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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 51

Авторы:
все АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G HI J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Agata Pieniadz, Heinrich Hockmann
2002
This study deals with horizontal product differentiation in the Polish pig meat market. Hypothesis among firms behaviour are derived from an illustrative model and tested in an empirical analysis using data from 1991-1998. The empirical analysis suggest that product differentiation is a relevant phenomenon in the polish pig meat markets. In addition we found that costs and competitions are important factors influencing price variation. However, further influences like price discrimination and vertical product differentiation are also important determinants for product price variations.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Bekele Shiferaw, Stein Holden
2003
The paper examines the interlinkages between population pressure and poverty, possible impacts on household welfare and land management, and the consequent pathways of development in a low potential rural economy. A dynamic non-separable bio-economic model, calibrated using data from the Ethiopian highlands, is used to trace key relationships between population pressure, poverty and soil fertility management in smallholder agriculture characterized by high levels of soil degradation. Farm households maximize their discounted utility over the planning horizon. Land, labor and credit markets are imperfect. Hence, production, consumption and investment decisions are jointly determined in each period. The level of soil degradation is endogenous and has feedback effects on the stock and quality of the resource base. This may in turn influence land management choices. Under high population pressure, land becomes dearer relative to labor. This is likely to induce conservation investments, especially when conservation technologies do not take land out of production. When markets are imperfect, poverty in vital assets (e.g., oxen and labor) limits the ability or the willingness to invest in conservation and may lead to a less sustainable pathway. Boserup-type responses are more likely when (privately) profitable technologies exist and market imperfections do not limit farm-households' investment options.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Chittur S. Srinivasan, Bhavani Shankar, Garth Holloway
2002
Under the TRIPs Agreement, all member-countries of the World Trade Organization are required to provide an "effective" system of plant variety protection within a specific time frame. In many developing countries this has led to a divisive debate about the fundamental desirability of extending intellectual property rights to agriculture. But empirical studies on the economic impacts of PVP, especially its ability to generate large private sector investments in plant breeding and facilitate the transfer of technology, have been very limited.

This paper examines two aspects of the international experience of PVP legislation thus far (i) The relationship between legislation, R&D expenditures and PVP grants, i.e., the innovation effect, and (ii) The role of PVP in facilitating the flow of varieties across countries, i.e., the transferability effect.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Daniela Storti, Roberto Henke, Maria Carmela Macrì
2004
The paper looks at the debate on economic development in rural areas and its influence on the evolution of European rural policies and on the concept of rurality itself, in order to clarify the main factors explaining the ‘logic of economic development’ in rural areas. To accomplish such objective, the main approach to rurality will be reviewed together with theories on economic development in rural regions and the changes in the nature and content of European rural policies over the last few decades. Secondly, the paper analyses the content of rural development regulation (RDR) in the EU, pointing out the enduring centrality, in the framework of EU policies, of agricultural concerns and the lack of a truly innovative place based rural policy, together with the emergence of a genuine tendency to the valorisation of the multifunctional role of agriculture. The objective is to verify at what degree the practice of rural development policies in different Member states incorporates new concerns linked to multifunctionality, environment and to the creation of new opportunities of rural employment. To accomplish this objective this paper presents a comparative analysis of the Rural Development Programmes, attaining at the “second pillar” of CAP, of three countries in the EU.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Wusheng Yu, Thomas W. Hertel, Paul Preckel, James Eales
2002
Projections of world food demands hinge critically on the underlying functional form used to predict future demands. Simple functional forms can lead to unrealistic projections by failing to capture changes in income elasticities of demand as consumer becomes wealthier. This paper compares several demand systems in the projection of disaggregated food demand across a wide range of countries with different income levels using a global general equilibrium model. We find that the recently introduced AIDADS system represents a substantial improvement over existing demand systems currently in use in CGE modeling. In particular, our projection results show that for relatively poor regions experiencing rapid income growth, the widely used LES and CDE demand systems tend to over-predict growth in consumer demand, and hence import and output requirements for food products and under-predict that for non-food products, compared to the AIDADS system. On the other hand, for high-income regions with modest income growth, the choice of functional form is less critical.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Manfred Zeller, Manohar Sharma, Carla Henry, Cecile Lapenu
Zaragoza, 2003
Many development projects seek to reach the poorest in the provision of agricultural inputs, extension, credit, education, and many other services. However, low-cost and reliable methods for assessing whether a project reaches the poor are lacking at present.

In this paper, we present an operational method that was designed during a two-year research project from 1999-2001 with the support of an international donor- coordination office. The objective of the research was to develop and test a new method that could be later used by development practitioners to assess the poverty level of beneficiaries of development projects that target the poor in relation to the general population in the intervention area. The method constructs a poverty index using principle component analysis, and is based on a range of indicators that describes different dimensions of poverty and for which credible information can be quickly and inexpensively obtained. To ensure the method’s usefulness to a wide number of countries and projects, the method was tested in collaboration in rural and urban areas in four countries: Nicaragua (urban and rural), Kenya (urban and rural), Madagascar (rural), and India (rural). We present results from these studies. We conclude that the method has a promising potential for monitoring and evaluation purposes of development organizations. Since 2001, the method has been used in over 20 project assessments.
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