Эксоцман
на главную поиск contacts
Мы не берем все книги по признаку формального соответствия темам. Отбираем лучшее по качеству и релевантности. (подробнее...)
Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 24

Авторы:
все АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S TU V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Berit Tennbakk
2002
Over production is a persistent and costly problem in Norwegian agriculture. Support to agricultural production implicitly yields incentives to produce too much, i.e., causing market prices to fall below the target level, and thereby increasing the need for subsidies and additional market interventions. In order to restrict supplies, farmers are allowed to coordinate through marketing cooperatives. The paper argues that this coordination is likely to be insufficient in markets where the cooperative competes with an investor-owned wholesaler. Interventions in the market in order to remove excess supplies may induce further incentives to increase production. Levying a tax on all production in order to cover market regulation costs, moves the solution in the right direction but is impotent in restoring the target (second-best) level of production.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Ida J. Terluin, Gabe S. Venema
2004
The menu approach of the second pillar of the CAP allows regions/countries to select those rural development measures which suit their needs best. The selection from the second pillar menu, which consists of 22 rural development measures, has to be reported in the Rural Development Plan. In this article we test the hypothesis ‘Regions select a few measures from the menu which are according to their rural development needs.’ For this purpose, we analysed three main steps which have to be taken in the application of the menu approach: (1) the identification of rural development priorities; (2) the selection of rural development measures to relieve these rural development priorities; and (3) the allocation of financial means to these rural development measures. The analysis is restricted to eight regions in the EU: four intermediate rural regions (Northern Netherlands, Lower Saxony, Wales and Emilia Romagna) and four most urban regions (Southern Netherlands, North Rhine-Westphalia, Flanders and Lombardia). It appears that the case study regions selected quite a large number of rural development measures from the menu, varying from 12 to 18. The analysis reveals that doubts can be raised whether all selected measures are according to the rural development priorities of the case study regions. In addition, it seems that rural development measures are sometimes interpreted in different ways by regions and that the relationship between the rural development measures and the three objectives of the second pillar is not unambiguous. Therefore, some reformulation of rural development measures and objectives of the second pillar is suggested at the end of this article. The findings of our analysis may serve as input in the debate on the future orientation of EU rural development policy.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Rainer Thiele
Durban, 2003
This paper deals with the question of how responsive farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are to changes in incentives. Employing Johansen's multivariate cointegration approach and covering the period 1965.99, it investigates for ten selected SSA countries the long-run effect of pricing policies, macroeconomic distortions, and certain non-price factors on agricultural production. It turns out that - in those cases where cointegration relationships are found - estimated supply elasticities tend to lie between 0.20 and 0.50. Among the non-price factors, drought episodes have significantly impaired agricultural growth in six out of ten sample countries. Technical progress as measured by a simple deterministic time trend has only had a minor impact on output.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Colin Thirtle, Lin Lin, Jenifer Piesse
2003
Twenty percent of the world population, or 1.2 billion live on less than $1 per day; 70% of these are rural and 90% in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Research led technological change in agriculture generates sufficient productivity growth to give high rates of return in Africa and Asia and has a substantial impact on poverty, currently reducing this number by 27 million per annum, whereas productivity growth in industry and services has no impact. The per capital cost of poverty reduction by means of agricultural research expenditures in Africa is $144 and in Asia $180, or 50 cents per day, but this is covered by output growth. By contrast, the per capita cost for the richer countries of Latin America is over $11,000.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Antonella Trisorio
2004
This paper provides a first attempt of assessing the progress of Italian agriculture towards the path of sustainability. A set of indicators have been implemented taking into account social, economic and environmental dimensions of agriculture. Indicators may help policy maker in addressing and targeting policies, identifying possible priorities to which address financial resources. It finally suggests a possible solution to the problem of aggregation finalised at a synthetic representation of the progress towards sustainability.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Irene Tzouramani, Konstadinos Mattas
2002
Latest developments in investment analysis offer a number of valuable insights into how to evaluate investment opportunities encountering the weaknesses of net present value criterion. More specific, irreversibility, uncertainty and the choice of timing are conditions that net present value does not include but they alter the investment decision in critical way. Employing contingent claims analysis in tangible investments several assumptions made by discount cash flow method are concerned and better assessment results can be derived. In this work, an attempt is made to apply real options methodology in agricultural investments. Many agricultural investors face a growing uncertainty environment with high sunk investments and net present value criterion has been extensively used that may be lead to incorrect decisions. Both discount cash flow method and real options approach are employed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new technology project under uncertainty returns in agriculture. Discount cash flow approach indicates that the adoption of a new technology project under uncertainty is feasible while real options approach differentiates the results. The corollary is that real options approach can be proved conducive in assessing projects with uncertainty and irreversibility and it can furnish a new way of examining agricultural investment decisions.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Irene Tzouramani, Konstadinos Mattas
2004
New policy measures have studied and introduced to transform Europe’s agriculture into a more environmental friendly agriculture. Adopting environmental friendly production systems involves risk and uncertainty and to overcome this well designed policy schemes are required. This study attempts to examine the effects of income variability upon the decision on adopting or not environmental friendly production systems in order to evaluate the organic financial incentives to farmers by introducing the real options methodology. The real options procedure revealed that the investment in environmental friendly production systems must be postponed and the option of investment must be kept alive until the expected returns are high enough to offset the risk and uncertainty. Therefore, policy makers have to reconsider the current financial incentives if they want faster adoption of sustainable production systems.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Myrna van Leeuwen, Andrzej Tabeau
2002
This paper examines the influence of animal premiums under the CAP beef and ewe regime on beef and sheep meat farming in the Netherlands concerning instruments like stock density limits, quota on premium rights and premium payments. On the basis of econometric models, equations are estimated for beef cows1, bulls and ewes. Then, the impacts of the different policy instruments on the stocks are decomposed. At last, prospects of Agenda 2000 on the Dutch beef and ewe sector are calculated up to 2010. For policy makers, the study offers information on the effectiveness of animal premium instruments to manipulate beef and sheep meat production. For Dutch farmers, the study offers information to what extent premium instruments might influence the decision to incline or reduce their stocks.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Rhung-Jieh Woo, Hsin-Yeh Tsai
2003
Chrysanthemum is the primary flower Taiwan exports. However, the exports showed decreasing trend in recent years. The volumes exported were 826,596 kilograms in 2001, and Japan was the major market. About 99% of the chrysanthemum exports went to the Japanese market. Quarantine procedure is one of the measures Japanese government adopts to protect its domestic agricultural production. When chrysanthemum exports fail to pass the quarantine procedure, fumigation is required. According to statistics, the fumigated rate for Taiwan.s chrysanthemum exports to Japan reached 90Ѓ“ during 1996-1997, and was 70% in 1998. Fumigation could damage the quality and the reputation of Taiwan.s chrysanthemum exported. However, the degree of strictness of quarantine applied to the exports varied from time to time, hence caused the chrysanthemum exports facing with trade uncertainty. In addition, quality unevenness of exports, or standards that are not uniformly enforced could also cause trade uncertainty (not all exports are allowed to enter into the importing market).

It is suspected that the strictness of quarantine of a certain commodity is influenced by the domestic market conditions of supply and demand in Japan. During the seasons when Japan can produce enough chrysanthemum domestically, Japan might take stricter quarantine procedure to prevent foreign chrysanthemum exports from entering the Japanese domestic market. Trade uncertainty hence increased since not all of the amount exported each time is allowed to enter into Japan.s chrysanthemum market.

Since global agricultural trade liberalization is an unavoidable trend, non-tariff trade barriers are to be disciplined, it is expected that trade uncertainty of chrysanthemum trade between Taiwan and Japan will be reduced gradually during the process of agricultural trade liberalization in Japan.

The main objective of this study is to explore the possible influences of reducing trade uncertainty of chrysanthemum trade between Taiwan and Japan through quantitative analyses.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл