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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 352

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Christos Pantzios, Stelios Rozakis, Vangelis Tzouvelekas
2002
Utilizing the stochastic frontier approach, this paper estimates output and input-oriented technical and scale efficiency levels for a sample of cotton-growing farms in Thessaly, Greece. The empirical results suggest that Greek cotton farm operations are technically and scale inefficient. There is a considerable scope for improvement in resource use and thereby in farm income of cotton farms; Greek cotton farmers could reduce production costs by 20.4%, making more efficient utilization of the existing production technology. Factors responsible for the technical efficiency differentials observed among cotton-growers include the farmer’s age and education as well as the farm’s land fragmentation and output specialization.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Sabrina Pascotto, Giorgio De Ros
2004
Starting from the redistribution of the CAP budget and particularly with the EU regulation 1257/99 on rural development, the role of traditional farmers has been redesigned so to meet new market requirements, especially in the sense of quality of products, services, food and health security, environmental management, that means economical as well as social conditions (Shucksmith et al., 2002). For what Italian legislation concerns, recently the D.Lgs. 228/2001 defined the farmer no longer as a pure producer of agricultural foodstuffs, but as a farm-manager, more involved in all the various levels of the filière of his products. This paper focuses attention on the Province of Trento, in the Italian Alps. The starting point of this research has been the investigation of the local legislation regarding agricultural and rural matter. We identified all the typologies of interventions available for local farmers since 1994 compatible with the EU provisions and intended to promote diversification, i.e. non agricultural activities carried out by farmers beside their original or traditional farming activities.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
John Pender, Ephraim Nkonya, Pamela Jagger, Dick Sserunkuuma, Henry Ssali
Durban, 2003
This paper estimates a structural econometric model of household decisions regarding income strategies, participation in programs and organizations, crop choices, land management, and labor use, and their implications for agricultural production and land degradation; based upon a survey of over 450 households and their farm plots in Uganda. The results generally support the Boserupian model of population-induced agricultural intensification, but do not support the .more people-less erosion. hypothesis, with population pressure found to contribute to erosion in the densely populated highlands. Agricultural technical assistance programs have location-specific impacts on agricultural production and land degradation, contributing to higher value of crop production in the lowlands, but to soil erosion in the highlands. By contrast, NGO programs focusing on agriculture and environment are helping to reduce erosion, but have mixed impacts on production. We find little evidence of impact of access to markets, roads and credit, land tenure or title on agricultural intensification and crop production, though road access appears to contribute to land degradation in the highlands. Education increases household incomes, but also reduces crop production in the lowlands. We do not find evidence of a poverty-land degradation trap, while poverty has mixed impacts on agricultural production: smaller farms obtain higher crop production per hectare, while households with fewer livestock have crop production. These findings suggest that development of factor markets can improve agricultural efficiency. Several other factors that contribute to increased value of crop production, without significant impacts on land degradation, include specialized crop production, livestock and nonfarm income strategies, and irrigation. In general, the results imply that the strategies to increase agricultural production and reduce land degradation must be location-specific, and that there are few .win-win. opportunities to simultaneously increase production and reduce land degradation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Guirao Perez, Cano Fernandez, Lopez M.I. Yurda, Rodriguez Donate
2002
In this paper we measure the impact of an individual’s socioeconomic conditions on the decision to consume wine in a traditionally wine-producing area. Based on the data obtained in an exhaustive survey on wine consumption and through discrete choice models, we assess the changes which come about in the decisions to consume the different types of wine under consideration, and we obtain the most relevant distinctive and differentiated characteristics for each one of them.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Martin Petrick
2002
The objective of this paper is to empirically detect credit rationing of Polish farms. Based on cross-sectional survey data and motivated by a microeconomic farm household model, this effort is pursued by a methodology consisting of three interrelated steps. These steps include the analysis of qualitative survey data regarding farmers’ experience with bank credit, based on this an econometric estimation of internal shadow prices of credit for the credit constrained sub-sample of respondents, and finally an investigation of interdependencies between determinants of consumption and production that should be influenced by the presence of a binding credit constraint. The results of the empirical analysis consistently suggest that among the observed randomly selected Polish farms more than 40 percent of borrowers experience pronounced credit rationing by rural banks. These farms display internal shadow prices of the credit constraint of on average 190 percent net of principal. Shadow prices are significantly different from individual effective interest rates for credit that account for loan specific transaction costs. In the group of credit constrained farms, household characteristics could be proven to have a significant effect on output supply. This is evidence for a violation of separability between production and consumption decisions and thus lends empirical support to the existence of a binding credit constraint. Overall, credit constrained farm households own less and rent more land than the average, operate with a high capital intensity with regard to land, tend to have a poor credit history, and engage intensively in intra-village conversation. Generous government support via interest rate subsidisation apparently contributed little to alleviate credit rationing of farms in Poland.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
D.A. Petrovici
2002
This paper draws upon a consumer survey carried out in Bucharest (Romania) to explore determinants of food choice in a transition economy. An adapted version of the Theory of Reasoned Action was developed. This included attitude toward intention, habit and preference as independent variables. The structural equations modelling carried out in 'Analysis of MOment Structures' AMOS showed a significant positive influence of all variables. Similar to other studies conducted in European Union (EU) countries (Saba, Di Natale, 1998) habit outweighed the other variables. The study emphasises the heterogeneity of consumer beliefs about food. Furthermore it was suggested that there is scope for noneconomic variables in explaining food choices and consumer behaviour in these emerging economies, though the influence of these variables may be still limited relative the economic factors. Further research on special groups is required to quantify the influence of non-economic factors and compare the results estimated in Romania with other countries which are candidates to EU accession.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Agata Pieniadz, Heinrich Hockmann
2002
This study deals with horizontal product differentiation in the Polish pig meat market. Hypothesis among firms behaviour are derived from an illustrative model and tested in an empirical analysis using data from 1991-1998. The empirical analysis suggest that product differentiation is a relevant phenomenon in the polish pig meat markets. In addition we found that costs and competitions are important factors influencing price variation. However, further influences like price discrimination and vertical product differentiation are also important determinants for product price variations.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Kyosti Pietola, Minna Vare, Alfons Oude Lansink
2002
This paper estimates farmer decisions between three discrete occupational choices: exit and close down the farming operation (1), exit and transfer the farm to a new entrant (2), or continue farming and retain the option to exit later on (3). The farmer optimisation problem is formulated as a recursive optimal stopping problem. The unknown parameters are first estimated by a switching-type, reduced form Probit models and, then by the Simulated maximum likelihood (SML) method, controlling for serial correlation in the errors. Serial correlation in the errors is controlled for by the Geweke-Hajivassiliou-Keane (GHK) simulation technique. The results suggest that the timing and the type of farmer exit decisions respond elastically to farmer characteristics, farm characteristics, and economic environment. Early retirement programs and the level of farmer retirement benefits are predicted to play a key role in steering structural development and enhancing family farms in the Nordic agricultural sectors.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Arsen Poghosyan, John P. Nichols, Rodolfo M. Nayga
2002
This study examines consumer willingness to pay for irradiated beef products. About 58 percent of the respondents are willing to pay a premium for irradiated beef. An ordered probit with sample selection model was estimated. Standard errors of the marginal effects of the ordered probit model were estimated using the bootstrap method. Our findings suggest that females and those who think that improper handling contributes to food poisoning are more likely to pay a premium of 50 cents per pound of irradiated beef than others. Those who trust the irradiation technology are also more likely to pay a premium of between 5 to 25 cents per pound for irradiated beef. Supply chain implications are discussed.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Jan Pokrivcak
2002
I develop a two-stage political economy model that explicitly models the complexity of decision-making in the European Union on the Common Agricultural Policy, and I derive how the institutional design affects the outcome and the influence of the various agents involved, and the likelihood of political stalemate.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Nico Polman, Jack Peerlings
2002
In this paper a theoretical and empirical model is developed for analysing the decisions of individual farmers whether or not to produce wildlife and landscape services, how much of these services to produce and form an environmental co-operative in order to reduce transaction costs or to build up bargaining power. The model is applied for Dutch dairy farmers as the main users of agricultural land in the Netherlands. Simulations show that the reduction of transaction costs makes it attractive for farmers to form an environmental co-operative in case of a fixed price for wildlife and landscape services. Therefore more wildlife and landscape services are produced and more farmers are involved compared to a situation with individual supply. If demand is no longer perfectly elastic an increase in wildlife and landscape services production leads to lower prices offsetting part of the production and profit increase caused by lower transaction costs. However, if the environmental co-operative acts like a monopolist its bargaining position leads to a decrease in the production of wildlife and landscape services and higher prices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Albino Prada, Jose Manuel Gonzalez, Maria Xose Vazquez, Mario Solino
2002
This article presents results from an experiment into attribute perception and relevant levels for management of woodland and mountain areas typical of the Iberian Peninsula's Atlantic region. The aim, which the authors argue has been robustly reached, was to identify those aspects of forestry policy clearly perceived by citizens. This is useful for defining enlargement of areas protected under Natura 2000 Network. Results show clear preference for an increase in woodland to over half the current surface area, with replanting of traditional trees, in woodlands of low density and trees of different age and, preferably in irregular shaped plots.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Donatella Privitera
2004
It is well known that rural tourism and, agro-tourism in particular, represents one of the ways of exploiting rural development. It was considered, therefore, that an analysis of the territorial distribution of tourist resources might offer useful information for an assessment of the Community programmes, and in particular, measures regarding aid to agro-tourism enterprises. The aim of this work is to examine the impact of carrying out the structural policies of the 1994-99 programme for the Calabrian agro-tourism enterprises and also provide useful information regarding the new 2000-06 programmes.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Demetrios Psaltopoulos, Eudokia Balamou, Kenneth J. Thomson
2004
This paper presents an analysis and evaluation of the impacts of rural development policies implemented in the rural town of Archanes, an area in Crete which has received considerable rural development funds during the CSF I and II. A hybrid interregional Social Accounting Matrix approach is used to describe interlinkages between Archanes and neighbouring rural and urban localities. Then, preliminary results are reported on the diffusion- patterns of rural development policy impacts in terms of generated output and income. Results show that policy-related economic benefits leak primarily to the ’affluent’ urban area of Heraklion and marginally to the less-developed rural area of N. Kazantzakis. Taking account of the significant rural development policy investment that has taken place in Archanes in recent years, this finding raises doubts on the contribution of these policies towards the core EU policy-objective of cohesion.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Nataliya Pustovit, P. Michael Schmitz
Durban, 2003
Agricultural protection in industrialized countries and price distortions in developing countries are accused to hamper economic and agricultural development and are partly responsible for poverty and hunger in the Third World. A multi-commodity multi-country comparative static trade model is used to simulate the impact of different policy scenarios in this typical second best world for the case of South Africa.

Special emphasis is given to the disincentive effect of production and to endogenous policy responses in South Africa. In conclusion South Africa could benefit a lot by liberalizing trade and agricultural policies world wide, although it is an importer for most of the considered commodities.
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