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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 51

Авторы:
все АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G HI J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Kathrin Happe, Alfons Balmann
Durban, 2003
The paper analyses various forms of direct payments using the spatial and dynamic model AgriPoliS. In AgriPoliS farms are represented as agents which act and interact individually. This allows for endogenous structural change. The model is fitted to the agricultural region 'Hohenlohe' in Baden-Württemberg which is characterised by intensive livestock farming. The policy simulations show that the fixing of a single income payment and coupling it to the farming of land . as it has been proposed by the EU Commission in the mid- term review does not have significant effects on structural change, competitiveness, and income as compared to the current Agenda 2000 policy. In order to reach a significant and lasting effect on the competitiveness of agriculture, a further decoupling of payments would be necessary, in which direct payments would be completely decoupled from land and farming. Direct payments should rather be offered to farmers or farms, independent of whether or not farming is continued. Furthermore, area payments should be decreased to an extent which is just necessary to maintain certain land management standards. Such a policy would also break with the effect that a large part of subsidies and direct payments is transferred to the land owners rather than to the farmers. It is especially the farms with a growth potential and a high share of leased land which would benefit from such a policy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Anna Haring
2002
Organic farming is increasingly considered in the European Common Agricultural Policy. Sound evaluations of the effects of policy measures on organic farms in the EU are needed to face the challenges in future policy design. The effects of various policy scenarios on profitability and development strategies of typical organic arable and dairy farms are analysed for the EU countries Germany, Denmark, the United Kingdom and Italy. Based on an approach which integrates simulation modelling and focus groups, profitability of model farms is analysed ex-post for year the 1999 and their potential development simulated until 2008 under Agenda 2000 and three alternative policy scenarios. For each policy scenario potential farm adaptation strategies are analysed.

Size, structure, productivity, achieved output prices and policy surrounding of typical organic farms differ widely between countries and farm types. Great differences in the contribution of payments to total farm profit and farm family labour remuneration are observed. Dairy model farms are expected to slightly benefit from Agenda 2000, while arable farms are more susceptible to price reductions realised in the Agenda 2000 package. In adaptation to Agenda 2000 organic dairy farms are expected to grow, while arable farms are more likely to diversify production or envisage valued adding strategies. The effects of alternative policy scenarios on profitability of typical farms are similar in all countries. The choice of adaptation strategy of farmers in the different countries, however, vary significantly, mainly due to the current market situation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Anna Haring, Stephan Dabbert
2004
Organic farming has a long tradition in Europe. Policy support played a significant role in stimulating the growth of organic farming. However, large differences in the development stage of the organic sector exist between Member States and regions as the policy environment for organic farming differs significantly between Member States. This paper investigates the relationship between organic farming and measures implemented within the Rural Development Regulation. The status quo of support from second pillar measures for organic farming systems is compared to that of standard production and the impact of these measures on the organic farming sector is identified in 6 selected Member States (Austria, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK and France). The attractiveness of the different RDP measures for farms with organic production compared to farms with conventional production is evaluated via detailed qualitative and where available quantitative analyses of relevant provisions. All nine measures (agri-environmental programmes, investment support, Less Favoured Area payments, support for processing, marketing, and training) are discussed with a focus on the measures ‘agri-environment’, ‘processing and marketing’, ‘investments into agricultural holdings’and ‘training’. Most of the analysed national RDPs have a considerable potential for supporting organic farming. Organic farming is considered as one possible mechanism to achieve the sustainable development objectives and is addressed specifically in certain measures. Nevertheless, most of these priority areas still bear the potential for a more targeted support of organic farming.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Valentina Hartarska
2002
This paper shows that imperfections in the credit market and insecurity of property rights affect nonuniformly the investment of younger and established microenterprises in Russia. The empirical analysis of investment is based on the liquidity constraint model but also accounts for the added challenged that the weak institutional structure and the small size of the enterprises pose. Investment in younger firms is most constrained by the availability of funds, while investment in more established microenterprises is affected by the ability of the entrepreneurs to “secure” their property rights by paying bribes. Financial institutions are unable to distinguish good from bad borrowers but lend to firms that have transparent transactions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Jason Hartell, Maureen Kilkenny, Johan Swinnen
2002
In this paper, we attempt to shed some light on the state of current thinking in Europe about rural development and policy. To do so, the priorities and preferences of European agricultural economists who work in the area of rural development policy were identified using a survey that asked the following questions: who do we believe needs help, what are the problems and objectives, which policies are likely to be effective, who is able to deliver, and where do we get these ideas? The paper documents the diversity in rural development problems and favored tactics across Europe.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
David R. Harvey
Durban, 2003
Economic analysis condemns market intervention in favour of farmers as inefficient, if not also ineffective, and therefore well worth reform. Practical experience, however, indicates that such lessons are hard to learn and implement. Part of the reason appears to be that economic analysis seldom clearly identifies the real costs and benefits of reform, and seldom explains these sensibly to the relevant constituencies.

Furthermore, economic analysis rarely explains why the protectionist measures were adopted in the first place, or explores the dependencies that these policies generate. Without these explanations, and without reform strategies that take full account of them, policy reform will continue to be reluctant, slow and frequently counterproductive. This paper reconsiders the evolution of farm policies and the economic assessment of their costs and benefits, and draws conclusions as to the general shape of reforms likely to reconcile economic efficiency with political acceptability. In so doing, it re-phrases conventional economic arguments in terms which seem to accord better with sensible intuition, which may prove more accessible and credible to policy makers and advisors. It concludes with a substantial challenge to the agricultural economics profession.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Berit Hasler, Martin Andersen
Zaragoza, 2002
This paper addresses the combination of environmental regulation and rural development using an integrated economic modelling approach. Specifically, the regional impacts of regulating livestock density at the farm level are analysed in a projected 2010 setting. This scenario is motivated by a concern for nitrogen loads on ground and surface water. The applied model framework includes a macroeconomic CGE-model, an econometric agricultural sector model and a local economic model, and consistent links have been established between these models. The analyses show that the largest relative economic impacts occur in the western parts of Denmark. This occurs in the agricultural sector, because the highest livestock densities are found in the western regions, but also at the general economic level, because agriculture is relatively important for the regional economy in these regions. However, the maximum absolute economic impact on the regional economies in terms of regional GDP is only around one per cent in the most affected region.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Daniel Hassan, Michel Simioni
2002
The existence and the kind of asymmetry that characterize the relationships between shipping-point and retail prices are investigated for two major French fresh vegetables: tomatoes and chicory. Weekly data allow considering these relationships at very detailed levels such as region or supermarket chain. Moreover, the methodology proposes an implicit treatment of asymmetries in price transmission by using recently developed threshold cointegration methods. Our results do not give evidence to the widespread assertion that shipping-point price increases are completely and rapidly passed by middlemen on to consumers while there is a slower and less complete transmission of shipping-point price declines. As already emphasized in the literature, these results may be linked to the perishable nature of the two considered fresh vegetables.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Tobias Hausen, Ralf Helbig, Gerhard Schiefer
2002
This article gives an overview of a conceptual framework for the designing and implementation of an electronic trade platform. The trade platform prototype is the basis of a general conception for the design and implementation of internet-based trade platforms in agribusiness. The main platform focus related to the concept are to convert traditional business relationships and transactions into an electronic system. The conceptual framework provides clarification with regard to the benefit of trade platforms and the individual requirements of different value chains and chain levels.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Peter B.R. Hazell
2003
Small farms still dominate the agricultural sector in much of the developing world and they are still significant players in the rural life of many rich countries. As part of the economic transformation process, rising labor costs drive most small farms out of business, and only part time farmers and a few small- specialized producers of higher value products survive. Historically this process has usually taken several generations to unfold, but the process may prove much faster in the future. New driver variables are quickening the pace, including the miniaturization of small farms under continuing rural population growth in poorer countries, the trade distorting agricultural policies of most OECD countries, a shift towards increasingly integrated and consumer driven markets as part of market liberalization and globalization, and the demographic impact of the spread of HIV/AIDS. The viability of small family farms is threatened today in all kinds of countries in historically unprecedented ways. Yet there are good reasons why policy makers should want to keep small farms around, and this will require deliberate policies to provide them viable development pathways in an increasingly hostile world. This paper reviews the problem and discusses appropriate policy interventions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Thomas Heckelei, Hendrik Wolff
