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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 352

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Ida J. Terluin, Gabe S. Venema
2004
The menu approach of the second pillar of the CAP allows regions/countries to select those rural development measures which suit their needs best. The selection from the second pillar menu, which consists of 22 rural development measures, has to be reported in the Rural Development Plan. In this article we test the hypothesis ‘Regions select a few measures from the menu which are according to their rural development needs.’ For this purpose, we analysed three main steps which have to be taken in the application of the menu approach: (1) the identification of rural development priorities; (2) the selection of rural development measures to relieve these rural development priorities; and (3) the allocation of financial means to these rural development measures. The analysis is restricted to eight regions in the EU: four intermediate rural regions (Northern Netherlands, Lower Saxony, Wales and Emilia Romagna) and four most urban regions (Southern Netherlands, North Rhine-Westphalia, Flanders and Lombardia). It appears that the case study regions selected quite a large number of rural development measures from the menu, varying from 12 to 18. The analysis reveals that doubts can be raised whether all selected measures are according to the rural development priorities of the case study regions. In addition, it seems that rural development measures are sometimes interpreted in different ways by regions and that the relationship between the rural development measures and the three objectives of the second pillar is not unambiguous. Therefore, some reformulation of rural development measures and objectives of the second pillar is suggested at the end of this article. The findings of our analysis may serve as input in the debate on the future orientation of EU rural development policy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Rainer Thiele
Durban, 2003
This paper deals with the question of how responsive farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are to changes in incentives. Employing Johansen's multivariate cointegration approach and covering the period 1965.99, it investigates for ten selected SSA countries the long-run effect of pricing policies, macroeconomic distortions, and certain non-price factors on agricultural production. It turns out that - in those cases where cointegration relationships are found - estimated supply elasticities tend to lie between 0.20 and 0.50. Among the non-price factors, drought episodes have significantly impaired agricultural growth in six out of ten sample countries. Technical progress as measured by a simple deterministic time trend has only had a minor impact on output.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Colin Thirtle, Lin Lin, Jenifer Piesse
2003
Twenty percent of the world population, or 1.2 billion live on less than $1 per day; 70% of these are rural and 90% in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Research led technological change in agriculture generates sufficient productivity growth to give high rates of return in Africa and Asia and has a substantial impact on poverty, currently reducing this number by 27 million per annum, whereas productivity growth in industry and services has no impact. The per capital cost of poverty reduction by means of agricultural research expenditures in Africa is $144 and in Asia $180, or 50 cents per day, but this is covered by output growth. By contrast, the per capita cost for the richer countries of Latin America is over $11,000.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Antonella Trisorio
2004
This paper provides a first attempt of assessing the progress of Italian agriculture towards the path of sustainability. A set of indicators have been implemented taking into account social, economic and environmental dimensions of agriculture. Indicators may help policy maker in addressing and targeting policies, identifying possible priorities to which address financial resources. It finally suggests a possible solution to the problem of aggregation finalised at a synthetic representation of the progress towards sustainability.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Irene Tzouramani, Konstadinos Mattas
2002
Latest developments in investment analysis offer a number of valuable insights into how to evaluate investment opportunities encountering the weaknesses of net present value criterion. More specific, irreversibility, uncertainty and the choice of timing are conditions that net present value does not include but they alter the investment decision in critical way. Employing contingent claims analysis in tangible investments several assumptions made by discount cash flow method are concerned and better assessment results can be derived. In this work, an attempt is made to apply real options methodology in agricultural investments. Many agricultural investors face a growing uncertainty environment with high sunk investments and net present value criterion has been extensively used that may be lead to incorrect decisions. Both discount cash flow method and real options approach are employed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new technology project under uncertainty returns in agriculture. Discount cash flow approach indicates that the adoption of a new technology project under uncertainty is feasible while real options approach differentiates the results. The corollary is that real options approach can be proved conducive in assessing projects with uncertainty and irreversibility and it can furnish a new way of examining agricultural investment decisions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Irene Tzouramani, Konstadinos Mattas
2004
New policy measures have studied and introduced to transform Europe’s agriculture into a more environmental friendly agriculture. Adopting environmental friendly production systems involves risk and uncertainty and to overcome this well designed policy schemes are required. This study attempts to examine the effects of income variability upon the decision on adopting or not environmental friendly production systems in order to evaluate the organic financial incentives to farmers by introducing the real options methodology. The real options procedure revealed that the investment in environmental friendly production systems must be postponed and the option of investment must be kept alive until the expected returns are high enough to offset the risk and uncertainty. Therefore, policy makers have to reconsider the current financial incentives if they want faster adoption of sustainable production systems.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Mieke Vandermersch, Erik Mathijs
2002
To assess the performance of a farmer and to identify best practice among a group of farmers, the assumption is often made that all farmers maximize profits and thus share the same business goals. However, performance differs due to personal characteristics, objectives and strategies. A survey carried out among 73 Belgian dairy farmers revealed that for only 34% of the farmers ‘profit maximization’ is a primary objective. A regression analysis revealed that self-declared profit maximizers only obtained a higher farm income per liter, not per labour unit. Through cluster analysis, four main groups of farmers were found with similar objectives and management ideas:
(A) risk-taking and progressive cow farmers,
(B) riskaverse and progressive labour savers,
(C) risk-neutral and relatively conservative profit maximizers and
(D) risk-averse and conservative cow farmers.
Gross margin per liter was highest for the labour savers. Other performance parameters were higher for cluster B only compared to cluster D. Scale economies were found for all performance parameters except for gross margin per liter.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Myrna van Leeuwen, Andrzej Tabeau
2002
This paper examines the influence of animal premiums under the CAP beef and ewe regime on beef and sheep meat farming in the Netherlands concerning instruments like stock density limits, quota on premium rights and premium payments. On the basis of econometric models, equations are estimated for beef cows1, bulls and ewes. Then, the impacts of the different policy instruments on the stocks are decomposed. At last, prospects of Agenda 2000 on the Dutch beef and ewe sector are calculated up to 2010. For policy makers, the study offers information on the effectiveness of animal premium instruments to manipulate beef and sheep meat production. For Dutch farmers, the study offers information to what extent premium instruments might influence the decision to incline or reduce their stocks.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Hans van Meijl, Frank van Tongeren
2003
This paper analyses the impact of adopting or rejecting genetically modified GM crops in the EU, taking into account the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In this paper the productivity impact of GMs differs across crops, as it takes factor biased technology change into account. The transfer of knowledge across countries is modelled as a process of endogenous knowledge spillovers. Analyses with a multi-region applied general equilibrium model shows that the CAP protects farm income and production from not adopting GM crops in the EU but has costs in terms of welfare. The EU will forgo substantial benefits if it banned GM imports.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
David Vanzetti, Ralf Peters
2003
Proposals for agricultural trade reform put forward by the main protagonists remain far apart, with little sign of convergence. In an attempt to progress the negotiations towards a successful outcome, the chairman of the WTO Committee on Agriculture has proposed a compromise. The alternative proposals by the United States, the European Union and the WTO are analysed with the Agricultural Trade Policy Simulation Model, a static, multi-commodity, multi-region, partial equilibrium trade model. The estimated annual global welfare gains are $26 billion, $12 billion and $17 billion respectively. Least developed countries, as a group, gain from the US proposal but are made worse off under the WTO and EU proposals. Furthermore, in the best case many individual countries experience welfare losses. However, all countries enjoy increased export revenues and tariff revenues hold up quite well under the two less stringent proposals.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Pavel Vavra, Nobunori Kuga, Jesus Anton-Lopez, Joe Dewbre
Durban, 2003
Milk producers in virtually every OECD country, and in many non-OECD countries as well, benefit from government interventions. Indeed, government support and protection for milk producers is more widespread than for any of the other commodities for which the OECD calculates producer subsidy equivalents. The purpose of the analysis reported in this paper was to investigate the relative market effects of these two varieties of government intervention in milk pricing: 1) interventions through trade measures applied to dairy products and 2) discriminatory pricing arrangements. Which kind of policy creates ‘dollar-for-dollar’ the greater effects? This paper shows the answer to that question is – it depends. Neither economic theory by itself, nor economic theory combined with ‘plausible’ ranges of numerical values for key parameters is enough to say definitely one way or another. In some plausibly real-life situations domestic milk pricing arrangements can be, at the margin, more distorting than explicit trade measures. The key determining parameters include the usual suspects – the relative elasticities of fluid and manufacturing milk demand, as well as initial price gap between fluid and manufacturing milk provided by various measures and the proportion of domestic milk production used to manufacture tradable dairy products.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jackeline Velazco
2003
Is it feasible to increase income and generate employment in the context of a traditional labour intensive rural industry with strong linkages to an agriculturally backward economy? In order to address this issue, primary data from four villages of Peruvian North Sierra was used. The case of the hat making activity, employing exclusively family labour, purchasing the main input (straw, paja de palma) from Ecuador, and with consumers concentrated on villages and small towns, was investigated. The analysis was made at the market level. Considering the context of a self-employment activity, a theoretical framework was developed to explain the determinants of labour demand, input demand, hat output and labour return. Demand and supply constraints to the expansion of hat making activity were found. Important differences in the value of labour marginal product across the sample were identified. These were mainly associated with the use of varied input quality. Growth based on local demand would not be viable given falls in consumer incomes - mainly farmers - and expected changes in consumer preferences; therefore the growth motor would rest more in market expansion and product diversification to urban consumers.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Maria Raquel Ventura-Lucas, Maria de Lurdes Ferro Godinho, Rui Sousa Fragoso
2002
Sustainable agriculture implies the exploitation of natural resources now, without compromising the natural resources stocks for the future generations. In the context of the paper, agricultural sustainability takes place at the interface between agriculture and the environment. The focus is on the interplay between farming systems and agrienvironmental policies. Agricultural policies have major impacts on soil and water quality and on bio-diversity. Support commodity price policies have lead to serious problems of water pollution; high levels of soil erosion; nitrate losses and lost of biodiversity. The semi decoupeted income support policies and the introduction of the agrienvironmental schemes under the 1992 CAP reform were the first attempts to correct the negative aspects of the production-orientated policies. For the first time farmers were regarded as countryside and landscape keepers and as environmental conservationists. Under the 2000 Agenda similar emphasis was given to the sustainability of agriculture. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the different agri-environmental policies on typical farming systems and consequently their effects on water pollution, soil erosion and bio-diversity/landscape. A bio-economic model, integrating a mathematical programming model and crop growth simulation model, is applied to estimated the changes in the levels of nitrogen leaching and soil erosion, and in the degree of bio-diversity under the current and proposed agricultural policy scenarios. The following farming systems are studied: dry land cereal farming systems (intensive and extensive), livestock and irrigated farming systems using conventional and conservation farming technologies. The results show The results show that the main changes on water pollution, soil erosion levels and biodiversity are mainly due to changes in price and arable compensatory payments. The agri-environmental measures are more important as farm income source than as a policy instrument to influence environmental parameters.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Tom Vernimmen, Marie Bourgeois, Guido Van Huylenbroeck, Henk Meert, Etienne Van Hecke
2002
One of the common strategies in rural development programmes is to support the adoption of new on-farm activities. The rationale behind this is that farm diversification is a way to assure an appropriate level of income for the farmers. Through interviews with 49 relatively small farmers, the possibilities for diversification as a survival strategy are assessed. The analysis is mainly based on a classification of development pathways by Bowler (1992). Few forms of diversification appear to be successful as a survival strategy in case of economic problems. Only off-farm employment seems to be effective in this respect. The introduction of new activities on marginal farms is hampered by lack of financial and human capital. On the other hand, diversification is often found on small farms without financial problems. This is an indication that on-farm diversification is able to stabilize the household income and to avoid financial problems when it is used as a preventive strategy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Bruno Vindel
2004
Complying with the legal framework of EU regulation 1257/99, the implementation of the rural development pillar of the CAP in France takes over several measures constitutive of previous programs, and institutes significant innovations, reflecting both the evolution of French rural territories and the political choice of a more sustainable and multifunctional agriculture. That is why, before describing the organisation and methodology of the recently completed midterm evaluation, this paper emphasises the present trends of evolution in French rural zones. The lessons learned from the evaluation will be then detailed, in the third part of the paper.
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