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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 30

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O PQ R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Atanu Ghoshray, Tim Lloyd
2003
This paper brings time series techniques to bear on the relationships between the prices of the principal types of wheat traded internationally. In all, the relationships between eleven wheat prices (categorised by wheat quality, harvest date and port of despatch) are scrutinised to uncover the structure of the wheat market implicit in the behaviour its prices reveal. The statistical evidence supports the notion of a highly integrated market that is segmented according to wheat strength . the principal determinant of end-use. Three segments are identified: a market for "strong" (bread-making) wheat, another for "weak" (confectionary products- making) wheat and a third for medium strength wheat suitable for unleavened breads and noodles. Whilst informative, market integration - detected by cointegration among prices . is not altogether surprising, yet the presence of cointegration implies a causal structure, which is of more cogent interest. Among a number of complementary techniques, linkages are uncovered using an innovative concept of irreducible cointegration vectors (Davidson 1998, Barassi et al 2001) which provides new evidence on price linkages. Statistical evidence is robust and not test-dependent. Specifically, we find a dominant price leader in each sub-market. In terms of its pricing, the EU is found to play a passive role in the world market, confirming a widely held view.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Monia Ben-Kaabia, Jose Maria Gil, L. Boshnjaku
2002
The analysis of asymmetries in the price transmission mechanism at different levels of the marketing chain provides some interesting information about the degree of competition in vertical related markets. The objective of this paper is to investigate the non-linear adjustments of prices along the lamb sector in Spain. The methodology used is based on the multivariate approach to specify and estimate a Threshold Autoregressive Model. Price relationships at farm, wholesale and retail levels are considered. Results indicate that in the long-run price transmission is perfect and any supply or demand shocks are fully transmitted to all prices in the system. In the shortrun, analyses suggest that the high degree of horizontal concentration among retailers allow them to have market power. Responses to any shock generate an increase of the retail price spread which is more evident when prices show an upward trend.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Roland Herrmann, Anke Moser
Zaragoza, 2003
In many industrialized countries, the grocery-retailing sector exhibits a strong and increasing market concentration. Hence, it is important to understand retail pricing for many questions related to market power in the marketing chain and to agricultural and food policies. We analyze intertemporal pricing of grocery retailers in Germany with a large set of scanner data for processed foods. In theory, food prices could be rather variable, e.g. due to fluctuating commodity prices in a competitive world, or rather rigid, e.g. due to price adjustment costs. We elaborate that retail sales are crucial and raise food price variability at the points of sale. Despite this, prices are rather rigid and often do not change for many weeks. Moreover, pricing strategies for identical brands vary strongly across retailers. Retailers seem to have differential pricing strategies and, thus, market power. This casts substantial doubt on the assumption of a competitive price transmission in the marketing channel underlying most analyses in agricultural economics.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Cynthia Donovan, Linda Bailey, Edson Mpyisi, Michael Weber
Durban, 2003
In Rwanda for the past decade, rural households have lived with civil unrest and genocide, changing land laws, large population flows both into and out of the country, and climatic threats with droughts and floods. The illness and untimely death of prime age adults from a number of health problems (increasingly HIV/AIDS) adds to the stress of these households and has lasting effects on the ability of households to survive. In this research, the authors use household and member level survey data to increase understanding about what is happening in households with such shocks and how they may be different from other Rwandan rural households.

