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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 352

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Sanzidur Rahman
Zaragoza, 2003
Production inefficiency is usually analysed by its two components – technical efficiency and allocative efficiency. In this study we provide a direct measure of production efficiency of the Bangladeshi rice farmers using a stochastic profit frontier and inefficiency effects model. The data, which is for 1996, includes seven conventional inputs and several other background factors affecting production of modern or high yielding varieties (HYVs) of rice spread across 21 villages in three agro-ecological regions of Bangladesh.

The results show that there are high levels of inefficiency in modern rice cultivation. The mean level of profit efficiency is 77% suggesting that an estimated 23% of the profit is lost due to a combination of both technical and allocative inefficiency in modern rice production. The efficiency differences are explained largely by infrastructure, soil fertility, experience, extension services, tenancy and share of non-agricultural income.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Dwijen Rangnekar
2002
Plant breeders face a unique appropriation problem – plants are reproducible, genetic information is heritable and seeds can be multiplied. The paper uses indicators of varietal age as a proxy for durability to examine strategies of planned obsolescence. Using wheat breeding in the UK, evidence of strategies of planned obsolescence is confirmed. This is then corroborated with evidence of tendencies towards increased proliferation of varieties on the market and breeding strategies that focus on incremental productivity improvements (i.e. increased efficiency) and narrow and limited disease resistance (i.e. reduced durability).
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Emmanuelle Raynaud, Loic Sauvee, Egizio Valceschini
2002
For many agricultural products, the quality of the final products strongly depends on different stages of the productive chain. This stresses the importance of relationships between quality signal owners and suppliers in the vertical chain. Based on a New Institutional Economics analysis, the goal of this paper is twofold:
(i) to design a framework to study the links between quality signaling, coordination in the supply chains and the institutional environment,
(ii) to conduct a comparative analysis to identify, compare and explain the modes of organization implemented for the governance of different quality signs.
The general hypothesis is that, in order to assure the credibility of a quality signal, there must be an efficient alignment between quality characteristics and governance of the supply chain. To test this general hypothesis, we have conducted a comparative analysis of 42 case studies in 3 sectors (processed meat, cheese, fruit and vegetable sectors) from 7 European countries. This diversity allows us to compare the organizations designed to govern different quality signals in different institutional environments and to test the matching between quality signals and governance structures.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Karin Reiter, Wolfgang Roggendorf
2004
The regulation for the promotion of rural areas (Reg. (EC) No 1257/1999) and its subsequent regulation (Reg. (EC) No 1853/2003) serve as the basis for EU agricultural structural policy for the promotional period 2000 to 2006. Promotional areas established through the individual regulations such as agricultural development measures, measures to improve competitiveness and the previously accompanying measures of the agricultural reform in 1992, as well as compensatory allowences for disadvantaged areas, are initially consolidated in these two regulations. The Commission’s overall intention is to adjust the promotional areas in terms of time and content and thus to target promotional synergy. A further change in the promotional approach is that the nine promotional areas of the regulation are to be evaluated by independent evaluators according to a Commission designed European-wide evaluation grid (European Commission, 2000). The processing of the common evaluation questions is obligatory, should a question or part of the questionnaire not be answered, an explanation must be included (ibid., P. A-3). The Commission reserves the right to stop EU co-financing should the evaluation not meet its criteria. This paper places a focus on critical reflection about the evaluation grid required by the Commission with regard to its use in the evaluation process using the example of agri-environmental measures.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Marian Rizov
2002
This paper examines the production mode choices of rural households with an emphasis on the Role of human capital in the agricultural transformation process. Farm restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe has resulted in a broad range of farm types, such as co-operatives, partnerships, individual farms and combinations of those. The fact that resources are allocated into different production organization modes is attributed to the utility maximization strategy of heterogeneous agents deriving income from uncertain sources in the face of absent or imperfect factor markets. Empirical results from a multinomial logit model estimated with data from two-year nation-wide survey of Romanian farm households support the hypothesis that the outcome of the transformation process depends primarily on both the human capital characteristics of and economic risks faced by the households.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Jutta Roosen, Andrea Ordonez
2002
Voluntary environmental agreements have been popular with government agencies in several countries. However, many questions remain about their efficiency as a regulatory tool. Recent analyses suggest that they are more effective than conventional regulatory or economic approaches when dealing with diffuse pollution and when innovation processes at the source are necessary to define effective regulation. This paper applies an activity-based framework to assess the contribution of such a voluntary agreement to the environmental performance of farms participating in a whole farm plan in the Southern part of Belgium. Using a cross-section of 52 farms, our results show that farms entering into environmental agreements are environmentally more efficient than non-participating farms in terms of the preservation and provision of landscape features. However, their environmental efficiency with regard to the reduction of non-desirable outputs, such as organic nitrogen, is mostly determined by technical efficiency and not by participation in the whole farm plan.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
F. Rosa
2002
Structuring preferences has been developed with econometric models using functional flexible parametric form and the exploring the perceptions about expressed and latent needs using different multivariate approaches. Purpose of this research is to explore the demand for a new drink using the mean-end chain (MEC) theory and multivariate SEM procedure. The first part is dedicated to description of specialty foods for their capacity to create new niche markets. The MEC theory is introduced to explain the relations between attributes and consumers’ perceptions of secondary needs revealed as benefit and values. The second part is dedicated to the empirical investigation of demand of a drink obtained from the “Olivello spinoso” a spontaneous plant. Empirical data were collected with “face to face sensorial test”, and used to test the consumer perceptions for the product’s attributes and preferences using the SEM approach. Conclusive remarks are in terms of suggestions about the modification of the product’s attributes to increase the demand.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Johannes Roseboom, Paul Diederen, Arie Kuyvenhoven
2003
Appeals for targeting agricultural R&D in developing countries more explicitly to the needs of poor smallholders in marginal areas are often countered by arguments of efficiency. Others, however, taking a political economy perspective, argue that there is a bias in the selection of agricultural R&D projects towards commercial farmers in the better agricultural areas. In this paper, we try to bring the two perspectives together and illustrate how they interact. We analyze R&D budget allocation assuming two distinct R&D opportunity curves, one for poor smallholders and one for large commercial farmers. We find that, in contrast to the actual allocation of research resources, an efficient allocation (i.e., equalizing the marginal rate of return between the two portfolios) would increase the budget for smallholder projects by 29% and decrease that of commercial farmer projects by 26%. Total economic welfare would increase with 2.1% and there is a modest distributional effect: smallholder welfare increases by 14% and commercial farmer welfare decreases by 11%. In other words, more efficiency in the selection of agricultural R&D projects favors poor smallholders. We also analyze the effects of a premium on research benefits accruing to smallholders and find them to be limited. Rather than trying to shift the R&D opportunity curve artificially, we conclude that policies that can help to increase the profitability of research investments across the board (such as investment in infrastructure, development of markets, and education) and hence shift the R&D opportunity curve for poor smallholders outwards should be pursued more vigorously.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Mark W. Rosegrant, Claudia Ringler, Michael S. Paisner
Berlin, 2000
In order to understand the future of food supply and demand and food security, it is essential to focus on the long-term, fundamental drivers, such as income and population growth, and technological change in agriculture as influenced by investments in agricultural research, irrigation, and other factors.

