of this paper are to examine consumers’ perceptions of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) beef on the basis of a survey of consumers and buyers of beef.

The paper identifies a profile of PDO beef consumers, examines their behaviour and perceptions on PDO beef, derives the dimensions of perceptions of PDO beef, and establishes segments based upon those dimensions. The results reveal that PDO consumers are representative of all geographical regions, age and profession groups, are lighter consumers of beef and shop for food mainly in the butchers. Consumers’ perceptions on PDO beef emphasises quality, safety, and control. However, underlying those perceptions are six main dimensions and it is possible to identify three segments of PDO beef consumers: a faithful consumer group, an unaware consumer group, and a sensory, price conscious group.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Gloria Martin Rodriguez, Jose Juan Caceres Hernandez
2002
The European tomato market is characterised by a constant process of dynamic adjustment toward the equilibrium. Furthermore, Canary tomato exports cause a high seasonal impact on market prices in the winter period. In these circumstances, an adequate distribution of shipments throughout the campaign could contribute to maximize producers’ profits. The goal of this paper is to analyse the seasonal pattern of Canary tomato exports to Europe throughout the first fourteen campaigns following Spanish integration into the European Union. These export levels show some degree of instability, clearly related to the changes in the European Union trade rules, and there is a long period, the summer, without exports. Moreover, we have opted by using weekly data. These factors should be taken into account in order to accurately capture the performance of exports and, specifically, the nature of their seasonal behaviour. Thus, this analysis is carried out inside the frame delimited by the structural approach to time series and the usefulness of spline functions as an alternative to standard seasonal variation models is shown.
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