Эксоцман
на главную поиск contacts
Мы не берем все книги по признаку формального соответствия темам. Отбираем лучшее по качеству и релевантности. (подробнее...)
Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 352

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Liesbet Vranken, Johan Swinnen
2002
This paper uses data from a survey of more than 1,400 farming households in Hungary to identify a set of profiles of farming households, which are active in the rental market and to estimate econometrically the impact of household characteristics, such as social, physical, and human capital, as well as regional and environmental characteristics on land rental activities. We show that the decision of farming households to lease in land is related to their land endowment, their access to capital assets, human capital variables such as age and education and their social capital. Environmental factors are also important.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Klaus Wagner
2004
The evaluation of the effects of different measures of the Austrian Agri-Environmental Programme (ÖPUL) on groundwater has to take into consideration various different dimensions of the analysis process. To begin with, there are EU guidelines for the evaluation that lay down questions, criteria and indicators that have to be answered. A second dimension of the evaluation process refers to the level of the different measures. Here we are dealing with single measures, bundles of measures for a specific objective and voluntary or obligatory combinations of measures. In addition, we have to consider that the measures concerning groundwater protection can have effects in a strong or weak, direct or indirect manner, in a selective or more extensive way. The time-related aspect of the effects is of enormous importance, not only in connection with the different programme variants (ÖPUL 95, ÖPUL 98 and ÖPUL 2000) but also in connection with the short-term or long-term effects of measures, depending also on local and regional characteristics. Of great importance is the spatial component in the analyses. In Austria, we have pore-groundwater regions where programmes for measuring the groundwater quality have been installed for many years. Of equal interest is the development of the groundwater quality in ÖPUL testing areas because there is detailed information available about the agricultural structures and the acceptance of ÖPUL measures. Finally, we have to observe the particular groundwater measure project regions, where a variety of special groundwater measures is available to farmers. These different types of regions frequently overlap each other but not always. Accordingly, the evaluation process is a multidimensional task that has to describe the relevance and the acceptance of the measures along with their potential and actual effects.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Edilegnaw Wale, Detlef Virchow
Durban, 2003
Crop genetic resources are the building blocks of sustainable agricultural development due to their relevance not only as inputs for variety development but also as indigenous crop insurance mechanisms through traditional variety portfolio management. Their continuous survival is, however, threatened by natural and human driven factors. This threat has induced the need for designing conservation measures. Among the in situ and ex situ conservation options available to conserve crop genetic resources, on-farm conservation has recently attracted enormous attention. To make this option operational, placing incentives (that link conservation with utilization) and removal of perverse incentives are believed to be crucial so that landraces of no immediate interest to farmers can be conserved.

However, before designing sound incentives and/or removing perverse incentives, we have to understand farmers. motives for managing a portfolio of traditional varieties.

To address our objective, we have adopted a utility based model that considers on-farm diversity as a positive externality of farmers. livelihood decisions. Accordingly, on-farm diversity is considered as the derived outcome of farmers. revealed preferences subject to their concerns and constraints. To empirically test the relationships, a Poisson regression model is estimated using rural household survey data collected from 198 sorghum growing farmers in East Ethiopia. The results have shown the most important diversity promoting factors and those factors detaching the link between farmers’ ‘survival first’ motives and their spillover effects on sorghum diversity. Based on the results, the paper concludes outlining the policy implications of the findings.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 13-01-2004
Ред.: Peter Wehrheim, Klaus Frohberg, Евгения Викторовна Серова, Joachim Braun
Москва: Ин-т экономики переходного периода, 2001, 560 с.
Книга подготовлена на основе материалов международной конференции, посвященной вопросам трансформации агропродовольственного сектора России. Она охватывает широкий круг проблем: исходные условия для преобразований, принятые меры, их результаты, наиболее перспективные варианты дальнейшего продвижения по пути реформ. На основе межстрановых сопоставлений исследуются различные модели преобразований в агропромышленном секторе, выявляются причины их неодинаковой неэффективности. Анализируется воздействие политических решений и макроэкономических тенденций на эволюцию сектора. Рассматриваются вопросы межрегиональной интеграции, приватизации и реструктуризации сельскохозяйственных предприятий, развития личных подсобных хозяйств, институциональные аспекты функционирования агропродовольственных рынков и многие другие. Книга предназначена для научных работников и специалистов в области аграрной экономики, а также для всех интересующихся проблемами развития агропродовольственного сектора России.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Katinka Weinberger
Durban, 2003
Micronutrient malnutrition, particularly of iron, is widespread on the South Asian subcontinent and economic losses due to reduced productivity of afflicted population groups are believed to be substantial.

