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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 352

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Franco Sotte
2004
There is a contradiction in Europe affecting the design of an efficient and effective rural development policy. It depends by the fact that the discussion on rural development is, as a matter of fact, an issue discussed prevalently in the agricultural circles and influenced by sectorial interests. The outcome is that the CAP reform proceeds too slowly and concentrates prevalently on agricultural aspects, neglecting to take in due consideration the wider complexity of rurality. Scarce is thus the integration with the other European structural policies. The paper presents first an analysis of the role reserved to rural areas in the elaboration of non-agricultural specialists and in the definition of a sustainable development and cohesion policy across Europe. In the following it examines how the CAP reform process has still only partially converged towards an integrated rural policy, maintaining substantially a sectorial character and a redistributive role. The MTR and the Salzburg Conference should be considered as very important steps in the right direction, but much remains still to be done.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Antje Springer, Georgios Papastefanou, Asterios Tsioumanis, Konstadinos Mattas
2002
As biotechnology evolves new methods of genetic engineering are now being applied to the production and processing of foods. This paper is trying to explore the attitudes of the European consumers towards genetic modification of food. Using survey data of the EU member countries the proposed research paper is planned to have a threefold output: 1) providing a comparative ranking of the EU member countries in relation to the prevalence of rejection of genetically modified food, 2) uncovering intra-european differences in genetic food engineering rejection as being based on socio-demographic and informational resp. knowledge based differentials between EU countries and 3) specifying the importance of socio-economic and informational determinants of a potential defender of genetically modified food by estimating the partial effects of age, gender, education, income, family status, size of household, knowledge on genetical food engineering and information use behavior in a multivariate model of the attitudes towards genetically modified food. This causal approach will be followed in selected EU countries representing extreme positions in the EU attitude ranking. By these empirical results the paper is trying to reveal intra-EU differentials of consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food, which is a necessary baseline for adequate and efficient policies in order to satisfy consumer needs for quality and security. The results will also prove helpful to the food industry providing differential information for marketing decisions and focusing adjustments in different EU food markets.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Chittur S. Srinivasan
2003
Many developing countries are attempting to address the inequities of plant breeders' rights by incorporating farmers' rights provisions in their Plant Variety Protection legislations to reward the role of farmers as conservers and enhancers of agro-biodiversity. Developing countries expect to generate substantial revenues for biodiversity conservation or for community reward schemes through the application of farmers' rights provisions. This paper applies a patent-renewal model to assess the economic returns appropriated by plant breeders from new (protected) varieties in developed countries. The estimates confirm a widely held view in the literature that plant variety protection is a relatively weak form of IPR protection which allows plant breeders to appropriate only limited returns from their innovations. Consequently, the application of farmers' rights provisions in a manner akin to breeders' rights is unlikely to be a source of significant revenue to developing countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Chittur S. Srinivasan, Bhavani Shankar, Garth Holloway
2002
Under the TRIPs Agreement, all member-countries of the World Trade Organization are required to provide an "effective" system of plant variety protection within a specific time frame. In many developing countries this has led to a divisive debate about the fundamental desirability of extending intellectual property rights to agriculture. But empirical studies on the economic impacts of PVP, especially its ability to generate large private sector investments in plant breeding and facilitate the transfer of technology, have been very limited.

This paper examines two aspects of the international experience of PVP legislation thus far (i) The relationship between legislation, R&D expenditures and PVP grants, i.e., the innovation effect, and (ii) The role of PVP in facilitating the flow of varieties across countries, i.e., the transferability effect.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Steven J. Staal, Dannie Romney, Isabelle Baltenweck, Michael Waithaka
Durban, 2003
Although soil fertility is recognized as a primary constraint to agricultural production in developing countries, use of fertilizer in Sub-Saharan Africa is declining. Smallholder farmers still rely heavily on livestock manure for soil fertility management. To explore the determinants of soil fertility management practices, including both the use of cattle manure and inorganic fertilizer, data are used from a sample of 3,330 geo-referenced farm households across Central and Western Kenya. A bivariate probit model is applied to jointly examine the use of the two technologies. Particular attention is given to measures of location related to market access and agroclimate, which in the adoption literature have typically been addressed using crude proxies. To avoid such proxies, GIS-derived variables are integrated into the household decision model. Their use also allows the spatial prediction of uptake based on parameter estimates. The results show clearly the derived-demand nature of soil fertility services, based on markets for farm outputs. They also illustrate that supply of manure for soil fertility amendments is conditioned by demand for livestock products, especially milk. The integration of GIS-derived variables is shown to better estimate the effects of location than the usual measures employed, and offers scope to wider use in technology adoption research.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Gianluca Stefani, Donato Romano, Benedetto Rocchi
2002
The paper presents the results of the first SAM analysis of the agricultural sector in Italy. A SAM of the Italian economy has been properly modified in order to focus the analysis on agriculture. Two type of analysis have been carried out:
(i) a multiplier analysis, and
(ii) an assessment of the distributive impacts of different agricultural policies.

