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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 67

Книги

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все А Б В Г Д Е ЖЗ И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G HI J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ НО П Р С Т У ФХЦ Ч ШЩЭ ЮЯ
1 A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2003
Arega D. Alene, Rashid M. Hassan
Durban, 2003
This paper employed a robust stochastic efficiency decomposition technique that accounts for scale effects to derive the technical, allocative, and overall productive efficiency of two samples of farmers, participants and non-participants in the New Extension Program (NEP), in two agro-climatic zones in eastern Ethiopia. Using data for the 2001/2002 agricultural year, we find that both groups of farmers in the two zones have considerable overall productive inefficiencies. In the wet highlands, although the participants in NEP used a superior technology and have higher technical efficiencies, their allocative efficiencies turned out to be lower than the non-participant farmers, relative to their respective technologies. However, both groups exhibit similar productive efficiencies. In the dry lands, apart from using homogeneous production technologies, the two groups do not have significantly different technical and allocative efficiencies and that they have similar productive efficiencies.

Therefore, we find no empirical evidence of a positive impact of NEP on overall productive efficiency in both agro-climatic zones. An investigation of the influence of several socioeconomic and institutional factors revealed that education, credit, previous participation in extension programs, off-farm income and the share of the leading cropping system have a positive impact on efficiency.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Sven Anders, Johannes Harshce, Roland Herrmann
Zaragoza, 2002
The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we intend to show how regional impacts of the CAP can be measured in terms of the price and revenue impacts. Second, new empirical evidence will be presented by use of the proposed method for regions in Germany. Data utilized are available over time (1986-99) and across commodities, so that regional support due to the CAP can be aggregated from support for the individual commodities.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2002
Julia Balogun, Anne Sigismund Huff, Phyl Johnson
2002
Empirical studies of strategising face contradictory pressures. Ethnographic approaches are attractive, and typically expected. We argue, however, that todays large, multinational, and highly diversified organisational settings require supplementary methods providing more breadth and flexibility. This paper discusses three particularly promising approaches (interactive discussion groups, self-reports, and practitioner-led research) that fit the increasingly disparate research paradigms now being used to understand strategising and other management issues. Each of these approaches is based on the idea that strategising research cannot advance significantly without reconceptualising frequently taken-for-granted assumptions. The paper focuses in particular on the importance of working with organisational members as research partners rather than passive informants.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Bruno Barbier, Robert R. Hearne, Jose Manuel Gonzalez, Andy Nelson
2003
In Honduras, traditional coffee processing is the cause of two major problems: poor coffee quality and contaminated water. In this paper we present a method that determines the trade-off between economic efficiency and contamination in a Honduran sub-watershed. The method is a bioeconomic model based on mathematical programming that simulates the functioning of the interlinked economic and ecological processes in the sub-watershed. We compare various scenarii where the model is given the possibility of replacing traditional coffee processing plants with a network of improved ecological plants. For different levels of contamination the model determines the optimal location and size of new coffee processing plants along river streams by minimizing transport, variable and fixed costs. The restrictions of the system are the volume of wet coffee to be processed, the available stream water, and in the alternative scenarii, investment capital and contaminant concentration in the river. We apply the method to a typical sub-watershed in the hillsides of western Honduras and show that coffee quality can be improved and contamination can be reduced substantially at a relatively low cost.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Catherine Benjamin, Chantal Gueguen, Magalie Houee
Durban, 2003
Previous quantitative assessments of likely impacts of recent reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy (in particular the Agenda 2000) differ across empirical studies. Differences are mainly due to the ways the policy instruments are taken into account (explicit modeling or implicit modeling i.e. using ad-valorem equivalents). The aim of this paper is to assess empirically the impacts of recent reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy and the consequences of the Mid-Term proposals on world cereals markets. We develop an econometric, dynamic, multi-product, partial equilibrium commodity model that focuses on arable crops. Major exporters and major importers are modeled separately, other countries being included in a rest of the world category. For the countries or regions explicitly integrated the model estimates supply, demand and trade. The model we develop has two important features:
i) the parameters estimated in the behavioral equations (supply and demand) satisfy regularity conditions and
ii) the agricultural policy instruments (in particular CAP instruments) are modeled in an explicit way.

In the empirical section, attention focuses on the world cereals market. We provide a market outlook through the year 2009 for three different scenarios: baseline projections and two scenarios based on different assumptions regarding the evolution of the Common Agricultural Policy (the Mid-Term Review scenario and the decoupling scenario). Estimated effects of the mid-term scenario on EU crop prices depend on the relationship between EU and world market prices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Ayalneh Bogale, Konrad Hagedorn, Benedikt Korf
Durban, 2003
This paper seeks to address the question: why does poverty persist in rural Ethiopia? We argue that it is largely a lack of entitlements to fundamental livelihood assets which urges poor rural farmers into livelihood diversification to make a living. We base our findings on empirical work, which is based on information gathered from a three-round survey of 149 rural households in Ethiopia during 1999/2000 cropping season. The FGT poverty index is employed to examine the extent and severity of rural poverty and reveals that nearly 40% of the sample households live below poverty line with average poverty gap of 0.047. The binary logit estimates shed light on factors behind the persistence of poverty and indicates that rural poverty is strongly linked to entitlement failures to crucial assets such as land, human capital and oxen. The study also reveals that poor households attempt to smooth their consumption and income through livelihood diversification, among which petty trading, charcoal making and fuelwood gathering for sale, brewing and
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Martina Brockmeier, Claudia A. Herok, Oliver von Ledebur, Petra Salamon
Durban, 2003
Enlarging the EU presents a tremendous effort with obstacles for old and new member states especially in the agricultural sector. In this paper, impacts of a new accession round were analyzed with the help of the comparative-static general equilibrium model GTAP (Global Trade Analysis Project). The standard version was extended to allow for a better representation of specific instruments of the Common Agriculture Policy and the EU budget.

To capture detailed effects in new member states, simulations were carried out for 12 candidate countries, the EU-15 and the rest of the world. As for products the focus lies on agriculture. Scenarios include an enlargement with and without the transfer of direct payments in the new member states, according to the proposal of the EU commission from January 2002. Simulations in a post-Agenda 2000 environment led to heterogeneous country specific impacts in the accession countries whereas the changes within EU-15 and the rest of the world were negligible. Due to adjustments in tariffs, trade balances of the new member states were deteriorating while welfare effects are positive. Transfer of direct payments led to more pronounced effects, especially with regard to output and trade. Without direct payments accession countries would be net contributors to the EU budget. This would change when they become eligible for this subsidy. In general, the analysis shows the importance of a country specific perspective.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-05-2008
Marie-Joelle Browaeys, Saskia J.M. Harkema
2001
In this paper the authors bring forward a new way of thinking about innovation and the relation between innovation, culture and management. As opposed to what the authors label traditional ways of thinking about organisations and innovation, which are mainly based on Newtonian equilibrium theory and scientific principles of management developed by Taylor (1911), the authors regard innovation as a complex process. This means that, metaphorically speaking we view innovation as a complex adaptive system (CAS). According to Holland (1995) complex adaptive systems exhibit emergence and selfregulation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-05-2008
Wendy Carlin, Reka Horvath
2000
How important is competition in the product market to the economic performance of the firm? How important is the corporate governance structure of the firm to its performance? How does external competition interact with corporate governance to influence firm performance? These questions are posed in a dramatic way in transition economies because product market competition and profit-seeking organizations with new ownership structures were both introduced within a short time period. This paper does not answer these questions. Its aim is to bring together the several often separate literatures that discuss the issues. In the first part, the competition-performance link in theory and empirical work is examined. In the second part, the ownership and governance structures in the firm and in particular, those that affect the key performance-related decision-making processes are investigated. In the third part, the sparse attention given in the literature to the possible interaction between external market pressures and corporate governance structures is considered. In each section, reference is made first to the theory and evidence from outside transition and second to transition-specific models and evidence.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Beatrice I. Conradie, Dana L. Hoag
Durban, 2003
In this paper the incremental values of water are calculated for irrigators in the Fish-Sundays Scheme of South Africa's Eastern Cape province. The socio-political pressure for redistribution of agricultural resources provided the imperative for this study. The model of the Fish-Sundays Scheme reflects a survey of 50 000 ha of fodder and citrus production. It explicitly models the water demand on sixteen typical farms, for five irrigation technologies, six crops and four livestock activities. The existing allocation generates an average value of R0.0423/m3/year, which increases to R0.0681/m3/year if farmer-to-farmer trading is allowed given existing infrastructure. Unrestricted trade raises the average value to R0.0719/m3/year. The marginal cost of additional water in the source basin is R0.05/m3/year for the first 315 million m3 and R1.27/m3/year to extend capacity beyond that.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Benjamin Davis, Sudhanshu Handa, Marco Stampini, Paul Winters
2002
This paper aims at evaluating the impact of two different cash transfer programs in rural Mexico – Procampo and Progresa – on total consumption, food consumption and other outcomes like investment, schooling and health care. Progresa is targeted to women, while Procampo goes to farmers, mostly men and many of which are poor. We show that both programs boost consumption. However, they obtain this effect through different channels. Progresa is destined to consumption expenditure directly, while Procampo, which is paid to landholders, boosts investments and needs time to produce its benefits. Furthermore, we separate program from gender effects and show that cash transfer programs targeted to men are beneficial only when the recipients own means of production. This suggest that policy makers should take into account the relationship between gender and ownership of assets when designing poverty reduction programs.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-05-2008
Geert Duysters, John Hagedoorn
1996
This paper contributes to the understanding of the importance of dynamic firm capabilities for corporate performance in isolating the effect of core competences on the performance of companies. It discusses and tests the assumed relation between core competences and economic performance, including the effect of the external appropriation of these competences through mergers and acquisitions as well as through strategic technology alliances. A major conclusion is that, particularly in high-tech sectors, a specific set of endogenous technological core capabilities is needed to generate performance differentials. Also, the external appropriation of competences does not seem to be an easy solution through which companies can improve their existing capabilities.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Karin Eckstein, Helmut Hoffmann, Jutta Gloeggler
2004
In the context of the mid-term evaluation of rural development programmes (EU regulation 1257/99) the Bavarian agri-environmental programme, the so-called Kulturlandschaftsprogramm Part A” (KULAP-A), was evaluated. By means of this programme, only agricultural land related measures are supported. The measures may refer to the whole agricultural enterprise, parts of it or the individual plot. The guideline of the EU-commission demand analysis about the effects of the programme on biotic and abiotic environmental resources such as soil, water, species and their habitat and landscape. This paper focuses on the results concerning the protection of soil erosion and water contamination. For this, statistical data corresponding the supported measures were analysed. Additionally a survey of farmers participating and non-participating at the programme was conducted. In this study the dead-weight-effect is discussed as an effect which can be excluded in cases when: due to the programme an intensification of management is prevented, a low intensive management is reached or the abandonment of farming could at least be delayed.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Imre Ferto, Lionel G. Hubbard
2003
We analyse the evolving pattern of Hungary.s agri-food trade using recently developed empirical procedures based on the classic Balassa index and its symmetric transformation. The extent of trade specialisation exhibits a declining trend; Hungary lost comparative advantage for a number of product groups over the 1990s. The indices of specialisation have also tended to converge. For particular product groups, the picture is mixed: indices are reasonably stable for product groups with comparative disadvantage, but those with weak to strong comparative advantage show significant variation. The results reinforce the finding of a general decrease in specialisation, but do not support the idea of self-reinforcing mechanisms, emphasised strongly in much of the endogenous growth and trade literature.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Emilio Gatto, Beatriz E. Velazquez, Roberto Henke
2002
The set of policy tools that the EU puts under the heading of Rural Development is extremely heterogeneous, such heterogeneity translates into a different degree of coupling support with agriculture production and also brings out the need to discuss the actual consistency of such tools with the UE position on NTCs at WTO. Examined in the present work are the Rural Development Plans (RDPs) and the Regional Operative Plans (ROPs) recently approved by the European Commission for the Italian Regions. The analysis is of a purely qualitative type and is based on currently available information, that is, the measures and the relative project typologies approved within the Plans. Taking into account the EU position on NTCs and their relation with multifunctionality we look at the tools applied for Rural Development in Italy with respect to their degree of de-coupling, production of externalities/non marketable goods and consistency with the EU position on NTCs. Financial allotment by measure typology is also examined. We found out that the present set of actions that fall under rural development is still dominated by a sector-based intervention, even in the case of measures aimed at safeguarding the environment, the least contestable ones. Paradoxically, the measures aimed at the promotion of Rural Development and at training, that better respond to the NTC objectives, are those for which the least resources are located.
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