This paper examines the impact of micronutrient intake on productivity of household engaged in agricultural labor in India by applying a two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation technique. The micronutrient under investigation is iron. The results indicate that productivity, measured in wages is indeed affected through insufficient intake, and that wages would on average be 5 to 17.3 percent higher, if households would achieve recommended intake levels of the micronutrient discussed here. The results demonstrate that policy interventions that aim at enhancing micronutrient intake can be regarded as investments in improved productivity and higher household incomes. Enhancing micronutrient intake will contribute significantly to overall economic growth and development.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Christoph Weiss, Wolfgang Briglauer
2002
This paper examines the impact of various farm and household characteristics (such as farm size, the off-farm employment status, the farm operator's age and schooling and the number of family members) on the level as well as the dynamics of on-farm diversification. Using linked census data for Upper-Austria from 1980, 1985 and 1990 we provide evidence that smaller farms are more specialised and also tend to increase the degree of specialisation over time more quickly than large farms. A significantly lower degree of diversification (higher degree of specialisation) as well as a stronger reduction in diversification over time is also reported for businesses operated by older, less educated, part-time farm operators. The analysis of diversification dynamics also suggests that (a) farms adjust to changes in their environment by steadily approaching their long-run equilibrium level of diversification ( β-convergence), and (b) the variance of the diversification distribution declines over time (σ-convergence).
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Heinz Wendt, Josef Efken, Inge Uetrecht, Albert Regine
2004
Beside other measures the framework of regulation 1257 (EC)/1999 offered the possibility to implement promotion schemes in food processing and marketing (Art. 25-28). The regulation also claims an evaluation of such measures geared to guidelines formulated through the EUCommission for this purpose. The EU, therefore, has been defined two types of common evaluation questions: chapter specific questions and cross cutting questions. In order to answer these questions a methodological IT-based approach and questionnaire was developed. The methodological approach is presented in detail and also important factors affecting the process of implementation to get sufficient support throughout all stages and authorities involved. First results indicate the intentions of the investors so far and mainly reflect the potential of the database gained through the questionnaire such as detailed breakdown of aims of the supported investments, indicators for competitiveness and a first attempt to get an aggregate measure to assess envisaged aims.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Tassew Woldehanna
Durban, 2003
The impact of education on farmers. choice of activities and household welfare are modelled and estimated using farm household data for rural Ethiopia. We find that education has significant effects on household welfare. Schooling increases the adoption of new technologies and facilitates entry into highly profitable farm and non-farm activities, all of which may increase welfare and help farm households escape out of income poverty. An additional year of schooling in a household increases the welfare by 8.5 Percent. These findings provide a rationale to governments and donor organisations to include the expansion of rural schooling (through encouragement of parents to send their children to school) in their policy reform as a means of reducing material deprivation.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Tassew Woldehanna, Arie Oskam
2002
There is some confusion in the literature on the consumption behaviour of farmers. We try to clear up some of the issues surrounding this confusion by elaborating and testing a model. Euler equations have been derived from a constant relative risk aversion utility function for total consumption expenditure, household expenditure and other expenditure, which includes durable goods. According to a test of Euler equations, farm households are not simply optimising lifetime utility. Rather, these households follow simple consumption rules, strongly influenced by habit formation. In line with most of the literature, we find that farm households are not borrowing constrained in their consumption expenditures.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Rhung-Jieh Woo, Hsin-Yeh Tsai
2003
Chrysanthemum is the primary flower Taiwan exports. However, the exports showed decreasing trend in recent years. The volumes exported were 826,596 kilograms in 2001, and Japan was the major market. About 99% of the chrysanthemum exports went to the Japanese market. Quarantine procedure is one of the measures Japanese government adopts to protect its domestic agricultural production. When chrysanthemum exports fail to pass the quarantine procedure, fumigation is required. According to statistics, the fumigated rate for Taiwan.s chrysanthemum exports to Japan reached 90Ѓ“ during 1996-1997, and was 70% in 1998. Fumigation could damage the quality and the reputation of Taiwan.s chrysanthemum exported. However, the degree of strictness of quarantine applied to the exports varied from time to time, hence caused the chrysanthemum exports facing with trade uncertainty. In addition, quality unevenness of exports, or standards that are not uniformly enforced could also cause trade uncertainty (not all exports are allowed to enter into the importing market).

It is suspected that the strictness of quarantine of a certain commodity is influenced by the domestic market conditions of supply and demand in Japan. During the seasons when Japan can produce enough chrysanthemum domestically, Japan might take stricter quarantine procedure to prevent foreign chrysanthemum exports from entering the Japanese domestic market. Trade uncertainty hence increased since not all of the amount exported each time is allowed to enter into Japan.s chrysanthemum market.

Since global agricultural trade liberalization is an unavoidable trend, non-tariff trade barriers are to be disciplined, it is expected that trade uncertainty of chrysanthemum trade between Taiwan and Japan will be reduced gradually during the process of agricultural trade liberalization in Japan.

