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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 51

Авторы:
все АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G HI J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
John Helming, Jack Peerlings
2002
A modelling system is presented and used to analyse the impact of milk quota abolishment on Dutch agriculture and economy. The modelling system consists of a regionalised, agri-environmental, partial equilibrium, mathematical programming model of agriculture supply in the Netherlands integrated into a mixed input-output model. It was found that abolition of the milk quota system has large impacts on milk production and livestock numbers and composition. The latter is explained by the strict mineral and manure policies in the Netherlands; an increase in the numbers of dairy cows leaves less room for other livestock. It is also found that, although the total effect on gross value added in the Dutch economy is limited, the effects for individual industries can be large.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Roberto Henke, Roberta Sardone
2002
The paper focuses on the implementation of direct aids modulation, as provided for by Regulation 1259/99. After a critical review of the most relevant questions arisen around the effectiveness and the viability of modulation, the paper presents results about its possible application in Italy. In the first part of the paper a special attention is given to the actual distribution of direct aids in Italy, to the number of farms involved and the amount of revenues realised. In the second part four different hypotheses of modulation are tested. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of modulation revenues under the four different hypotheses are compared with the financial resources allotted in Italy to the regional Rural Development Plans (RDPs). While results of modulation are, generally speaking, quite poor in terms of re-distribution of direct aids, there is a more relevant effect in terms of additional resources destined to the RDPs. However, resources are to be destined to measures that receive the highest share of resources within the RDPs. On the contrary, other measures, more genuinely addressing Rural Development and territorial issues within the RDPs, receive a much smaller amount of resources and cannot be funded through modulation. In other words, if the main objective of the modulation is that of shifting resources from the first to the second pillar of the CAP, this is only partially realised, given the mandatory destination of financial resources on measures that are substantially financed and that do not fully address the economic diversification and the development of rural areas.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Roberto Henke, Daniela Storti
2004
The paper deals with the financial issues of the CAP reform at the edge of the EU enlargement, looking at the new distribution of resources programmed for the “second pillar” of the CAP. More in details, the papers focuses on three aspects: the distribution of resources coming from the implementation of modulation of direct payments, with regards to both the current and the new Member States; the future financial perspectives for Rural Development Regulation (RDR) in the framework of the cohesion policies, in the light of the proposal of a “single Fund” that include both Guarantee and Guidance sections of the EAGGF; the new distribution of resources for Rural Development Plans (RDPs) as it comes out of the “Objective Criteria” coming from the European Commission. Modulation of direct payments is the current only instruments that actively shifts resources from the first to the second pillar of the CAP. The proposal of a single fund would change the geography and the distribution of resources for the second pillar quite consistently. It would also affect the equity of the “objective criteria”, that would probably will be debated and eventually revised.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Thia Hennessy
2002
This paper examines intergenerational succession on Irish dairy farms. The factors that influence the decision to enter dairying farming are examined using a binary choice logit model. Reasons that are frequently published in the popular farming press as being an obstacle to intergenerational succession are analysed and the significance of their effect is quantified. Results show that the level of education of the heir is the most significant factor in the succession decision. Heir’s with third level education are 30% less likely to enter dairy farming than their second level only educated counterparts. The sizes of milk quota and income that are associated with high probabilities of succession are identified.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Roland Herrmann, Anke Moser
Zaragoza, 2003
In many industrialized countries, the grocery-retailing sector exhibits a strong and increasing market concentration. Hence, it is important to understand retail pricing for many questions related to market power in the marketing chain and to agricultural and food policies. We analyze intertemporal pricing of grocery retailers in Germany with a large set of scanner data for processed foods. In theory, food prices could be rather variable, e.g. due to fluctuating commodity prices in a competitive world, or rather rigid, e.g. due to price adjustment costs. We elaborate that retail sales are crucial and raise food price variability at the points of sale. Despite this, prices are rather rigid and often do not change for many weeks. Moreover, pricing strategies for identical brands vary strongly across retailers. Retailers seem to have differential pricing strategies and, thus, market power. This casts substantial doubt on the assumption of a competitive price transmission in the marketing channel underlying most analyses in agricultural economics.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Senhui He, Wojciech J. Florkowski, Jeffery L. Jordan
2002
This paper addresses the issue of rationality of responses in contingent valuation. We found a significant portion of respondents stated a positive willingness-to-pay for a project they perceived to be worthless. The irrational responses had a significant impact on the mean stated willingness-to-pay and the effect can not be removed by simply excluding the those observations from estimation. The dichotomous-choice elicitation format helps to mitigate the effect of the irrational responses, but can not completely solve the problem.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Gerhard Hovorka
2004
The landscape in Austria is characterised by the high proportion of less-favoured areas (LFA). These cover 81 % of the total Austrian land area. Most is classified as mountain area (70%) with a small part classified as other types of less-favoured area. Mountain farming has the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system and thereby the multifunctional landscape and the general living and working space. The mountain area still possess a high environmental quality and environmentally friendly agriculture and forestry extends over most of the mountain area. This is also important for tourism, which plays a major role in the Austrian economy. Austria has gained considerable experience with mountain farming subsidies and regional programmes specific to the mountain area over recent decades. Since the early 1970s a differentiated classification system has been the basis for defining support levels for mountain farmers. A revised classification system has been applied since 2001. The dominant objective for mountain farming policy is to maintain an agricultural and forestry sector based on environmental principles and small family farms. Under the 2000 – 2006 Rural Development Programme major alterations to the support scheme have been undertaken and support levels have been improved considerably for LFA farmers, and particularly for mountain farmers. The ex-ante evaluation and the mid-term evaluation were undertaken by the Federal Institute for Less-Favoured and Mountainous Areas in Vienna. This paper addresses key questions regarding the evaluation and the achievements of the new compensatory allowances schemes in Austria and will focus on the extent to which it meets the main objectives for mountain areas and other less favoured areas. The complementary contributions of other RDP measures, such as the agri-environmental programme to fulfil the main objectives, will also be discussed. In addition, a review of less–favoured-area payments of some other EU member states will be presented.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Richard Howitt, Arnaud Reynaud
2002
In this paper we develop a dynamic data-consistent way for estimating agricultural land use choices at a disaggregate level (district-level), using more aggregate data (regional-level). The disaggregation procedure requires two steps. The first step consists in specifying and estimating a dynamic model of land use at the regionallevel. In the second step, we disaggregate outcomes of the aggregate model using maximum entropy (ME). The ME disaggregation procedure is applied to a sample of California data. The sample includes 6 districts located in Central Valley and 8 possible crops, namely: Alfalfa, Cotton, Field, Grain, Melons, Tomatoes, Vegetables and Subtropical. The disaggregation procedure enables the recovery of land use at the district-level with an out-sample prediction error of 16%. This result shows that the micro behavior, inferred from aggregate data with our disaggregation approach, seems to be consistent with observed behavior.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jikun Huang, Ruifa Hu, Hans van Meijl, Frank van Tongeren
2003
China has made a major investment in biotechnology research. Genetically modified (GM) cotton is widely adopted and the list of GM technologies in trials is impressive. At the same time there is an active debate on when China should commercialize its GM food crops. The overall goal of this paper is to provide an economy-wide assessment of these issues under various scenarios. Based on a unique data from empirical micro-level study and field trial in China and a modified GTAP model, our results indicate that the development of biotechnology has an important impact on China.s production, trade and welfare. Welfare gains far outweigh the public biotechnology research expenditures. Most gains occur inside China. Policy makers should put less weight on the international dimension in making their decisions on biotechnology development.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Rui Huang, Lilyan E. Fulginiti, E. Wesley Peterson
Durban, 2003
A three period overlapping generations model is developed to investigate the impact of shorter life expectancy due to disease, on human capital investment decisions and income growth. This research is particularly relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa given the dramatic reduction in life expectancy due to HIV/AIDS and the potential lasting effects on growth. Our results indicate that as life expectancy shortens so does schooling inducing a lower growth rate of income. These relationships are even more pronounced for the African continent than for the rest of the world.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Lionel G. Hubbard, Imre Ferto
2002
Intra-industry trade in agri-food products between Hungary and the EU is shown to be low and dominated by vertically rather than horizontally differentiated products, suggesting higher economic adjustment costs. Following recent empirical studies, we then test econometrically for the determinants of this trade using different measures of horizontal and vertical trade, and employing an array of popular explanatory variables. Results suggest that separating the measure of intra-industry trade into vertical and horizontal provides for better estimation and supports the contention that the determinants may differ by type of trade. In the regression analysis, the level of intra-industry trade is found to serve as a better dependent variable than the degree or share of intra-industry trade.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Annette Hurrelmann
2002
Land markets have received a considerable amount of attention in economic literature. Since the treatment of the topic covers various approaches, areas, and questions, it seems desirable to attempt an overview of the results. This paper devises a way in which to present a complete picture of the land market by drawing together the various contributions. The first step is to establish a method by which a market in its entirety can be defined. It is suggested that the application of Oliver Williamson’s “Four levels of social analysis” is an appropriate approach to be used in this endeavour. In the second step, the contributions to land market research are reviewed, according to Williamson’s scheme, within four broad categories:
(1) embeddedness,
(2) institutional environment,
(3) governance and
(4) resource allocation.
The topics covered include cropshare tenancy, land titling and registration, communal land ownership, farmland policies, credit access and land reform. The paper closes with some proposals for further research and a discussion of the value of the approach used.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Xavier Irz, David Hadley
2003
To improve the welfare of the rural poor and keep them in the countryside, the government has been spending 40% of the value of agricultural GDP on agricultural support services. But can investment make smallholder agriculture prosperous in such adverse conditions? This paper derives an answer by applying a two-output six-input stochastic translog distance function, with inefficiency effects and biased technical change to panel data for the 18 districts and the commercial sector, from 1979 to 1996. This model demonstrates that herds are the most important input, followed by draft power, land and seeds. Multilateral indices for technical change, technical efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) show that the technology level of the commercial sector is more than six times that of traditional agriculture and that the gap has been increasing, due to technological regression in traditional agriculture and modest progress in the commercial sector. Since the levels of efficiency are similar, the same pattern is repeated by the TFP indices. This result highlights the policy dilemma of the trade-off between efficiency and equity objectives.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Ma Lucila A. Lapar, Garth Holloway, Simeon K. Ehui
2003
Identifying ways to increase market participation by smallholder producers requires identifying variables that influence market access. This is usually achieved using probit estimation. An important phenomenon affecting entry decision-making is the entry decision of a "similar" household, where similarity is measured in terms of "location". When neighborhood influences are significant, it is important to allow for them in discrete decision contexts, such as probit estimation. This paper, therefore, assesses the magnitude of neighborhood influences in smallholder decisions concerning market entry. The empirical model is based on a cross-section of (110) farms situated in northern Philippines, visited (twice) in the 2000-2001 production year (a panel of 220 observations). The vehicle for analysis is a Bayesian formulation of a standard probit model, but one that allows for spatial autoregression in the decision vector. Estimation requires a Metropolis- step addition to a basic Gibbs sampling algorithm and generates useful insights concerning quantities that are important for market-access policy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Leigh J. Maynard, Jason Hartell, A. Lee Meyer, Jianqiang Hao
Durban, 2003
An experimental store was created to evaluate initial demand for locally-produced and guaranteed tender steak products as a more realistic alternative to contingent valuation (CV) and dichotomous-choice experimental methods. Strengths of the approach are incentive compatibility, a realistic consumption set, and a familiar choice environment. Consumers selected among USDA Choice, premium quality, lean, guaranteed tender, and locally-produced strip steaks. Double-hurdle count data model indicated initial willingness-topay for locally-produced steak comparable to prior CV results, but demand was highly elastic. Demand for premium quality steak crowded out demand for the guaranteed tender product, contrasting with prior dichotomous-choice experimental results.
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