This paper proposes also a new method for disaggregating the institutional sectors and production factors in order to analyze income distribution within the economy, with special emphasis on the agricultural sector. Main results are: (i) ‘fully’ decoupled income supporting schemes (transfers to agricultural households) are the most equitable interventions and determine a perfect targeting of the distributive effect on the relevant institutional sectors; (ii) ‘partially’ decoupled income supporting interventions, as the ones implemented under the current CAP, are more effective than others in indirectly (i.e., through multiplier effects) generating positive impacts on the income of agricultural households; (iii) agricultural price support interventions show less desirable effects in terms of their distributive impacts: they are less effective as agricultural incomeincreasing policies and their distributive impacts are biased against poorer households both in agricultural and non-agricultural sectors.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Daniela Storti, Roberto Henke, Maria Carmela Macrì
2004
The paper looks at the debate on economic development in rural areas and its influence on the evolution of European rural policies and on the concept of rurality itself, in order to clarify the main factors explaining the ‘logic of economic development’ in rural areas. To accomplish such objective, the main approach to rurality will be reviewed together with theories on economic development in rural regions and the changes in the nature and content of European rural policies over the last few decades. Secondly, the paper analyses the content of rural development regulation (RDR) in the EU, pointing out the enduring centrality, in the framework of EU policies, of agricultural concerns and the lack of a truly innovative place based rural policy, together with the emergence of a genuine tendency to the valorisation of the multifunctional role of agriculture. The objective is to verify at what degree the practice of rural development policies in different Member states incorporates new concerns linked to multifunctionality, environment and to the creation of new opportunities of rural employment. To accomplish this objective this paper presents a comparative analysis of the Rural Development Programmes, attaining at the “second pillar” of CAP, of three countries in the EU.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Jim Stout, Susan Leetmaa, Anne Normile
2002
This paper provides an overview of the European Union component of the recently developed ERS/Penn State WTO Model. The model is a multi-region, multi-commodity partial equilibrium trade model which allows the user to simulate the effects of reducing or eliminating tariffs and TRQs, export subsidies, and domestic support policies. The paper describes how the model captures the important agricultural policies of the EU, and presents results from model simulations of domestic support liberalization, export subsidy elimination, and tariff removal.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
John Sumelius, Zoran Grgic, Milan Mesic, Ramona Franic
Durban, 2003
The aim of this paper is to identify optional ways of preventing NO3-levels from rising within Croatian farming systems, and the implications from the viewpoint of the manager. More specifically, the purpose is to

1) Determine whether Croatian farmers exceed profit maximising levels of N-fertiliser use in maize cultivation, and its possible influence on NO3-N-levels.

2) To estimate the marginal abatement cost (MAC), at the farm level, of reducing NO3-N leaching through the following instruments: a tax on optimal N-doses, a product tax and an N-fertiliser quota and a requirement for all instruments to correspond to the same abatement level.

Based on N-response experiment from feld trial for maize N-response curves were estimated. A sample of 20 family farms was used for calculating intensity, nutrient content in manure, and the prices paid for N and obtained for maize. Profit maximising doses from the field trials were compared with the use of nutrients on farms. An effluent production function was estimated based on experiments with NO3-N contents in lysimeter water for the same treatment levels as those in the N-response experiments. The results indicate that farmers use higher than optimal levels of N-fertilisers, if the manure is fully accounted for. In this case the estimated NO3-N/l level in groundwater is 162-192 % higher than the critical level stipulated by the Nitrate Directive. Neglecting the N-content in manure shows close to profit maximising nutrient levels . At this fertlising level the estimated NO3/l is approximately 62 mg NO3/l or clearly higher that the critical level stipulated by the nitrate directive (50 mg NO3/l). Through any of the three instruments a 76% NO3-leaching reduction could be obtained. It was concluded, however, that the quota has the lowest MAC (0.92 euro/mg NO3/l), followed by the N-fertiliser tax (3.65 euro/mg NO3/l), and the product tax comes in third place (9.32 euro/mg NO3/l). Management practices that may increase yield levels, and correspondingly NO3-leaching in the short and long run, were also identified. One way to achieve a quick improvement might be a system of cross compliance, stipulating a code of good agricultural practices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Mona Sur, Dina Umali-Deininger
2003
Public investments in surface irrigation in India have been important in generating agricultural growth and in reducing the threat of poverty and food insecurity. The expansion of irrigation infrastructure and subsidized delivery of irrigation water, along with improved fertilizers and agro-chemicals, facilitated the rapid diffusion of modern high yielding varieties of crops. Irrigation also led to increases in cultivated area, higher cropping intensities and shifts in cropping patterns to higher value-added crops. Water from surface irrigation systems has provided additional benefits as a source of drinking water supply, and in generating power, for industry and residential consumers. Over time the costs of providing and expanding surface irrigation have increased but revenues from irrigation have fallen short of expenditures. The accumulation of financial losses in the irrigation sector has contributed to mounting fiscal crises in Indian states (World Bank 1997, World Bank 2000a,b, World Bank 2001b, World Bank 2003a, Gulati and Sudnarayan 2003) Limited irrigation revenues have also resulted in inadequate expenditures on operation and maintenance (O&M), contributing to the deterioration of existing irrigation infrastructure. Furthermore, the under-pricing of surface irrigation water has encouraged inefficient use, contributing to environmental problems including salinity and waterlogging (Joshi and Tyagi 1995, World Bank 1999, Gulati and Sudanarayan 2003). The social justification of the subsidies are also increasingly debated, particularly how these subsidies are distributed across the population and whether they benefit the poor. The equity consequences of public surface irrigation subsidies are the focus of this paper. Understanding the equity dimension of these subsidies in public surface irrigation systems2 is important not only in determining whether the subsidies benefit the poor, but also in providing policy directions in designing cost-recovery strategies. In order to minimize or eliminate any adverse impacts of cost recovery measures on poor and vulnerable groups, it is necessary to identify how the various users of irrigation water are affected. This paper is organized as follows. Section 1 reviews the structure of surface irrigation charges and the trends in irrigation expenditures and revenues in India. Section 2 discusses the measurement of irrigation subsidies and the data. Section 3 examines the incidence of surface irrigation subsidies and section 4 summarizes the magnitude of these subsidies. Section 5 elaborates the policy implications of the findings of the study.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Yves Surry, Rabelais Yankam Njonou, Bruno Henry De Frahan
2002
This study has used a corrected likelihood ratio, with AIDS and Rotterdam demand models, to test separability in three separable (A, B, C) wheat import demand structures on the French common wheat market. It appears from the study that the three separable Rotterdam structures are accepted by the test, while only two of them (B and C) are accepted in the case of AIDS at 5% level of significance. Meanwhile, model B seems to be more indicated in demand analysis with AIDS since it is the only one accepted at 15% level of significance. The results obtained demonstrate not only the necessity to test separability in demand structures, but also the necessity to know how the allocation models can be used for demand analysis purpose. The study has also shown a great difference in econometric results for AIDS and Rotterdam and pose once more the issue of the choice of a functional form in demand analysis.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Ran Tao, Mingxing Liu, Qi Zhang
Durban, 2003
This paper places the problem of Chinese rural taxation in the context of government regulation and tries to present an integrated theoretical framework of rural development in China in the past two decades. Our theoretical framework can reconcile the stylized facts that the average level of rural taxation relative to rural net income after the 1990s did not increase very fast, but rural taxation became a very serious problem in this period. We found that this is in large part due to the increase of rural income disparity after 1990s and the uneven tax and fee distribution among different income groups. We argue that differentiated enforcement of the government regulations such as grain procurement and birth control play an important role in the rural taxation problem, and more generally, the problem of expanding local government size and rising rural income disparity. The empirical findings do support our hypothesis.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Erly C. Teixeira, Luiz A. Cypriano
Durban, 2003
Focusing on changes in agricultural policy, this paper examines the economic impacts on MERCOSUL member country economies arising from the creation of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) and a free trade area between MERCOSUL and the European Union (MERCOEURO). Four simulations are run using the Global Trade Analysis Project's (GTAP) applied general equilibrium model. The results suggest these new trade alliances would cause an increase in MERCOSUL agribusiness production and a decrease in manufactures production. In all scenarios, agricultural trade flows are greatly altered, expanding MERCOSUL agribusiness exports. Economic growth for the MERCOSUL countries increases only in the MERCOEURO scenarios. The elimination of agriculture production and export subsidies by members of the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) and European Union (E.U.) has strong economic impacts on the MERCOSUL member countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Tugrul Temel, Willem Janssen, Fuad Karimov
Zaragoza, 2002
This paper develops a quantitative, graph-theoretic method for analysing systems of institutions. With an application to the agricultural innovation system of Azerbaijan, the method is illustrated in detail. An assessment of existing institutional linkages in the system suggests that efforts should be placed on the development of intermediary institutions to facilitate quick and effective flow of knowledge between the public and the private components of the system. Furthermore, significant accomplishments are yet to come in policy-making, research and education, and credit institutions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Berit Tennbakk
2002
Over production is a persistent and costly problem in Norwegian agriculture. Support to agricultural production implicitly yields incentives to produce too much, i.e., causing market prices to fall below the target level, and thereby increasing the need for subsidies and additional market interventions. In order to restrict supplies, farmers are allowed to coordinate through marketing cooperatives. The paper argues that this coordination is likely to be insufficient in markets where the cooperative competes with an investor-owned wholesaler. Interventions in the market in order to remove excess supplies may induce further incentives to increase production. Levying a tax on all production in order to cover market regulation costs, moves the solution in the right direction but is impotent in restoring the target (second-best) level of production.
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