This research finds that households affected by adult illness and death strive to maintain their agricultural production, and work to avoid selling assets, yet some households appear to be in a downward spiral, losing assets and income earning potential. They rely heavily on social networks for labor and skills, but clearly these networks will be stretched beyond their means in any continuing epidemics. Female-headed households in particular struggle to find labor with neighbors or work more themselves. If special programs are developed for the affected families, focusing on increasing land and labor productivity fits into their own strategies. Since households with prime age death and disease appear to be similar to other Rwandan households in the poorest two quintiles, such programs would be beneficial to rural households in general, and possibly strengthen social networks through generalized agricultural and income growth.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Luka Juvancic, Emil Erjavec, Morten Kvistgaard, Jens P. Olsson
2004
The paper reports on the experiences gained from conducting the mid-term evaluation of SAPARD Program in Slovenia. The methodological approach lies in comparative analysis of two approaches: empirical approach, based on the application of Input-Output model and conventional approach based on application of evaluation techniques as proposed by the Guidelines prescribed by the European Commission. Limited scale of implementation has raised problems in economy-wide assessment of the impact and success of the Program. In some cases, quantitative relationships were also hard to assess due to the impact of external influences. Important limitations were found also in the case of conventional evaluation approach. The analysed case encountered some data-related problems (deficient monitoring data, almost exclusive dependence on primary data). There is also a more systemic problem of a limited contextual scope of this evaluation approach, which fails to provide sufficient information in the policy formation phase. Apart from comparison of alternative evaluation approaches, the paper also attempts to provide some wider implications for adoption of 'evaluation paradigm' in rural development policy in countries without a previous experience in this field.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Agata Pieniadz, Heinrich Hockmann
2002
This study deals with horizontal product differentiation in the Polish pig meat market. Hypothesis among firms behaviour are derived from an illustrative model and tested in an empirical analysis using data from 1991-1998. The empirical analysis suggest that product differentiation is a relevant phenomenon in the polish pig meat markets. In addition we found that costs and competitions are important factors influencing price variation. However, further influences like price discrimination and vertical product differentiation are also important determinants for product price variations.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Bernhard Brummer, Thomas Glauben, Wencong C. Lu
2003
The study is devoted to the measurement of productivity and efficiency change in Chinese farming sector over the reform process in the 1980s and 1990s. Within an output distance function framework, an index of total factor productivity is decomposed into technical and allocative efficiency, technical change, and scale effects. We estimate a parametric output distance function using individual farm household data from the province Zhejiang over the period 1986-2000. Results indicate that during the more market-oriented reform period in the mid 1980s productivity and technical efficiency increased while allocative efficiency remain constant. However, productivity growth and technical efficiency slow in the mid 1990s when market orientation of the reforms was reduced and self-sufficiency as a major goal reappeared on the political agenda.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Lire Ersado, Gregory Amacher, Jeffrey Alwang
Durban, 2003
The adoption of more efficient farming practices and technologies that enhance agricultural productivity and improve environmental sustainability is instrumental for achieving economic growth, food security and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our research examines the interaction between public investments, community health, and adoption of productivity and land enhancing technologies by households in the northern Ethiopian state of Tigray. Agricultural technology adoption decisions are modeled as a sequential process where the timing of choices can matter. We find that time spent sick and opportunity costs of caring for sick family members are significant factors in adoption. Sickness, through its impact on household income and labor allocation decisions for healthcare and other activities, significantly reduces the likelihood of technology adoption. Our findings suggest that agencies working to improve agricultural productivity and land resource conservation should consider not only the financial status of potential adopters, but also their related health situation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Sanzidur Rahman
Zaragoza, 2003
Production inefficiency is usually analysed by its two components – technical efficiency and allocative efficiency. In this study we provide a direct measure of production efficiency of the Bangladeshi rice farmers using a stochastic profit frontier and inefficiency effects model. The data, which is for 1996, includes seven conventional inputs and several other background factors affecting production of modern or high yielding varieties (HYVs) of rice spread across 21 villages in three agro-ecological regions of Bangladesh.

