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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 57

Авторы:
все АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 13-01-2004
Daniel Berkowitz, David N. DeJong
Berlin, 2000
In previous work BERKOWITZ and DEJONG, used regional commodity-price data covering the period 1993-96 to document the existence of an internal economic border that divides Russia into two distinct economic regions: the ‘Red Belt’ and the ‘rest of Russia’. The Red Belt represents a group of regions that have broadly resisted the implementation of federally initiated market reforms. Here, we extend this work by quantifying two economic implications of this internal border. First, we show that the Red-Belt border has limited the transmission of price signals to regions within the Red Belt. Second, we show that regions within the Red Belt have experienced extremely poor growth performances relative to Russia as a whole.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Carlo Bernini Carri, Maria Sassi
2002
The paper explores the phenomenon of agricultural convergence on regional base within the EU economic cohesion that has always been and still remains one of the mainstay of the EU building process (EU, 1997). A crucial issue is the theoretical and empirical testing of a catching up process, that is a faster growth of the poor countries (regions) than that of the rich ones. The literature on this topic has strengthened recently, but it is mainly referred to economic convergence undermining the importance of the process in the agricultural sector. The relevance mainly refers to the role of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). It is the only European policy thought and managed at overnational level with the specific object to overcome the deep agricultural structural disparities within the Member States. This process has been considered fundamental to reach the agricultural and thus economic European integration. Moreover, the interrelationship (if any) between agricultural and economic convergence is of potential interest given that the nature of structural change within agriculture is likely to shaped by broader economic conditions (especially the state of local labour markets).

Thus, the paper first explores the process of agricultural and economic convergence using EU data on real Gross Domestic Product per capita and real Gross Agricultural Value Added per agricultural Work Unit at the level of NUTS 2 regions for 1982,1986 and 1994. Then, it analyses whether: - The intensity of the convergence process in the agricultural sector has been strong enough to promote a decrease in the gap between the agricultural and the economic performance; - The agricultural and economic process of convergence are related on territorial base. Policy implications are not analysed because data at regional level are not available. In literature, the results of testing convergence hypothesis are mixed and strongly dependent on the methodologies applied, the level of analysis, and the explanatory variables adopted (Bernini Carri, Sassi, 1998).
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Dirk J. Bezemer
2002
The replacement of wage-labour farms by family farms in Central and Eastern Europe during the transformation has been more limited than was initially expected. In this paper a formal framework is developed in order to analyse the behaviour of family farms and socialist-style farms in the presence of risk, given the typical post-socialist environment. Management incentives, ownership structure, lump-sum transfers and consumption choices are shown to have the potential to limit the size of family farms relative to socialist-style farms. The hypotheses are tested with survey data collected by the author in the Czech Republic.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Maria Bielza, Alberto Garrido, Jose M. Sumpsi
2002
Various forms of revenue insurance have been applied in Canada and in the US with relative success. In this paper different combinations of traditional agricultural policies and revenue and yield insurance are analysed for the Spanish olive oil sector. Taking a database containing about half million Spanish olive growers during 8 campaigns, five possible policies are studied and the results are examined according to different criteria including average revenue and its variability, growers utility gains, taxpayers cost and the transfer efficiency of support. The policies analysed are:
(1) non-intervention;
(2) the policy currently in force in Spain that combines a production aid with a yield insurance;
(3) a revenue insurance, only;
(4) revenue insurance combined with a production aid; and
(5) an aid per tree in combination with revenue insurance.

The methodology is based on Monte-Carlo simulations performed on about 100 groups of growers that have been grouped according to their expected yields and variability. Assuming and estimating olive oil price and yields correlations for each group of growers, the analysis allows for consistent policy comparisons at a very disaggregate level. Using the results for all analysed groups, policies are ranked based on the above criteria at the provincial and national levels. Results show that the current regime of EU production aids of olive oil eliminates the advantage of extending the current yield insurance to a revenue insurance. It is also shown that the level of support delivered by production aids cannot be reached with revenue insurance even with completely subsidised premiums. Finally, it is shown that the policy that combines tree aids with revenue insurance exhibits good results for all examining criteria.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Julian Binfield, Gary Adams, Robert Young, Patrick Westhoff
Zaragoza, 2002
Most of the large scale modeling systems used in the analysis of agricultural policies produce deterministic projections. In reality, however, the agricultural sector is subject to a high degree of uncertainty as a result of fluctuations in exogenous factors such as the weather or macroeconomic variation. A stochastic approach can provide additional information to policy makers regarding the implications of this uncertainty, through the use of stochastically generated projections.

This paper also shows how deterministic analysis may result in systematic errors in the projection of some variables. As an applied example, the FAPRI model of the US agricultural sector is simulated stochastically to analyse the impact of proposals for the new US farm bill.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Julian Binfield, Patrick Westhoff, Robert Young
Durban, 2003
In the Mid-Term Review (MTR), the European Commission proposed a series of changes to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). An important part of these changes was significant decoupling of support payments from production. In this paper, a partial equilibrium model of the EU agricultural sector is used to estimate the potential impacts of the MTR proposals on EU and world agricultural markets over the period 2004-2009. Effects of the MTR proposals are evaluated by comparing estimated outcomes under the proposals to those that would result under a current-policy baseline. The changes that are made in the MTR have the effect of reducing the production of the major commodities by varying amounts based on the importance of payments in production and the degree to which these payments are currently production inducing. For example, total area harvested for nine major crops falls by about 2 percent under the MTR proposals. In the livestock sector, however, where current payments are strongly coupled and form a large part of producers’ income, the reductions in production are projected to be more significant.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Regina Birner
2003
Participatory approaches in natural resource management are increasingly being criticized for their tendency to neglect power relations and conflicts of interests. Negotiation approaches have been proposed as a strategy to overcome such shortcomings. The increasing practical relevance of negotiation in natural resource management requires the development of theoretical concepts for analyzing the nature and outcome of such negotiation processes. Using the case of negotiations concerning crop-livestock conflicts in Sri Lanka as an empirical example, this paper applies the concept of political capital in combination with game theoretical modeling for an analysis of negotiation processes in natural resource management. An extended form game is used to examine the incentive structure of the resource users and the political decision-makers involved in the negotiation process. The pay-off of the resource users is measured in economic terms, while the pay-off of the political decision-makers is expressed in terms of political capital. The modeling exercise shows how the incentives of the resource users and the politicians depend on the probability that the public administration enforces a negotiated outcome. The paper discusses potential extensions of the model and concludes that the concept of political capital, in combination with game theoretical modeling, provides a useful tool for the analysis of negotiation approaches in natural resource management.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Markus Bjerre, Jorgen Dejgaard Jensen
2002
The paper deals with problems concerning the current sugar policy within the Common Agricultural Policy, especially the efficiency losses due to the combination of high prices and quota on subsidised sugar production. Based on a simple econometric model, the total economic costs of the current policy setting, compared with an unregulated setting, are estimated to be in the area of 20 per cent of the total sugar production, valued at world market prices. Of these costs, some 10 per cent are due to inefficiency in the crop production, as the opportunity costs of land are not taken into account because the sugar price support within the quota overrules these opportunity costs. However, according to the estimates obtained in the present study, the main economic gains by reducing the internal prices are to be found in terms of reduced consumer costs rather than improved efficiency in land use.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Christian Bjornskov, Kim Martin Lind
2002
In the wake of the November 2001 Ministerial Conference in Doha, the positions of most members of the World Trade Organisation diverge, reflecting a large extent of disagreement within the organisation. This paper attempts to organise these positions and thereby inspire a debate on the possibility of collusion in the coming round of trade negotiations with a particular focus on the options of developing countries. Members’ positions on a range of issues identified as important in the coming round are rated and used as inputs in a correlation analysis and two forms of cluster analyses to identify potential alliances between members with reasonably similar positions. The paper identifies nine clusters of countries that are internally similar. Among these clusters, the positions of most developing countries are most similar to the positions of the so-called Cairns group and the US, whereas the European Union and Norway are significantly isolated and positioned far away from the developing countries. The paper concludes that developing countries have opportunities of forming alliances with specific developed countries in order to promote their trade objectives in the coming round of negotiations.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Guy Blaise Nkamleu, Jim Gokowski, Harounan Kazianga
Durban, 2003
This paper examines changes in agricultural productivity in 10 Sub-saharan countries. The relative performance of agricultural sector was gauged using data envelopment analysis. From a panel data set of the 10 countries which included the 28-year period 1972-1999, mathematical programming methods were used to measure Malmquist indexes of total factor productivity. It was found that, during that period, total factor productivity have experienced a negative evolution in sample countries. A decomposition of those measures suggest that, most of the weak performance of factors productivity is attributable more to technological change than technical efficiency change. French-speaking countries better succeeded to raise their productivity than English-speaking countries do. In addition, it have been found that Sahelian countries failed to rise their agricultural productivity compared to forest countries where a positive evolution have been detected.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Ayalneh Bogale, Konrad Hagedorn, Benedikt Korf
Durban, 2003
This paper seeks to address the question: why does poverty persist in rural Ethiopia? We argue that it is largely a lack of entitlements to fundamental livelihood assets which urges poor rural farmers into livelihood diversification to make a living. We base our findings on empirical work, which is based on information gathered from a three-round survey of 149 rural households in Ethiopia during 1999/2000 cropping season. The FGT poverty index is employed to examine the extent and severity of rural poverty and reveals that nearly 40% of the sample households live below poverty line with average poverty gap of 0.047. The binary logit estimates shed light on factors behind the persistence of poverty and indicates that rural poverty is strongly linked to entitlement failures to crucial assets such as land, human capital and oxen. The study also reveals that poor households attempt to smooth their consumption and income through livelihood diversification, among which petty trading, charcoal making and fuelwood gathering for sale, brewing and
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Опубликовано на портале: 13-01-2004
Silke Boger, Volker Beckmann
Durban, 2003
The paper investigates theoretically and empirically the role of courts for contract enforcement in transition agriculture. In a survey of 306 Polish hog farmers conducted in 1999, only 38.5% of them reported to believe that they could use courts to enforce contracts with their most important customer. Furthermore, those who believe the legal system could be used would accept significant financial losses before taking action.

We develop a theoretical model, based on the costs and benefits of court enforcement, which captures the boundary between contracts to be regarded as "enforceable" and "not-enforceable" and, simultaneously, the threshold of taking legal action. The empirical analysis strongly supports our model: (1) the farmers. responds can be explained by cost-benefit calculations regarding the use of courts, (2) the legal "enforceability" of contracts depends not only on the efficiency of the legal system, but also on the attributes of the transaction, the contracts and the relationship between buyer and seller, and (3) the threshold of taking legal action is significantly influenced by indirect costs of court enforcement, such as the disruption of a valuable relationship, and by the availability of alternative enforcement mechanisms.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Peter Bogetoft, Kurt Nielsen
Durban, 2003
This paper discuss the design of multidimensional yardstick based procurement auction. The suggested design combines Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based yardstick schemes with the multidimensional score auction. The principal select a single winner to perform a project, characterized by a multidimensional vector. The design is especially useful when there are uncertainty about the underlying common cost structure as well as the principal’s valuation function. Potential applications in natural resource management is provided.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Stefan Bojnec, Liesbeth Dries, Johan Swinnen
Durban, 2003
This paper analyses the determinants of agricultural labor flows and the role of human capital in this process on the basis of the Slovenian Labor Force Surveys for the years 1993 to 1999. The household heads living in larger households, having a larger farm size, and working full-time (more hours per week) in permanent jobs are more likely to stay in agricultural employment. The empirical evidence clearly suggests that human capital plays a crucial role for labor mobility and labor adjustment. Young, female and educated individuals are more likely to enter into employment in non-agricultural, particularly service activities.

There are remarkable circular flows of elderly and less educated persons between being employed in agriculture, unemployment and retirement pools. Small-scale and part-time farming provide temporary employment opportunities. Investments in human capital to improve quality of labor in agriculture and to increase mobility and flexibility of labor are the key issues in synergy reducing labor mismatch and improving efficiency in labor flow adjustment.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Andrea Bonfiglio, Emilio Chiodo
2004
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the overall impact produced by the application of European development policies for rural areas of the Italian Marche region for the period 2000-2003. Towards this aim, the input-output approach is adopted. A Marche regional I-O table is firstly constructed using a hybrid method. To evaluate the overall impact throughout the territory, two models are developed and applied recursively: an interregional I-O model and a gravity model. As for the former, sub-interregional I-O tables are constructed, where the regions under study are, on one hand, the functional area receiving funds and, on the other hand, the rest of the Marche region. The gravity model is instead used to allocate among the other areas the impact calculated for the rest of the region. To show how the impact is distributed among regional areas, a Geographical Information System is used. The paper concludes illustrating the main results in terms of overall impact generated by policy and providing some considerations related to policy effectiveness.
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