In the remainder of this paper we take a new look into the future role of agricultural research and technology development in world food markets based on alternative scenario simulations with IFPRI’s IMPACT model. The paper starts out by very briefly describing the model, and then presents and discusses alternative scenarios with a focus on the role of technological change.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Arjan Ruijs, Caspar Schweigman, Clemens Lutz
2003
Reductions in transport and transaction costs are expected to have a major effect on the functioning of food markets in developing countries. For many developing countries, this is a relevant issue as it may have important consequences for the food markets in urban and rural deficit areas. A partial equilibrium model is presented to analyze the effects of reduced costs on cereal price formation, inter-regional cereal trade, and farmers' and traders' storage strategies for the case of Burkina Faso. Our results show that the high expectations with regard to the direct effects of cost reductions on food prices and food availability require some nuance. First, the effects of even a huge reduction of transport costs only will be small. Secondly, an element which is often neglected is that constructing a road between two cities may have unintended negative consequences on the competitive position of farmers and traders in other regions. Finally, it is concluded that only if transport and transaction costs are reduced simultaneously, both consumers and farmers will benefit significantly.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Carlo Russo, Massimo Sabbatini
2002
In this paper, equity management practices of Italian agricultural cooperatives are described and discussed. Financial statements of 1.483 cooperatives are analyzed in order to provide empirical support to the study. Data confirm cooperative undercapitalization and disclose the existence of diversity in equity management practices even within the same business sector. Thus, in order to highlight the relations between cooperative market strategies and equity management practices a cluster analysis is proposed. Seven main strategic approaches for Italian cooperatives are identified and the emerging equity management practices are discussed. The empirical analysis supports the conclusion that a large number of Italian are implementing “perverse” approaches, such as dependence from public funding and minimization of equity and investments. Considering increasing competition, without an innovative equity management approach, the majority of the analyzed cooperative is expected to suffer of relevant competitive disadvantage.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Mariorara Rusu
2002
The deep transformations brought about by the progressive and steady commitment of Romanian economy to the market economy have determined, among others, the modification of the role and status of rural household in the economic activity. Rural household changed from a simple participant, constrained to act in a certain way under a centralised, equalising and levelling system during the communist period, to a participant that carries out its activity in a competing environment in which initiative, creativity and efficiency are defining elements. Based on field surveys conducted at national level, the present paper intends to identify the evolution of economic behaviours specific to rural households under the influence of agricultural policy measures in the period 1997-2000. The conclusions of this study reveal that in this period, most of rural households operated under a subsistence system, according to an economic rationality in which market economy mechanism are lacking. However, the economic picture is far from being a homogeneous one: the emergence of a nucleus of agricultural entrepreneurs, i.e. those who assume the risk of shifting from subsistence to competitive agriculture, those who are trying to turn the peasant household into a farm managed on the capitalist principles, has induced new economic behaviours in the rural communities.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Klaus Salhofer, Erwin Schmid, Герхард Штрейхер, Friedrich Georg Schneider
Durban, 2003
The study evaluates the efficiency of government intervention using a vertical structured model including imperfectly competitive agricultural input markets, the bread grain market, and the imperfectly competitive food industry. To test for policy efficiency the actually observed bread grain policy is compared to a hypothetical efficient policy. To account for the sensitivity of the results in regard to the model parameter values computer-intensive simulation procedures and surface response functions are utilized.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Klaus Salhofer, Герхард Штрейхер
2004
Since participation in agri-environmental programmes is voluntary, associated with opportunity costs (most of these programmes aim at reducing output), and financial compensation for participation is typically a fixed amount per hectare, a tendency is likely to arise for some sort of self selection: farms in favourable regions which face high opportunity costs from foregone output are less likely to participate than other, more disadvantaged farms. When trying to estimate the effects of such programmes on agricultural output, this self-selection bias can pose severe problems, as a direct comparison of participants with non-participants is likely to lead to erroneous results. This paper tries to highlight the effects of this self-selection process in the context of the Austrian OEPUL programme and its effects on grain yields. After identifying various sources of this problem, some possible remedies are presented and discussed. The empirical analysis is based on farm-level accounting data linked with the official agricultural support data (INVEKOS) for a sample of 1327 Austrian grain farms. Two years of data before (1993 and 1994) and one year (1997) after EU accession are utilized to estimate programme effects on grain yields.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: Vittorio Santaniello, David Zilberman, Robert Evenson
2002, 368 с.
Книга представляет собой сборник работ, представленных на конференции, организованной Международным консорциумом по исследованиям биотехнологий в сельском хозяйстве (The International Consortium on Agricultural Biotechnology Research) в Равелло, Италия, 2000г. Тематика исследований является актуальной и широко обсуждаемой на мировом уровне – производство и потребление генетически-модифицированной продукции (ГМП). Основные части книги – отношения потребителя на информацию о ГМП, вопросы государственного регулирования, отношения фермеров к генетически-модифицированному сырью, изменения в промышленной организации наук и продовольственных секторах.