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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 352

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jun Furuya, Takeshi Sakurai
2003
Most of the large-scale millers in Ghana provide a loan to the farmers under the agreement that the farmers will bring their paddy to them.

This paper examines the effect of this interlinkage on the efficiency of rice milling. A quadratic cost function was estimated, and capacity utilization was calculated in relation to money lending. The results show that if the millers provide a loan to the farmers, the operating rate will increase by 24%.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Emilio Galdeano Gomez, Jose Cespedes Lorente, Manuel Rodrigues
2002
This paper analyses the effect of environmental and quality improvement practices on the value added of the fruit and vegetable sector. These practices form part of the incentive-based programmes established by the Common Agricultural Policy. Taking the investment in quality-environmental activities as knowledge capital, we propose a specific analysis that evaluates the effect of the factors of the production function and of the current subsidies over the value added. In general, the share of qualityenvironmental activities in the rise of the product's market value is quite high. The analysis reflects that the expenditure on these activities is still higher than their benefit, and that the current subsidies can hardly be considered encouraging factors for the development of the above-mentioned practices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Rosa Gallardo, Fernando Ramos, Eduardo Ramos
2002
The evolution of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and its successive Reforms, has caused a loss of both internal coherence and social legitimacy. On the other hand, the Agenda 2000 has situated agriculture within the objective of competitiveness. What may well be asked is whether indeed the different European agricultural systems are converging towards this objective of competitiveness. To be able to reply to this question it is necessary to change from a “meso” analysis of the CAP to a “micro” analysis of farms referring to specific regions.

Starting from this context and problem, this paper analyses how the agriculture of the region of Andalusia can be affected by the competitiveness approach in an area which is in an advanced process of modernization but nevertheless maintains a strong agricultural character and a dependence on the CAP. For this analysis, we have started from the fact that farmers make strategic decisions so as to adapt to a changing political situation. The main objective of this work is to contrast the importance of a combination of structural and strategic variables to explain the differences in the competitive position of agricultural systems compared with different situations of the CAP. In order to achieve this objective, analytical instruments of competitive and strategic approaches, normally designed for individual enterprises in other economic sectors, have been used, adapting them to the agricultural system as a whole. The results allow the affirmation that the farmers who obtain the best competitive positions are those who adopt a strategic position concerning their activity, with a greater coherence between the definition of their objectives and of the resource allocation strategies they design in order to achieve them.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Vasant P. Gandhi, Robin Marsh
Durban, 2003
The paper examines the impact of local institutions on development and poverty in the rural areas of India. Recent research on the role of institutions on the path of economic development indicates the importance of both "macro" and "micro" institutions including local institutions. The study finds a large number of both formal and informal local institutions in the surveyed villages, and a substantial degree of interaction of the households with the institutions. These include both formal institutions such as service cooperatives and dairy cooperatives, as well as informal institutions such as savings groups, community associations and labour groups. The study finds that apart from the standard factors included such as land, capital and labour, the presence and membership in local institutions plays a significant role in explaining the variation in household incomes and gain in capital assets over time.

Savings/ micro-credit groups, and dairy cooperatives are found to be particularly important. Further, membership in these institutions is not found to be related to high asset levels or high caste - it is often inversely so. This indicates a stronger developmental role. Recorded opinions of the households supports the findings on the impact and beneficial role of local institutions. The study confirms that institutions do matter, and that local institutions can and do make a significant contribution in helping development in the rural areas, especially so for the lower income groups.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Roberto J. Garcia
Durban, 2003
The Uruguay Round of GATT introduced market disciplines to international trade in agricultural commodities. However, in cases where countries negotiated the right to limit market access, support domestic production at high levels and subsidize exports, the spirit of the WTO rules have been violated. The Norwegian meat market (beef, pork, lamb and mutton, and chicken) situations are studied in terms of the policy implications and WTO commitments. If Norway's policy objective is to target some level of production that satisfies its non-trade concerns, then semi-decoupled income support could be an improvement over a policy mix that simultaneously restricts market access, provides domestic support and applies export subsidies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Cornelis Gardebroek
2002
Organic dairy farming in the Netherlands is a growing sector. This paper investigates the impact of a number of economic and farm-specific variables on the choice between conventional and organic farming. Based on expected utility maximisation, a theoretical framework is developed that explicitly accounts for the impact of non-economics variables like age and education level and unobserved characteristics. The model is estimated with an unbalanced panel of Dutch dairy farms using a random effects probit specification.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Bruce L. Gardner
2003
My aim is to follow Yair Mundlak's recommendation, which concluded his Elmhirst Lecture, to identify sources of and constraints upon economic growth in agriculture. I come to the subject not as a long-time researcher on international agricultural development, but rather as a follow-up to studies of the development of U.S. agriculture. The story of U.S. agriculture led me, as many before, to consider possible lessons for countries where sustained growth in the real incomes of rural people has not yet occurred. Moreover, my U.S. research led into questions of how the relatively poorest farm people have fared in the growth process (Gardner, 2000), a topic which fits well with the emphasis of President von Braun’s address.

I begin by revisiting some fundamentals of agricultural development economics, the literature concerning it, and data measurement issues. In the second major section, empirical evidence is reviewed on the growth of agriculture as an industry. The third section turns to welfare consequences of agricultural growth as measured by real household incomes. The final section discusses conclusions about the causes of sector growth and real income growth.
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Опубликовано на портале: 20-04-2004
Представлены материалы научной конференции, проведённой университетом штата Мэриленд и Аналитическим центр АПЭ 6-7 июля 2001 г. в Голицино-2. Цель конференции, посвященной исследованию рынков факторов производства в АПК России, - оценить степень изученности проблемы и наметить направления исследований в данной области по программе "Базис".
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Emilio Gatto, Beatriz E. Velazquez, Roberto Henke
2002
The set of policy tools that the EU puts under the heading of Rural Development is extremely heterogeneous, such heterogeneity translates into a different degree of coupling support with agriculture production and also brings out the need to discuss the actual consistency of such tools with the UE position on NTCs at WTO. Examined in the present work are the Rural Development Plans (RDPs) and the Regional Operative Plans (ROPs) recently approved by the European Commission for the Italian Regions. The analysis is of a purely qualitative type and is based on currently available information, that is, the measures and the relative project typologies approved within the Plans. Taking into account the EU position on NTCs and their relation with multifunctionality we look at the tools applied for Rural Development in Italy with respect to their degree of de-coupling, production of externalities/non marketable goods and consistency with the EU position on NTCs. Financial allotment by measure typology is also examined. We found out that the present set of actions that fall under rural development is still dominated by a sector-based intervention, even in the case of measures aimed at safeguarding the environment, the least contestable ones. Paradoxically, the measures aimed at the promotion of Rural Development and at training, that better respond to the NTC objectives, are those for which the least resources are located.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Atanu Ghoshray, Tim Lloyd
2003
This paper brings time series techniques to bear on the relationships between the prices of the principal types of wheat traded internationally. In all, the relationships between eleven wheat prices (categorised by wheat quality, harvest date and port of despatch) are scrutinised to uncover the structure of the wheat market implicit in the behaviour its prices reveal. The statistical evidence supports the notion of a highly integrated market that is segmented according to wheat strength . the principal determinant of end-use. Three segments are identified: a market for "strong" (bread-making) wheat, another for "weak" (confectionary products- making) wheat and a third for medium strength wheat suitable for unleavened breads and noodles. Whilst informative, market integration - detected by cointegration among prices . is not altogether surprising, yet the presence of cointegration implies a causal structure, which is of more cogent interest. Among a number of complementary techniques, linkages are uncovered using an innovative concept of irreducible cointegration vectors (Davidson 1998, Barassi et al 2001) which provides new evidence on price linkages. Statistical evidence is robust and not test-dependent. Specifically, we find a dominant price leader in each sub-market. In terms of its pricing, the EU is found to play a passive role in the world market, confirming a widely held view.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Georges Giraud
2002
Formerly neglected, typical food products nowadays support a higher involvement of an increasing number of farmers as well as they seem to be in phase with consumers’ expectations. Since directives 2081/92 and 2082/92 European Union had set up PDO and PGI labels as means of valorisation with benefits to typical food products. This paper aims firstly at considering typical food products with respect to consumer perception and secondly at pointing out some methodological results on consumer survey approach. The conclusion is focusing on the commercial development of typical food products.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Thomas Glauben, Christian Henning, Arne Henningsen
2003
The study is devoted to the comparative static analysis and econometric estimation of farm household decisions under both standard and agricultural taxes. Accounting for labor market constraints a non- separable model is constructed implying increasing per-unit costs of accessing labor markets. To control for tax-induced adjustments related to labor market imperfections we compare the results to those derived from a separable approach, assuming perfect labor markets. Theoretical results suggest that most tax-induced responses are ambivalent mainly caused by shadow prices effects. Further, tax-induced effects differ between the two model versions. In particular standard taxes may imply production adjustments in the case of non- separability.

Thus, income and value-added taxes are no more necessarily superior to agricultural taxes. Econometric analysis using individual household data from Mid-West Poland indicates remarkable responses to market surplus and input taxes. In contrast, standard and land taxes imply only negligible production adjustments. Thus, they seem to be superior, at least in the Polish case.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Thomas Glauben, Hendrik Tietje, Christoph Weiss
2002
This study examines family farms and characteristics affecting farm succession. Based on a farm survey, three aspects of succession are analysed in the paper: the probability of family succession; the likelihood of having a successor designated; and the timing of succession. Large and specialised farms are more likely to be transferred within the family and to have appointed a successor. The number of family members, as well as the experience of farm operator, is also significantly related to the succession behaviour. The probabilities of succession, and of having a successor, first increase with age and then decline again. Furthermore, timing of succession is delayed as the farm holder ages, suggesting most farm operators’ succession plans to be inconsistent over time. In addition, we find a significant interrelationship between the different aspects of succession indicating that decisions on family succession, the designation of a successor, as well as the timing of succession, are not separable.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Thilo Glebe, Klaus Salhofer
2004
The number of agri-environmental programs, as well as the share of agricultural land covered under these programs, varies significantly between EU member states. We analyze national differences in the uptake of agri-environmental programs by developing a model of countries’ political objective function. Based on this model we identify six factors which may explain the extent to which agri-environmental policies are implemented: environmental benefits, opportunity costs of participation, financial budget pressure, the share of program expenditures financed by the EU, contribution to the EU budget, and political weight attributed to farmers’ income. The conceptual approach is then supplemented by an empirical analysis.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Renan-Ulrich Goetz, Alois Keusch
Zaragoza, 2002
The paper proposes the use of meta models to determine the optimal intertemporal management of soil and phosphorus losses from agricultural land. This approach allows finding a equilibrium of the economic and biophysical system simultaneously. In contrast to the existing literature the model takes account of nonlinear relationships and of a large number of agricultural activities. The mathematical problems arising from this complex setup are addressed and the model is solved numerically. The results show that the second best policy in form of soil protection scores is highly inefficient, while another second best policy in form of land-use taxes is nearly as efficient as the first best policy.
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