2002
The paper introduces a general methodological approach for the estimation of constrained optimisation models in agricultural supply analysis. It is based on optimality conditions of the desired programming model and shows a conceptual advantage compared to Positive Mathematical Programming in the context of well posed estimation problems. Moreover, it closes the empirical and methodological gap between programming models and duality based functional models with explicit allocation of fixed factors. Monte Carlo simulations are performed with a maximum entropy estimator to evaluate the functionality of the approach as well as the impact of empirically relevant prior information in small sample situations.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Werner Hediger, Bernard Lehmann
2003
In this article, we investigate welfare economic aspects of multifunctional agriculture, putting emphasis on the provision of rural environmental benefits. The formal analysis shows that the efficiency prices of agricultural and forest land include important amenity and non-use values that exhibit the character of undepletable externalities. Thus, to achieve a socially optimal land allocation these externalities must be internalised. We propose the compensation to agricultural and forest managers according to the marginal external benefit of their land, and a charge-subsidy scheme to improve rural water quality. Altogether, this is consistent with the requirement of optimal land allocation and would not cause additional market distortions. Moreover, it would leave the property right on the land and landscape benefits with the farmers, and assign the right on clean air and water to the consumers.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Agnar Hegrenes, Anders Ringgaard Kristensen, Gudbrand Lien
Durban, 2003
A model is presented to investigate the optimal economic life cycle of grass leys with winter damage problems in northern Norway and to determine the threshold of winter damage before it is profitable to reseed. A two-level hierarchic Markov process has been constructed using the MLHMP software. The model takes uncertainty concerning yield potential, damage estimation and weather dependent random fluctuations into account. A Kalman filter technique is used for updating of knowledge on yield potential and damage level.

The application of the model is demonstrated using data from two commercial Norwegian farms. Since parameter estimates vary considerably among farms, it is concluded that decision support concerning optimal economic life cycle of grass leys should be done at farm level. The results also show the importance of using a flexible dynamic replacement strategy. Use of the model for a specific farm situation is illustrated.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2003
Steven M. Helfand
Durban, 2003
This paper explores the determinants of technical efficiency, and the relationship between farm size and efficiency, in the Center-West of Brazil. This is the region where agricultural production and total factor productivity have grown the fastest since 1970. It is also a region characterized by unusually large farms. Technical efficiency is studied with Data Envelopment Analysis and county level data disaggregated by farm size and type of land tenure. The efficiency measure is regressed on a set of explanatory variables which includes farm size, type of land tenure, composition of output, access to institutions, and indicators of technology and input usage. The relationship between farm size and efficiency is found to be non-linear, with productivity first falling and then rising with size. Access to institutions, credit, and modern inputs are found to be important determinants of the differences in efficiency across farms. Improved access could strengthen the efficiency advantage of small and medium farms.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
John Helming, Jack Peerlings
Durban, 2003
A modelling system is presented and used to analyse the effects of EU dairy policy reform (Agenda 2000 and milk quota abolition with and without decoupled direct income payments) on Dutch agriculture and economy. The modelling system consists of a regionalised, agri-environmental, partial equilibrium, mathematical programming model of agriculture supply in the Netherlands integrated into a mixed input- output model. It was e.g. found that decoupling of direct income payments gives an extra stimulus to milk production after milk quota abolition. However, the increase in milk production is restricted by nutrient and manure policies in the Netherlands. It is also found that, although the total effect on Dutch GDP is limited, the income effects for individual industries can be large. Moreover, economy wide effects for non- agricultural industries exceed changes for agriculture.
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