Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 57
ESTIMATING RETURNS FROM PAST INVESTMENTS INTO BEEF CATTLE GENETICS RD&E IN AUSTRALIA / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003G.R. Griffith, R.J. Farquharson, S.A. Barwick, R.G. Banks, W.E. Holmes
This study aimed at estimating the costs and benefits of all beef cattle genetic improvement activity, across Australia, over the period 1970 to the present. The total cumulative Present Value (PV) of investments by industry, government and other agencies into selection, crossbreeding and grading up since 1963, and of imported genetics, was estimated to be $340m (in $2001 at a 7% discount rate). Using a suite of genetic evaluation models, farming systems models and an industry-level model, the cumulative PV of industry returns were estimated. Within-breed selection generated $944m; crossbreeding in southern Australia $255m; changing breed composition in southern Australia $62m; and changing breed composition in northern Australia $8.1bn. The benefit/cost ratio for this investment was 28:1 over the last 30 years.
In Search of the Market: Lessons from Analyzing Agricultural Transition in Central and Eastern Europe /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003Markus Hanisch, Volker Beckmann, Silke Boger, Marcus Brem
Studies of the transition process remind us of Stiglitz’s comparison between pathology and the economic analysis of institutions (1989): asking what went wrong and what did not is the essence of understanding the functioning of social systems. Thus, carefully conducted empirical studies of the transition process itself may yield elucidative results applicable not only to theory but also to institutional policy changes in transition. This paper presents the key findings of KATO, a comprehensive research project focussing on the transition process of agriculture in Central and Eastern Europe. From 1997 to 2000, the project empirically examined processes of liberalization and market development, privatization and property rights changes, as well as restructuring and path dependencies in three Central and Eastern Europe countries: Poland, the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. Conclusions on three analytical levels are drawn: (1) the empirical design for analyzing rapidly changing and evolving institutions in transition economies, (2) the suitability of different theoretical approaches for understanding transition, and (3) policy recommendations targeting better governance and an improved institutional framework.
STRUCTURAL, EFFICIENCY AND INCOME EFFECTS OF DIRECT PAYMENTS AN AGENT-BASED ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE PAYMENT SCHEMES FOR THE GERMAN REGION HOHENLOHE / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003Kathrin Happe, Alfons Balmann
The paper analyses various forms of direct payments using the spatial and dynamic model AgriPoliS. In AgriPoliS farms are represented as agents which act and interact individually. This allows for endogenous structural change. The model is fitted to the agricultural region 'Hohenlohe' in Baden-Württemberg which is characterised by intensive livestock farming. The policy simulations show that the fixing of a single income payment and coupling it to the farming of land . as it has been proposed by the EU Commission in the mid- term review does not have significant effects on structural change, competitiveness, and income as compared to the current Agenda 2000 policy. In order to reach a significant and lasting effect on the competitiveness of agriculture, a further decoupling of payments would be necessary, in which direct payments would be completely decoupled from land and farming. Direct payments should rather be offered to farmers or farms, independent of whether or not farming is continued. Furthermore, area payments should be decreased to an extent which is just necessary to maintain certain land management standards. Such a policy would also break with the effect that a large part of subsidies and direct payments is transferred to the land owners rather than to the farmers. It is especially the farms with a growth potential and a high share of leased land which would benefit from such a policy.
Importance of Informational Labeling in Exporting Beef to South Korea: Preferences of Retailers, Wholesalers and Importers /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003Renee Kim, Milton Boyd
Country of origin labeling and brand labeling play important roles in affecting purchasing behavior of buyers in the Korean beef supply chain. This paper presents a model which explain differences in the attitudes and purchase behaviors of three marketing groups regarding country of origin and other important quality attributes. The results show some of the diversity of buyers’ attitudes, preferences and willingness to pay for different country of origin and brand of foreign packers in three marketing groups.
TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF POLISH FARMS: ESTIMATION ACCORDING TO SPECIALISATION AND LESSONS FROM CONFIDENCE INTERVALS / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003Laure Latruffe, Kelvin Balcombe, Katarzyna Zawalinska, Sophia Moissey Davidova
The technical and scale efficiency of Polish farms is analysed, using Data Envelopment Analysis. Efficiency differences are measured according to farm specialisation, in crop or livestock, at two points in time during transition, 1996 and 2000. The statistical variability of efficiency estimates is investigated. The efficiency results are reviewed in the light of confidence intervals provided by bootstrapping and of a summary measure introduced in this study ‘the coefficient of separation’. The inference analysis suggests that farms might be less efficient than revealed by the point estimates alone, and that they might not be clearly different from each other.
Effectiveness of Government Protective Policies on Rice Production in Iran /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003Bahaeddin Najafi, Mohammad Bakhshoodeh
To evaluate the government intervention effects on growth of rice production in Iran, the nominal protective rate was calculated and a Nerlove supply model was applied to a time series of 1983- 1998. The results showed that in the majority of these years, producers has not been supported and therefore, redirecting the rice market is recommended. In order to get more efficient approach than the government intervention, diminishing the share of the government in the market and strengthening the private sector may be listed on the top of a list that could be regarded as a plan for making rice production profitable.
Land Quality in an International Comparison: It’s Importance in Measuring Productivity /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003Richard Nehring, V. Eldon Ball, Vince Breneman
The purpose of this paper has been to present quality-adjusted values for land in the United States and nine European countries using price and quantity data for 1990. Disregarding such differences in the quality-adjusted land input would generate biased estimates of the land input and thus of total factor productivity. Land quality adjustments could potentially be enhanced further with additional data on soil characteristics, climate, and other productivity-related characteristics.
Rural Development Policy and Economic Benefits Diffusing to Neighbouring Rural-Urban Areas in Greece: An Interregional SAM Approach /доклад на 87 семинаре ЕААЕ, Assessing Rural Development Policies of the CAP, Vienna, Austria, 21-23 April 2004 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005Demetrios Psaltopoulos, Eudokia Balamou, Kenneth J. Thomson
This paper presents an analysis and evaluation of the impacts of rural development policies implemented in the rural town of Archanes, an area in Crete which has received considerable rural development funds during the CSF I and II. A hybrid interregional Social Accounting Matrix approach is used to describe interlinkages between Archanes and neighbouring rural and urban localities. Then, preliminary results are reported on the diffusion- patterns of rural development policy impacts in terms of generated output and income. Results show that policy-related economic benefits leak primarily to the ’affluent’ urban area of Heraklion and marginally to the less-developed rural area of N. Kazantzakis. Taking account of the significant rural development policy investment that has taken place in Archanes in recent years, this finding raises doubts on the contribution of these policies towards the core EU policy-objective of cohesion.
Explaining structural policy use by farmers with discrete choice models: an evaluation of structural policies supported by the EAGGF /доклад на 87 семинаре ЕААЕ, Assessing Rural Development Policies of the CAP, Vienna, Austria, 21-23 April 2004 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005Riccardo Scarpa, Laura Viganò, Davide Bortolozzo
A farmer’s choice to part-take into an on farm investment programme can be modelled as a discrete choice. The idea of this paper is to test the possibility of using discrete choice models in the field of the evaluation of structural policies. Farmers choose to take part into agricultural programmes according to their preferences, their structural type and their economic environment. Adhesion to a voluntary scheme or policy can be cast as a discrete choice problem. Hence, discrete choice models are adequate to describe probability of choice, especially against a framework of utility maximization. First, we want to explore if the choice of investing in schemes supported by EAGGF depends on farms’ characteristics, such as Used Agricultural Area, Standard Gross Margin, Farm type, Possession of lands, Form of Farm Management, Standard Work Unit, class of European Size Unit, Fixed costs, etc.. We use is the binomial logit model to explain the probability of making an on-farm investment with regard to Italian Central and Northern Regions. The estimation of such a model allows us to identify the determinants of such a decision. We also use discrete choice analysis to identify the significant determinants of the probability of selection of on-farm investment across 12 investment categories within the Regulation (EC) No 950/97. These include – amongst others – land purchase, system for refusal treatment, land improvement, agricultural machinery, agricultural and non-agricultural farm buildings, land improvements, permanent cultivations etc. We find such an approach to be insightful on the basis of data from the Italian RICA business farm survey, and hence propose to develop it further.
SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT USING INTEGRATED HOUSEHOLD AND GIS DATA FROM SMALLHOLDER KENYAN FARMS / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003Steven J. Staal, Dannie Romney, Isabelle Baltenweck, Michael Waithaka
Although soil fertility is recognized as a primary constraint to agricultural production in developing countries, use of fertilizer in Sub-Saharan Africa is declining. Smallholder farmers still rely heavily on livestock manure for soil fertility management. To explore the determinants of soil fertility management practices, including both the use of cattle manure and inorganic fertilizer, data are used from a sample of 3,330 geo-referenced farm households across Central and Western Kenya. A bivariate probit model is applied to jointly examine the use of the two technologies. Particular attention is given to measures of location related to market access and agroclimate, which in the adoption literature have typically been addressed using crude proxies. To avoid such proxies, GIS-derived variables are integrated into the household decision model. Their use also allows the spatial prediction of uptake based on parameter estimates. The results show clearly the derived-demand nature of soil fertility services, based on markets for farm outputs. They also illustrate that supply of manure for soil fertility amendments is conditioned by demand for livestock products, especially milk. The integration of GIS-derived variables is shown to better estimate the effects of location than the usual measures employed, and offers scope to wider use in technology adoption research.
Diversification as a Survival Strategy for Marginal Farms An exploratory research /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003Tom Vernimmen, Marie Bourgeois, Guido Van Huylenbroeck, Henk Meert, Etienne Van Hecke
One of the common strategies in rural development programmes is to support the adoption of new on-farm activities. The rationale behind this is that farm diversification is a way to assure an appropriate level of income for the farmers. Through interviews with 49 relatively small farmers, the possibilities for diversification as a survival strategy are assessed. The analysis is mainly based on a classification of development pathways by Bowler (1992). Few forms of diversification appear to be successful as a survival strategy in case of economic problems. Only off-farm employment seems to be effective in this respect. The introduction of new activities on marginal farms is hampered by lack of financial and human capital. On the other hand, diversification is often found on small farms without financial problems. This is an indication that on-farm diversification is able to stabilize the household income and to avoid financial problems when it is used as a preventive strategy.
Determinants and Dynamics of Farm Diversification /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003Christoph Weiss, Wolfgang Briglauer
This paper examines the impact of various farm and household characteristics (such as farm size, the off-farm employment status, the farm operator's age and schooling and the number of family members) on the level as well as the dynamics of on-farm diversification. Using linked census data for Upper-Austria from 1980, 1985 and 1990 we provide evidence that smaller farms are more specialised and also tend to increase the degree of specialisation over time more quickly than large farms. A significantly lower degree of diversification (higher degree of specialisation) as well as a stronger reduction in diversification over time is also reported for businesses operated by older, less educated, part-time farm operators. The analysis of diversification dynamics also suggests that (a) farms adjust to changes in their environment by steadily approaching their long-run equilibrium level of diversification ( β-convergence), and (b) the variance of the diversification distribution declines over time (σ-convergence).