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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 52

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S TU V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Tassew Woldehanna
Durban, 2003
The impact of education on farmers. choice of activities and household welfare are modelled and estimated using farm household data for rural Ethiopia. We find that education has significant effects on household welfare. Schooling increases the adoption of new technologies and facilitates entry into highly profitable farm and non-farm activities, all of which may increase welfare and help farm households escape out of income poverty. An additional year of schooling in a household increases the welfare by 8.5 Percent. These findings provide a rationale to governments and donor organisations to include the expansion of rural schooling (through encouragement of parents to send their children to school) in their policy reform as a means of reducing material deprivation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Nico Polman, Jack Peerlings
2002
In this paper a theoretical and empirical model is developed for analysing the decisions of individual farmers whether or not to produce wildlife and landscape services, how much of these services to produce and form an environmental co-operative in order to reduce transaction costs or to build up bargaining power. The model is applied for Dutch dairy farmers as the main users of agricultural land in the Netherlands. Simulations show that the reduction of transaction costs makes it attractive for farmers to form an environmental co-operative in case of a fixed price for wildlife and landscape services. Therefore more wildlife and landscape services are produced and more farmers are involved compared to a situation with individual supply. If demand is no longer perfectly elastic an increase in wildlife and landscape services production leads to lower prices offsetting part of the production and profit increase caused by lower transaction costs. However, if the environmental co-operative acts like a monopolist its bargaining position leads to a decrease in the production of wildlife and landscape services and higher prices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Antonella Trisorio
2004
This paper provides a first attempt of assessing the progress of Italian agriculture towards the path of sustainability. A set of indicators have been implemented taking into account social, economic and environmental dimensions of agriculture. Indicators may help policy maker in addressing and targeting policies, identifying possible priorities to which address financial resources. It finally suggests a possible solution to the problem of aggregation finalised at a synthetic representation of the progress towards sustainability.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Pavel Vavra, Nobunori Kuga, Jesus Anton-Lopez, Joe Dewbre
Durban, 2003
Milk producers in virtually every OECD country, and in many non-OECD countries as well, benefit from government interventions. Indeed, government support and protection for milk producers is more widespread than for any of the other commodities for which the OECD calculates producer subsidy equivalents. The purpose of the analysis reported in this paper was to investigate the relative market effects of these two varieties of government intervention in milk pricing: 1) interventions through trade measures applied to dairy products and 2) discriminatory pricing arrangements. Which kind of policy creates ‘dollar-for-dollar’ the greater effects? This paper shows the answer to that question is – it depends. Neither economic theory by itself, nor economic theory combined with ‘plausible’ ranges of numerical values for key parameters is enough to say definitely one way or another. In some plausibly real-life situations domestic milk pricing arrangements can be, at the margin, more distorting than explicit trade measures. The key determining parameters include the usual suspects – the relative elasticities of fluid and manufacturing milk demand, as well as initial price gap between fluid and manufacturing milk provided by various measures and the proportion of domestic milk production used to manufacture tradable dairy products.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Bruno Barbier, Robert R. Hearne, Jose Manuel Gonzalez, Andy Nelson
2003
In Honduras, traditional coffee processing is the cause of two major problems: poor coffee quality and contaminated water. In this paper we present a method that determines the trade-off between economic efficiency and contamination in a Honduran sub-watershed. The method is a bioeconomic model based on mathematical programming that simulates the functioning of the interlinked economic and ecological processes in the sub-watershed. We compare various scenarii where the model is given the possibility of replacing traditional coffee processing plants with a network of improved ecological plants. For different levels of contamination the model determines the optimal location and size of new coffee processing plants along river streams by minimizing transport, variable and fixed costs. The restrictions of the system are the volume of wet coffee to be processed, the available stream water, and in the alternative scenarii, investment capital and contaminant concentration in the river. We apply the method to a typical sub-watershed in the hillsides of western Honduras and show that coffee quality can be improved and contamination can be reduced substantially at a relatively low cost.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
William Liefert, Bryan Lohmar, Евгения Викторовна Серова
2003
This paper examines why transition from planned to market economies in the countries of the former Soviet bloc has changed their mix and volumes of food consumption. During transition, consumption of high value products, such as meat and dairy products, has plummeted, while consumption of staple foods such as bread and potatoes has remained steady, or even increased. The paper shows that in the pre-reform planned economy, planners ‘desired’ the production and national consumption of high value (and cost) foodstuffs more than consumers. When market reform resulted in consumer prices adjusting to reflect the full cost of production, consumer demand switched from high cost foods to other goods and services. The demand- driven nature of food restructuring in these countries has implications for food security, reinforcing the argument that any food security problems are not mainly the result of inadequate aggregate supplies of agricultural products.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Sabine Baum, Christian Trapp, Peter Weingarten
2004
Despite some common features, rural areas cannot be considered homogeneous. They are much more heterogeneous than a generalised comparison with urban areas might indicate. Rather, they have specific characteristics which can differ within a country and even more across countries. This paper provides a typology of CEEC-10 NUTS-3 regions according to demographic and socio-economic criteria. The cluster analysis carried out revealed five different types of regions as the most adequate result: three are largely rural, one includes both rural, and especially industrialised urban areas, and one covers only large cities. To provide insight on the similarities of, and differences between rural areas in all of Europe, an additional cluster analysis on NUTS-2 level, including the EU-15 Member States (except for the UK) alongside the CEEC, was carried out. The result of the last cluster analysis reveals large differences in development between the regions of the European Union and the CEECs. Two of the nine clusters cover only CEE regions, another two only EU-15 regions. Of the remaining five, four are dominated by current EU regions and only one cluster is rather mixed. In order to design concrete policy measures adapted to the peculiarities of the specific regions, more detailed cluster analyses – on a more disaggregated regional level including additional variables – proved to be necessary. Given the restricted data availability, this requires focussing on single countries. As a first step, a typology of rural areas in Bulgaria is elaborated in this paper.
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