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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 52

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S TU V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
John Helming, Jack Peerlings
2002
A modelling system is presented and used to analyse the impact of milk quota abolishment on Dutch agriculture and economy. The modelling system consists of a regionalised, agri-environmental, partial equilibrium, mathematical programming model of agriculture supply in the Netherlands integrated into a mixed input-output model. It was found that abolition of the milk quota system has large impacts on milk production and livestock numbers and composition. The latter is explained by the strict mineral and manure policies in the Netherlands; an increase in the numbers of dairy cows leaves less room for other livestock. It is also found that, although the total effect on gross value added in the Dutch economy is limited, the effects for individual industries can be large.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Colin Thirtle, Lin Lin, Jenifer Piesse
2003
Twenty percent of the world population, or 1.2 billion live on less than $1 per day; 70% of these are rural and 90% in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Research led technological change in agriculture generates sufficient productivity growth to give high rates of return in Africa and Asia and has a substantial impact on poverty, currently reducing this number by 27 million per annum, whereas productivity growth in industry and services has no impact. The per capital cost of poverty reduction by means of agricultural research expenditures in Africa is $144 and in Asia $180, or 50 cents per day, but this is covered by output growth. By contrast, the per capita cost for the richer countries of Latin America is over $11,000.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Arjan Ruijs, Caspar Schweigman, Clemens Lutz
2003
Reductions in transport and transaction costs are expected to have a major effect on the functioning of food markets in developing countries. For many developing countries, this is a relevant issue as it may have important consequences for the food markets in urban and rural deficit areas. A partial equilibrium model is presented to analyze the effects of reduced costs on cereal price formation, inter-regional cereal trade, and farmers' and traders' storage strategies for the case of Burkina Faso. Our results show that the high expectations with regard to the direct effects of cost reductions on food prices and food availability require some nuance. First, the effects of even a huge reduction of transport costs only will be small. Secondly, an element which is often neglected is that constructing a road between two cities may have unintended negative consequences on the competitive position of farmers and traders in other regions. Finally, it is concluded that only if transport and transaction costs are reduced simultaneously, both consumers and farmers will benefit significantly.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
E.E. Imad, Rifaat Ahmed Abdel Karim
Durban, 2003
This paper assesses and quantifies the consequences of world trade liberalization in agriculture on trade and food security of Sudan. Sudan, with the agricultural sector as the main sector of economy, is characterized by its small open economy, and is classified as one of the least developed countries. Thus, Sudan becomes more vulnerable to any changes in international agricultural markets. The liberalization of international agricultural trade has a great influence on Sudan's food security and on the whole economy. An extended form of a multi-market model for Sudan is developed and used for the analysis. The model embodies important characteristics of agriculture in Sudan like substitution effects and stages of production.

As agriculture is the main sector of Sudan's economy, the model is extended to explicitly integrate some of the key important macroeconomic linkages, and to establish certain feedback effects between agriculture and the macro-economy. The model simulations reveal that a higher world market price would overall lead to measurable gains in food security and agricultural trade of the country. However, when the effect of a higher cost of production is considered, the positive results are reversed. Furthermore, the results of the model simulations show that the domestic policy environment matters very much with respect to the potential impact of world trade liberalization of agriculture. The paper concludes that Sudan should reorient its national policies towards export promotion in order to benefit from the new emerging trading opportunities in world markets. However, to capture a greater benefit from the new environment in the international markets, Sudan should consider and manage carefully all factors, domestically or internationally - e.g. quality standard, loss of preference, dumping effects - that hinder its economic and trade growth.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Nancy L. Johnson, Ruth Suarez, Mark Lundy
2003
This paper characterizes and measures the contribution of social capital to the performance of 50 agroenterprises in Colombia. Using qualitative analysis we document the functions that social capital performs within firms. To estimate social capital’s contribution to firm structure and performance, quantitative indicators of firm-level use of social capital are developed based on the number and strength of external relationships that firms maintain. Econometric analysis finds that firm-level returns to relationships are positive and higher than to physical or human capital. The results suggests that while firms can increase their economic performance by investing in social capital, ameliorating the effects of the market failures that lead to use of social relations for business purposes could also improve both equity and efficiency.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Benjamin Davis, Sudhanshu Handa, Marco Stampini, Paul Winters
2002
This paper aims at evaluating the impact of two different cash transfer programs in rural Mexico – Procampo and Progresa – on total consumption, food consumption and other outcomes like investment, schooling and health care. Progresa is targeted to women, while Procampo goes to farmers, mostly men and many of which are poor. We show that both programs boost consumption. However, they obtain this effect through different channels. Progresa is destined to consumption expenditure directly, while Procampo, which is paid to landholders, boosts investments and needs time to produce its benefits. Furthermore, we separate program from gender effects and show that cash transfer programs targeted to men are beneficial only when the recipients own means of production. This suggest that policy makers should take into account the relationship between gender and ownership of assets when designing poverty reduction programs.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Daniela Storti, Roberto Henke, Maria Carmela Macrì
2004
The paper looks at the debate on economic development in rural areas and its influence on the evolution of European rural policies and on the concept of rurality itself, in order to clarify the main factors explaining the ‘logic of economic development’ in rural areas. To accomplish such objective, the main approach to rurality will be reviewed together with theories on economic development in rural regions and the changes in the nature and content of European rural policies over the last few decades. Secondly, the paper analyses the content of rural development regulation (RDR) in the EU, pointing out the enduring centrality, in the framework of EU policies, of agricultural concerns and the lack of a truly innovative place based rural policy, together with the emergence of a genuine tendency to the valorisation of the multifunctional role of agriculture. The objective is to verify at what degree the practice of rural development policies in different Member states incorporates new concerns linked to multifunctionality, environment and to the creation of new opportunities of rural employment. To accomplish this objective this paper presents a comparative analysis of the Rural Development Programmes, attaining at the “second pillar” of CAP, of three countries in the EU.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Huan Niemi
2002
The EU dairy sector will be one of the most sensitive sectors to be affected by the outcome of the on-going negotiations for the new WTO round for agriculture. Nevertheless, if the Next WTO Round is going to be along the same lines as the Uruguay Round, the EU may be able to stay within the WTO commitments for export subsidy in the dairy sector without further reforms in the Common Agricultural Policy. Certainly, some minor reforms are needed to relieve the binding commitments for cheese and other milk products. The upcoming reform in the dairy sector under Agenda 2000 starting from year 2005 may help in reforming the dairy sector for the new round. In contrast, a steeper reduction in the export subsidy commitments compared to the Uruguay Round may cause problems for cheese and other milk products because the majority of exports in these products will have to be exported without any export subsidy. After enlargement, in particular with a steeper reduction formula, the EU may face troubles in the categories of butter, skim milk powder, cheese, and other milk products. The reforms under Agenda 2000 may not be sufficient because the difference between the EU internal market price and world market price is still too high for EU dairy products to allow unsubsidised exports to the world market. The EU internal market will have to absorb the dairy products intended for the export market. Consequently, the EU internal market for dairy products will be under pressure for further price reduction, and the EU world market share in dairy products will shrink.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Renan-Ulrich Goetz, Alois Keusch
Zaragoza, 2002
The paper proposes the use of meta models to determine the optimal intertemporal management of soil and phosphorus losses from agricultural land. This approach allows finding a equilibrium of the economic and biophysical system simultaneously. In contrast to the existing literature the model takes account of nonlinear relationships and of a large number of agricultural activities. The mathematical problems arising from this complex setup are addressed and the model is solved numerically. The results show that the second best policy in form of soil protection scores is highly inefficient, while another second best policy in form of land-use taxes is nearly as efficient as the first best policy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Jan Christensen
2002
Agri-environmental schemes are offered by a regulator to farmers. The farmer is to produce certain environmental goods and gets a pecuniary compensation for doing so. The problem of designing optimal schemes is dealt with using mechanisms design theory. This paper considers the situation where the regulator faces a budget constraint on total payments to farmers. It is shown, that 2 results of standard mechanisms design theory are affected when a budget restriction on total payments is present.
1) The ”no distortion at the top rule“ does not always hold.
2) It is not always optimal to o.er heterogeneous farmers heterogeneous argi-environmental schemes.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Oliveira Amimo, Donald W. Larson, Mauricio Bittencourt, Douglas H. Graham
2003
Many policy makers and businesses erroneously believe that rural populations, particularly in Africa, have no margin for savings over consumption needs. This study examines the potential for financial savings in rural Mozambican households by looking at the determinants of savings behavior. An econometric model for a household.s saving behavior was estimated using data from 113 rural households from Nampula province in Mozambique. Results indicate that income, physical wealth, household size, and years of schooling affect a household.s savings behavior. The study also finds that Mozambican rural households use their own grassroots associations for many financial services due to the lack of access to formal financial intermediaries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Ran Tao, Mingxing Liu, Qi Zhang
Durban, 2003
This paper places the problem of Chinese rural taxation in the context of government regulation and tries to present an integrated theoretical framework of rural development in China in the past two decades. Our theoretical framework can reconcile the stylized facts that the average level of rural taxation relative to rural net income after the 1990s did not increase very fast, but rural taxation became a very serious problem in this period. We found that this is in large part due to the increase of rural income disparity after 1990s and the uneven tax and fee distribution among different income groups. We argue that differentiated enforcement of the government regulations such as grain procurement and birth control play an important role in the rural taxation problem, and more generally, the problem of expanding local government size and rising rural income disparity. The empirical findings do support our hypothesis.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Gerald Schluter, Chinkook Lee
Durban, 2003
Rapid developments in E-commerce can bring efficiency in the food market system by cutting transaction costs. However, it can also bring a battleground between developed and developing countries and also within developed countries because the New Economy emphasizes knowledge-based labor practices and low-skilled workers of trading nations compete for a shrinking need for their services. An Input-Output model is used to examine the effects on high-skilled and low-skilled worker demand, particularly in food and agriculture. The food and agriculture industries are significant employers of low-skilled labor. Food and agriculture trade has reduced low-skilled labor demand in the United States.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Sven Anders, Johannes Harshce, Roland Herrmann
Zaragoza, 2002
The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we intend to show how regional impacts of the CAP can be measured in terms of the price and revenue impacts. Second, new empirical evidence will be presented by use of the proposed method for regions in Germany. Data utilized are available over time (1986-99) and across commodities, so that regional support due to the CAP can be aggregated from support for the individual commodities.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Pawel Bryla
2004
The paper aims to improve our knowledge about the response of farmers to a new instrument of the rural development policy in the Lodz region in Poland. It seeks to explore the characteristic features of the agricultural holdings and their owners applying for public financial support in the framework of an EU pre-accession fund. The analysis might be useful from the point of view of evaluating the Special Accession Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development (SAPARD).
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