The results show that there are high levels of inefficiency in modern rice cultivation. The mean level of profit efficiency is 77% suggesting that an estimated 23% of the profit is lost due to a combination of both technical and allocative inefficiency in modern rice production. The efficiency differences are explained largely by infrastructure, soil fertility, experience, extension services, tenancy and share of non-agricultural income.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Franz Sinabell, Герхард Штрейхер
2004
Community legislation requires that the programme for rural development is evaluated. A detailed set of indicators was developed by the commission and member states are required to use them to measure program success. To make results comparable requires that the methodology by which indicators are measured is well defined. However, this is not the case in this evaluation task. We take a small set of indicators and use two different approaches using the same sample and show that the results are deviating. We conclude that the success of this programme can only be compared across measures/regions when both, indicators and method are the same.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Wusheng Yu, Thomas W. Hertel, Paul Preckel, James Eales
2002
Projections of world food demands hinge critically on the underlying functional form used to predict future demands. Simple functional forms can lead to unrealistic projections by failing to capture changes in income elasticities of demand as consumer becomes wealthier. This paper compares several demand systems in the projection of disaggregated food demand across a wide range of countries with different income levels using a global general equilibrium model. We find that the recently introduced AIDADS system represents a substantial improvement over existing demand systems currently in use in CGE modeling. In particular, our projection results show that for relatively poor regions experiencing rapid income growth, the widely used LES and CDE demand systems tend to over-predict growth in consumer demand, and hence import and output requirements for food products and under-predict that for non-food products, compared to the AIDADS system. On the other hand, for high-income regions with modest income growth, the choice of functional form is less critical.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Daniela Lohlein, Johannes Jutting, Peter Wehrheim
2002
The objective of the paper is to identify the determinants of access to health care in rural Russia. We started out with the observation that the transition process has affected the provision of social services in the Russian Federation in general, and in rural areas in particular, owing to the overlap with agricultural reforms. Based on this observation we asked how the reduced role of the state and the concomitant decentralization of policy making has affected access of the rural populace to social services. A review of the available literature on this topic resulted in the formulation of the following three hypotheses. Firstly, that income is a determinant of access to health care. Secondly, that informal payments play an important role in determining access, and thirdly that there are large differences in access to health care services between districts. The hypotheses were tested using household data from a survey conducted in two regions of Russia in 2000. The results indicate that in the study regions, contrary to expectations, neither income nor informal payments are important determinants of access. However, there are large differences in out-of-pocket expenditures between districts, indicating that access to health care varies between districts.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Jing Zhu
Durban, 2003
China’s accession to the WTO poses great challenges to the Chinese agricultural sector, especially to the grain producers. Compared with major grain exporters in the world, most grain crops in China are high in production cost and weak in market competitiveness. This can be partly attributed to the fact that Chinese farmers are facing with poorer agricultural production infrastructures and inadequate public investment in agricultural research and extension, which leads to the lower efficiency in private inputs and thus higher private cost per unit of product. After China joining the WTO, protective and administrative measures conflicted with the URAA cannot be utilized as before. Alternative measures should be explored to provide help to farmers to improve competitiveness of their product. Public investment in agricultural research and other production infrastructures should be considered with high priority as one of the policy alternatives.

This paper examines the effects of public investment in agricultural research on the reduction of production cost of major grain crops in China by using crop-specific data for the past 20 year. It is concluded that, increasing public investment in agricultural research, which is well within the ‘green box’ policy framework and allowed by the WTO rules, is a plausible and effective measure to reduce grain producer’s private input and to enhance the competitiveness of grain products. It is also of great significance to sustained food security in China.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Roberto Esposti, Pierpaolo Pierani
2002
The public R&D capital stock is introduced as a quasi-fixed input in a variable cost function. The relative shadow price allows the correct measurement of the equilibrium levels of quasi-fixed inputs thus explicitly assessing the hypothesis of public R&D under (over) investment. By introducing an appropriate R&D price in the long-run equilibrium, the model can also provide empirical evidence on the rationale driving public R&D investment and on the hypothesis that free-riding on public R&D can explain overinvestment. Moreover, the model allows a formal testing of the induced innovation hypothesis and a more accurate calculation of both internal rate of return to R&D and residual exogenous productivity growth. The empirical implications of the model are appraised in the case of Italian agriculture for the period 1960-1995.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Rosanna Nistico, Giovanni Anania
Durban, 2003
Most food products can be classified as ‘credence’ goods and regulations exist to provide consumers with a substitute for the lacking information and trust. The paper presents an analysis of the decisions of producers and consumers about a ‘credence’ good in three institutional scenarios, which reflect different levels of credibility of the regulation.

The first scenario is a reference scenario in which the regulation is fully credible. In the second case considered there is no regulation, or, if there is, it is totally ineffective. In the third scenario a regulation only partially credible provides consumers with an imperfect substitute for the information and trust they lack. Some of the producers of ‘low’ quality goods share with the producers of .high. quality goods an interest in the introduction of a regulation as long as this is not fully credible. In addition, it may be the case that even producers of ’low’ quality goods who know they will not be able to sell their products labeling them as being of ‘high’ quality may have an interest in supporting a not fully credible regulation. Finally, rather than having producers of ‘low’ quality goods ‘block’ the introduction of a fully credible regulation, producers of ‘high’ quality goods are better off when a compromise is reached which leads to the approval of an imperfect regulation.
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