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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 352

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Oliveira Amimo, Donald W. Larson, Mauricio Bittencourt, Douglas H. Graham
2003
Many policy makers and businesses erroneously believe that rural populations, particularly in Africa, have no margin for savings over consumption needs. This study examines the potential for financial savings in rural Mozambican households by looking at the determinants of savings behavior. An econometric model for a household.s saving behavior was estimated using data from 113 rural households from Nampula province in Mozambique. Results indicate that income, physical wealth, household size, and years of schooling affect a household.s savings behavior. The study also finds that Mozambican rural households use their own grassroots associations for many financial services due to the lack of access to formal financial intermediaries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Giovanni Anania
2002
The paper shows how analyses assuming perfect competition can yield a distorted estimation of the expected effects of a trade liberalization when market imperfections exist. The analytical framework adopted is very simple and three extreme imperfect market structures are considered. In the first case, the exporting country maximizes its producer and consumer surplus by intervening in the world market. The second market imperfection considered is the existence of a private firm playing the role of “pure middleman” in the world market. Then the case of a producer-owned marketing board which is granted exclusive export authority is addressed. It is shown that under all three scenarios, if perfect competition is assumed when market imperfections exist, the impact of a tariff reduction on prices and volume traded is overestimated. A ranking of the size of such distortions in the three cases analyzed is provided. Finally, it is proved that when a private firm exerts monopoly and monopsony power in the world market, both the importing and the exporting countries may well be better off if, rather than making a move towards trade liberalization, the importing country “compensates” the exporting country by means of a direct transfer.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Sven Anders, Johannes Harshce, Roland Herrmann
Zaragoza, 2002
The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we intend to show how regional impacts of the CAP can be measured in terms of the price and revenue impacts. Second, new empirical evidence will be presented by use of the proposed method for regions in Germany. Data utilized are available over time (1986-99) and across commodities, so that regional support due to the CAP can be aggregated from support for the individual commodities.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Ana M. Angulo, Jose Maria Gil, Jesus Mur
2002
In this paper, the Spanish demand for food away from home is analysed. A panel data set is built and appropriate techniques for estimating limited dependent variable models have been applied. Results indicate that where there are zero expenditures, these are largely due to infrequency of purchase rather than to abstention or to economic reasons. Furthermore, important differences appear among households. On the one hand, those households whose head is a highly-educated person, male, young and living on a salary in a large town are more likely to purchase food away from home. On the other hand, increases in income only provokes more than proportional increases in expenditure for those households headed by an unschooled person, a female or a person older than 55 and also for those households with more than half of its members older than 60 years.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jesus Anton, Chantal Le Mouel
2003
Analytical results in the literature suggest that counter-cyclical payments create risk-related incentives to produce even if they were "decoupled" under certainty (Hennessy, 1998). This paper develops a framework to assess the risk-related incentives to produce created by commodity programmes like the loan deficiency payments and the Counter-Cyclical Payments (CCP) in the FSRI Act. Because CCP are paid based on fixed production quantities they have a weaker risk-reducing impact than loan deficiency payments. The latter have a direct impact through the variance of the producer price distributions, while the impact of CCP is due only to the covariance between the CCP and the producer price distributions. The methodology developed by Chavas and Holt (1990) is applied to calculate the appropriate variance-covariance matrix of the truncated producer price distributions created by the FSRI in 2002. Risk premiums are computed showing that the risk related incentives created by CCP are significant and they do not disappear for levels of production that are larger than the base production on which they are paid.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Shihomi Ara
Zaragoza, 2003
Organic rice production in the Philippines has been growing rapidly since 1986. We conducted a conjoint analysis to determine consumers. preferences of multiple attributes of organic rice in Manila and Naga city. Attributes included were price, reduced health risk level, environmental quality, eating quality, type of organic certification and a fair trade factor. In both cities, health risk was the primary concern. Consumers in Manila revealed organic certification to be the second most important factor while improvement of the farm environment was the second highest factor in Naga city.

We found that consumers who live further from the production site have a higher demand for certification. On the other hand, consumers who live close to the farms care more about the farm environment and have a lower demand for certification.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Narciso Arcas, Jose Luis Munuera
2002
The integration in second-order cooperatives allows the first-order agricultural cooperatives to complement their resources and capabilities, achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The problems associated with the creation, development and long-term maintenance of these partnerships, along with the lack of research into this area, justify the realization of studies aimed at improving our understanding of the processes and outcomes that characterize them. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to discover the factors which lead to the success of these relationships, empirically measured through the satisfaction of first-order co-operatives with the relationship. In order to achieve this, a suitable theoretical framework is established and an empirical study undertaken, with information obtained from a survey of 190 Spanish first-order agricultural co-operatives. The results obtained reveal that the contribution of the partnership to the first-order cooperative’s performance, its trust and perception of fairness are critical antecedents of the level of satisfaction of the first-order cooperative satisfaction with the relationship.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Channing Arndt, Peter Wobst
2003
We examine the performance of the primary school education system in Tanzania over the 1990s - a decade characterized by substantial AIDS deaths. Given the relatively robust correlation between educational attainment and productivity established in the literature in both agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, human capital accumulation through education forms a major component of development strategy. At the same time, AIDS poses clear threats to the goal of human capital accumulation through education. To assess performance of the primary school system, we estimate non-stationary education transition matrices using a minimum cross entropy approach at the national, sub-national, and regional levels for girls, boys, and all students. Results indicate a deterioration in primary school performance using enrollments in grade 7, the final year of primary school, as a metric. This deterioration in performance occurred despite increased real resource allocations to the public education system and positive, if only tepid, overall economic growth trends. We conclude that the HIV/AIDS pandemic has quite likely slowed human capital accumulation in Tanzania.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Manuel Arriaza, Jose A. Gomez-Limon
2002
This study compares the predictive performance of several mathematical programming models. Using the cropping patterns, yields and crop gross margins of eighteen farms over a period of five years we compare the models’ optimum solutions with observed crop distributions after the Reform of the EU Common Agricultural Policy of 1992. The results show that the best prediction corresponds to a model that includes expected profit and a qualitative measure of crop riskiness. The results suggest that, in order to obtain reliable predictions, the modelling of farmers’ responses to policy changes must consider the risk associated with any given cropping pattern. Finally, we test the ability of the proposed model to reproduce the farmers’ observed behaviour with equally good performance under conditions of limited data availability.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Michela Ascani, Gaetano Martino
2004
This paper aims to examine some aspects of the Rural Development policies in the light of the conceptualization of institutional complementarities. Actually, an increasing amount of analytical outcomes emerges in inquiring the relationship between specific institutional arrangements and the kind of economic and social problems they may solve. This suggests that under that view some chances of enhancing the knowledge about rural policy making models may be exploited. Actually, the rural systems constituting the European Rural territory show specific and complex institutional orderings defining a rural institutional field. This field calls for specific analysis and policy models. The market and the State are the main entities taken into account in specifying policy patterns in the Rural Development’s field, whereas a communitarian framework is often considered a rooted characteristic of the European rural development processes. The communities’ constituting processes is often not fully considered in the rural development studies. Even if the scholars have usually recognised a correspondence between Community and Rural System, this correspondence has still to be analysed. The paper would examine some Rural Development Policies (i.e. under the EU regulation 1257/99), by taking into account the roles of the market, the State, and the Community. In particular the communitarian field seems of interest in integrating different policy making levels, thus we would delineate the role of the Rural Development Policies in constituting or fostering Rural Communities. The Hohfeld-Commons analytical structure of rights and duties will be considered to this purpose. Then the analytical framework will be taken into account to delineate some opportunities for future scenarios emerging from the CAP reform.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Ignacio Atance, Isabel Bardaji
2002
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) intervenes in most agricultural systems that provide positive environmental externalities using both direct payments and agrienvironmental schemes. In this context, the objective of this paper is to compare the efficiency of the current intervention system versus intervening using agri-environmental payments as a sole instrument. The cereal steppes agroecosystem of Tierra de Campos (Valladolid, Spain) has been selected to develop this comparison. A farm survey and a Positive Mathematical Programming Model have been combined to provide results of both alternative instruments. The farm survey was used to ask the farmers their payments demands to participate in the alternative instrument, supplying also qualitative information about how it is perceived by farmers. The payments demanded were simulated in the model to get environmental and economic indicators for both instruments. Instruments were evaluated using a cost-effectiveness approach were total public expenditure was conserved constant for both. The main conclusion of this research is that policy intervention effectiveness could be potentially increased using an agri-environmental scheme as the unique intervention instrument. Considering this finding, results transferability to other agricultural systems and policy consequences in the context of the CAP are finally discussed.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Alastair Bailey, Xavier Irz, Kelvin Balcombe
Durban, 2003
The measurement of the impact of technical change has received significant attention within the economics literature. One popular method of quantifying the impact of technical change is the use of growth accounting index numbers. However, in a recent article Nelson and Pack (1999) criticise the use of such index numbers in situations where technical change is likely to be biased in favour of one or other inputs. In particular they criticise the common approach of applying observed cost shares, as proxies for partial output elasticities, to weight the change in quantities which they claim is only valid under Hicks neutrality. Recent advances in the measurement of product and factor biases of technical change developed by Balcombe et al (2000) provide a relatively straight-forward means of correcting product and factor shares in the face of biased technical progress.

This paper demonstrates the correction of both revenue and cost shares used in the construction of a TFP index for UK agriculture over the period 1953 to 2000 using both revenue and cost function share equations appended with stochastic latent variables to capture the bias effect. Technical progress is shown to be biased between both individual input and output groups. Output and input quantity aggregates are then constructed using both observed and corrected share weights and the resulting TFPs are compared. There does appear to be some significant bias in TFP if the effect of biased technical progress is not taken into account when constructing the weights.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Bruno Barbier, Robert R. Hearne, Jose Manuel Gonzalez, Andy Nelson
2003
In Honduras, traditional coffee processing is the cause of two major problems: poor coffee quality and contaminated water. In this paper we present a method that determines the trade-off between economic efficiency and contamination in a Honduran sub-watershed. The method is a bioeconomic model based on mathematical programming that simulates the functioning of the interlinked economic and ecological processes in the sub-watershed. We compare various scenarii where the model is given the possibility of replacing traditional coffee processing plants with a network of improved ecological plants. For different levels of contamination the model determines the optimal location and size of new coffee processing plants along river streams by minimizing transport, variable and fixed costs. The restrictions of the system are the volume of wet coffee to be processed, the available stream water, and in the alternative scenarii, investment capital and contaminant concentration in the river. We apply the method to a typical sub-watershed in the hillsides of western Honduras and show that coffee quality can be improved and contamination can be reduced substantially at a relatively low cost.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
R. Barrena, M. Sanchez, A. Gracia, Jose Maria Gil
2002
Recent food scares in the food market has caused a reduction in consumer’s confidence in the food system that it has induced a significant reduction in consumption in a sector, the beef sector that was already characterized by a saturated trend in quantity terms. In this context, all participants in the beef production system are facing to a greatchallenge, to retrieve consumer’s confidence in the food chain and to mitigate the reduction in beef consumption. The aim of the paper is to analyse the impact of consumer’s confidence in the food system as well as other factors on the explanation of food consumption reduction. A structural modelling approach has been used to analyse factors affecting the reduction in beef consumption in two different regions characterised by different production systems and different marketing strategies (PGI beef label). Results indicate that main factor explaining the reduction in beef consumption is the confidence in the beef and a positive relation has been found. Moreover, confidence in a product is directly related to the perceived quality offered by farmers and other decision makers on the beef chain, and to the consumer involvement with the product. Therefore, the main implication is that participants in the food chain has to develop adequate communication strategies such as quality labelling in order to increase consumers perceive quality because, higher quality perception will recover consumers’ confidence in beef, and therefore, it will mitigate beef consumption reduction.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Fabio Bartolini, Vittorio Gallerani, Meri Raggi, Davide Viaggi
2004
The objective of the paper is to develop a methodology for supporting the evaluation and design of agri-environmental schemes. The methodology is based on a combination of mathematical programming, contract theory and multicriteria analysis and is tested on a case study in Northern Italy. The methodology proposed can add insights into the policy design process, by taking consistently into account three issues often overlooked: the adaptation of cropping systems to the measures proposed; the diversity of compliance costs among farmers; the multidimensionality of the decision problem.
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