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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 30

Авторы:
все АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J KL M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Giannis Karagiannis, Alexander Sarris
Zaragoza, 2002
In this paper we apply the technical inefficiency effect model to a set of eight different crop products (i.e., wheat, mixed arable crops, tobacco, cotton, olive oil, fruits, vegetables, and greenhouse horticulture) in Greek agriculture.

For each product, a panel data set covering the period 1991- 1995 is used and separate econometric results are obtained for each product. A particular set of socioeconomic and demographic variables is used to explain technical efficiency differentials among Greek farmers, including the direct subsidies given to each farmer, and the concordance of these efficiency determinants is discussed across the eight different crop products considered.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Laszlo Karpati, Zsolt Csapo, Laszlo Kozar
2002
The change of the political Hungarian regime in 1990 affected deeply the economy of the country. This change made effects in each national branch, thus in the agriculture, as well. A lot of new companies dealing with agricultural production and trading has also been established in these years. Since the early ‘90s a lot of EU support programmes were available targeting these enterprises and providing them to strengthen their competitiveness. One of these programmes was the PHARE IPP Project for the subsidisation of the agricultural investments (between 1996-1998). The University of Debrecen was involved in the implementation, monitoring and assessment process of this project. Based on the results and suggestions of the university, new supporting elements have been built into the subsidisation programme of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development in the recent years, further enhancing the position of Hungarian farms before joining to the EU.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Stelios D. Katranidis
2002
This paper examines the welfare effects of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) cotton, maize and sugar beet regimes practiced in Greece after its 1981 entry into the European Union. These markets are considered as horizontally related because there are usually the same farmers that use the same areas to produce various combinations of the relevant products. We use bootstrap techniques to conduct a statistical analysis of the estimated welfare measurements. The welfare analysis indicates that the income amounts transferred to farmers rose significantly in the period between 1981 and 1992. The 1992 CAP reform slowed down this trend, and transfers have remained at an almost statistically constant level since 1992.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Michiel Keyzer, Max Merbis, Ferdinand Pavel
2002
The paper argues that current long-term projections of global meat and feed demand may underestimate future consumption patterns for mainly two reasons. First, they do not explicitly consider increased demand for protein foods of animal origin with rising incomes in some developing contries, and second they do not allow for changes in livestock technology, in particular feed demand. We then project the impact of both mechanisms to show the empirical relevance of our comments and suggest ready-to-use tools to consider them within standard projection models.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Renee Kim, Milton Boyd
2002
Country of origin labeling and brand labeling play important roles in affecting purchasing behavior of buyers in the Korean beef supply chain. This paper presents a model which explain differences in the attitudes and purchase behaviors of three marketing groups regarding country of origin and other important quality attributes. The results show some of the diversity of buyers’ attitudes, preferences and willingness to pay for different country of origin and brand of foreign packers in three marketing groups.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Henry W. Kinnucan, Oystein Myrland
Zaragoza, 2002
An agreement between Norway and the European Commission specifies an increase in the export tax on Norwegian salmon entering EU markets from 0.75% to 3.00% effective 1 July 1997. Further, Norway’s exports are subject to a price floor and quantity ceiling, neither of which were binding over the evaluation period. Since the tax’s proceeds are to be used by Norway to fund generic marketing of Atlantic salmon, it is possible that the agreement is winwin, i.e., benefits United Kingdom and Norwegian producers alike. To test this, we use an equilibrium displacement model to estimate the agreement’s effects on prices, trade flows, and producer welfare. Results based on data through 1999 suggest the agreement is indeed win-win, but that currency realignments and feed quota policy can easily neutralize or obscure the effects.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Steen Koekebakker, Gudbrand Lien
2002
Empirical evidence suggests that agricultural futures price movements have fat-tailed distributions and exhibit sudden and unexpected price jumps. There is also evidence that the volatility of futures prices contains a term structure depending on both calendar-time and time to maturity. This paper extends Bates (1991) jump-diffusion option pricing model by including both seasonal and maturity effects in volatility. An in-sample fit to market option prices on wheat futures shows that our model outperforms previous models considered in the literature. A numerical example illustrates the economic significance of our results for option valuation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Julia Koerner
2002
Germany is the second important coffee market in the world, just overshadowed by the United States. Coffee is the most famous beverage in Germany – even more popular than beer. On the supply side dominate few roasters. Market structure influences the market outcome and explains the processors’ ability to exercise market power. This paper aims at studying the pricing behavior in the German market for roasted coffee. Respectively, it discusses the impact of three different explanations. First, market power may be due to low price elasticity related to a high level of consumption. Second, pricing behavior may be influenced by the industry concentration. And finally, pricing behavior may be change over time due to exogenous shocks. In particular, the degree of competition has changed as a consequences of a merger. Further, cyclical demand changes induce pricing behavior. Empirical results are derived using data on the aggregate market for roasted coffee in Germany during 1992:1 to 2000:12.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Ulrich Koester
2003
In contrast to expectations held by western observers in 1990, the farm structure in the Central and Eastern European Countries and the Countries of Independent States has not converged to the one prevailing in the West. In particular, remarkable changes in Russian agriculture in recent years have let to the emergence of new agricultural holdings combining under one umbrella many large farms. Does this unexpected development, unprecedented even in the West, contradict conventional wisdom about the determinants of farm size in agriculture? This paper argues that in transition economies external institutions seem to be more important than economies of scale and transaction costs on the farm in determining farm size. Whilst the birth of family farms in Russia seems to have been mainly constrained by embedded institutions of could-be family farmers and partly by second level institutions, the survival and the creation of holdings has been strongly supported by second and third level institutions, but embedded institutions have played also a role. Consequently, recent developments in Russia do not support the view that large farms or even holdings are more efficient than small or medium size family farms in an environment, which prevails in western market economies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
W. Erno Kuiper, Clemens Lutz, Aad van Tilburg
2002
This paper considers vertical price relationships between wholesalers and retailers on five local maize markets in Benin. We show that if the common factor and the long-run disequilibrium error are not explicitly taken into account in testing the channel model, one can easily be wrong about how restrictions on the error-correction structure must be interpreted in terms of economic power in the channel. The empirical results show interesting differences between markets and reveal that retailers play a more prominent role in the price formation process than generally assumed in the literature. Retailers in the two major towns do not allow wholesalers to behave as vertical price leaders, but in the two larger rural centers, wholesalers involved in arbitrage among urban markets are able to influence price formation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Karsten Kyed, Niels Kaergard, Henrik Zobbe
2002
The multifunctional character of agriculture is used as a main argument for agricultural support. This argument is theoretical analyzed in a model with decreasing marginal utility and it is shown that such a support must depend on the size of the agricultural sector. Consequently the argument is not valid for a common policy for very different countries as the EU-countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Johannes Roseboom, Paul Diederen, Arie Kuyvenhoven
2003
Appeals for targeting agricultural R&D in developing countries more explicitly to the needs of poor smallholders in marginal areas are often countered by arguments of efficiency. Others, however, taking a political economy perspective, argue that there is a bias in the selection of agricultural R&D projects towards commercial farmers in the better agricultural areas. In this paper, we try to bring the two perspectives together and illustrate how they interact. We analyze R&D budget allocation assuming two distinct R&D opportunity curves, one for poor smallholders and one for large commercial farmers. We find that, in contrast to the actual allocation of research resources, an efficient allocation (i.e., equalizing the marginal rate of return between the two portfolios) would increase the budget for smallholder projects by 29% and decrease that of commercial farmer projects by 26%. Total economic welfare would increase with 2.1% and there is a modest distributional effect: smallholder welfare increases by 14% and commercial farmer welfare decreases by 11%. In other words, more efficiency in the selection of agricultural R&D projects favors poor smallholders. We also analyze the effects of a premium on research benefits accruing to smallholders and find them to be limited. Rather than trying to shift the R&D opportunity curve artificially, we conclude that policies that can help to increase the profitability of research investments across the board (such as investment in infrastructure, development of markets, and education) and hence shift the R&D opportunity curve for poor smallholders outwards should be pursued more vigorously.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Tugrul Temel, Willem Janssen, Fuad Karimov
Zaragoza, 2002
This paper develops a quantitative, graph-theoretic method for analysing systems of institutions. With an application to the agricultural innovation system of Azerbaijan, the method is illustrated in detail. An assessment of existing institutional linkages in the system suggests that efforts should be placed on the development of intermediary institutions to facilitate quick and effective flow of knowledge between the public and the private components of the system. Furthermore, significant accomplishments are yet to come in policy-making, research and education, and credit institutions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Pavel Vavra, Nobunori Kuga, Jesus Anton-Lopez, Joe Dewbre
Durban, 2003
Milk producers in virtually every OECD country, and in many non-OECD countries as well, benefit from government interventions. Indeed, government support and protection for milk producers is more widespread than for any of the other commodities for which the OECD calculates producer subsidy equivalents. The purpose of the analysis reported in this paper was to investigate the relative market effects of these two varieties of government intervention in milk pricing: 1) interventions through trade measures applied to dairy products and 2) discriminatory pricing arrangements. Which kind of policy creates ‘dollar-for-dollar’ the greater effects? This paper shows the answer to that question is – it depends. Neither economic theory by itself, nor economic theory combined with ‘plausible’ ranges of numerical values for key parameters is enough to say definitely one way or another. In some plausibly real-life situations domestic milk pricing arrangements can be, at the margin, more distorting than explicit trade measures. The key determining parameters include the usual suspects – the relative elasticities of fluid and manufacturing milk demand, as well as initial price gap between fluid and manufacturing milk provided by various measures and the proportion of domestic milk production used to manufacture tradable dairy products.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Tapani Yrjola, Jukka Kola
2002
This study aims at assessing the costs and benefits of multifunctional agriculture, and it is one of the very first studies using a quantitative approach to this new subject. The starting point is that if current farm subsidies are regarded as means to maintain the multifunctional characteristics of agriculture, what happens if subsidies are reduced. The effects of the decline in agricultural support on multifunctional characteristics of agriculture in Finland are estimated using the cost-benefit analysis (CBA). Only a part of the consequences can be assessed by the CBA due to lack of data on the economic value of many elements of multifunctional agriculture. Hence, the results should not be generalised too strongly, but they still provide useful information for the political decisionmaking.

Concerning further research, we should study, inter alia, what the so-called correct level of compensation for the adequate supply of public goods would be, and what kind of means of agricultural policy are the most efficient to unambiguously enhance the multifunctional character of agriculture.
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