The main objective of this study is to explore the possible influences of reducing trade uncertainty of chrysanthemum trade between Taiwan and Japan through quantitative analyses.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Takashi Yamano, Harold Alderman, Luc Christiaensen
Durban, 2003
Over the past decades child stunting in Ethiopia has persisted at alarming rates. While the country experienced several droughts during this period, it also received enormous amounts of food aid, leading some to question the effectiveness of food aid in reducing child malnutrition. Using nationally representative household surveys from 1995-96 and controlling for program placement, we find that children between 6 and 24 months experienced about 0.9 cm less growth over a six-month period in communities where half the crop area was damaged compared to those without crop damage. Food aid was also found to have a substantial effect on growth of children in this age group. Moreover, on average the total amount of food aid appeared to be sufficient to protect children against plot damage, an encouraging sign that food aid can act as an effective insurance mechanism, though its cost effectiveness needs further investigation.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Takashi Yamano, T. S. Jayne
Durban, 2003
Using a two-year panel of 1,422 Kenyan households surveyed in 1997 and 2000, we measure how working age adult mortality affects rural households’ size and composition, crop production, asset levels, and off-farm income. First, the paper uses adult mortality rates from available data on an HIV-negative sample to predict the proportion of deaths observed between 1997 and 2000 due to AIDS. Next, using a difference-indifferences estimation, we measure changes in outcomes between households afflicted by adult mortality vs. those not afflicted over the three-year survey period. The effects of adult mortality are highly sensitive to the gender and position of the deceased family member in the household. Households suffering the death of the head-of-household or spouse incurred a greater-than-one person loss in household size. The death of a male head-of-household between 16 and 59 years is associated with a 68% reduction in the net value of the household’s crop production. Female head-of-household or spouse mortality causes a greater decline in cereal area cultivated, while cash crops such as coffee, tea, and sugar are most adversely affected in households incurring the death of a male head-of-household. Off-farm income is also significantly affected by the death of the male head-of-household, but not in the case of other adult members. The death of other working-age family members is partially offset by an inflow of other individuals into the family and has less dramatic effects on the households’ agricultural production, assets, and off-farm income. The effects of adult mortality are also sensitive to the household’s initial asset levels. Lastly, there is little indication that households are able to recover quickly from the effects of working-age head-of-household adult mortality; the effects on crop and non-farm incomes do not decay at least over the three-year survey interval.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
C.M. Yates, T. Rehman
2002
In order to respond to the current pressures on agriculture in the EU, the industry will have to go through fundamental structural change. Economic modelling provides the framework for understanding such changes. Mathematical programming is probably the most robust of all the modelling approaches notwithstanding several criticisms of the technique. Economists have long understood that profit maximisation is not the only objective of farmers. Although there are techniques to incorporate other objectives there does not exist a statistically rigorous method for estimating an appropriate objective functions. This problem also occurs at national and international levels of aggregation. This paper presents a new approach to modelling national and international production and trade through partial equilibrium and the use of a new development called positivistic mathematical programming. The nonlinear element of the objective function representing the partial equilibrium is estimated using past observations on supply, consumption and prices.

Further, the paper also presents an original parameterisation of the demand curve that allows perfect competition to be simulated within the framework of a single mathematical model. Such a methodology is an advancement over methods that are currently in use.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Tapani Yrjola, Jukka Kola
2002
This study aims at assessing the costs and benefits of multifunctional agriculture, and it is one of the very first studies using a quantitative approach to this new subject. The starting point is that if current farm subsidies are regarded as means to maintain the multifunctional characteristics of agriculture, what happens if subsidies are reduced. The effects of the decline in agricultural support on multifunctional characteristics of agriculture in Finland are estimated using the cost-benefit analysis (CBA). Only a part of the consequences can be assessed by the CBA due to lack of data on the economic value of many elements of multifunctional agriculture. Hence, the results should not be generalised too strongly, but they still provide useful information for the political decisionmaking.

Concerning further research, we should study, inter alia, what the so-called correct level of compensation for the adequate supply of public goods would be, and what kind of means of agricultural policy are the most efficient to unambiguously enhance the multifunctional character of agriculture.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Wusheng Yu, Thomas W. Hertel, Paul Preckel, James Eales
2002
Projections of world food demands hinge critically on the underlying functional form used to predict future demands. Simple functional forms can lead to unrealistic projections by failing to capture changes in income elasticities of demand as consumer becomes wealthier. This paper compares several demand systems in the projection of disaggregated food demand across a wide range of countries with different income levels using a global general equilibrium model. We find that the recently introduced AIDADS system represents a substantial improvement over existing demand systems currently in use in CGE modeling. In particular, our projection results show that for relatively poor regions experiencing rapid income growth, the widely used LES and CDE demand systems tend to over-predict growth in consumer demand, and hence import and output requirements for food products and under-predict that for non-food products, compared to the AIDADS system. On the other hand, for high-income regions with modest income growth, the choice of functional form is less critical.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл