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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 18

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Авторы:
все А Б В Г Д Е ЖЗ И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N OP QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ НО П Р С Т У ФХЦ Ч ШЩЭ ЮЯ
1 A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
W. Dunne, John J. O'Connell
2002
For decades the CAP has been the major influence in shaping EU agriculture and food production. The economic and policy environment in the EU is now very different from that which prevailed in the earlier decades. The future economic, social and geographic diversity of the EU will be further increased by enlargement. Agricultural policies and the related operational frameworks will inevitably change to accommodate this added diversity and the changing societal and consumer values. This paper evaluates how the current shape of EU agriculture has been influenced by the reforms to date. It also attempts to focus on where EU farming may be, or wish to go, over the next decade. The evaluation is restricted to the beef sector as it has been to the forefront in the policy reforms of the last decade and because the adjustments were inevitably complex due to the scale of the oversupply problems, the biological and market intricacies involved.

This evaluation concluded that the current EU beef policy is severely constrained with poor targeting of the income supports, high production costs, based on an administratively complex and expensive control system without any clear benefit to either society or taxpayer for a rather large expenditure. In the past, agricultural policy in the EU was primarily driven by the need for a secure food supply and with the objective of sustaining the economic and social needs of farmers. But, in the well fed and affluent EU society of the 21 st century, agricultural policy will be mainly driven by the economic and social goals which are rapidly changing. This society places a declining value on extra units of food production, but an increasing value on any public goods consumed in the production process. As a consequence, the mix of agricultural production and public goods that this society is prepared to support financially is changing rapidly. The level and components of farm incomes in the EU in the 21 st century will reflect these changes. Farm revenue will likely consist of a mix of payments for conventional agricultural products and public goods. The public good payments will be conditional on the level and type of inputs used, farming practices, types of products produced and a societal vision of the role of farming. This will affect production costs, scale of operation and the future configuration of agriculture and rural society. To meet this evolving situation the paper also develops and outlines a multi-commodity framework by which the EU could reorient its direct payment (DP) system to incorporate a range of public good values to the mutual benefit of consumers, taxpayers and farmers.
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Опубликовано на портале: 20-04-2004
Представлены материалы научной конференции, проведённой университетом штата Мэриленд и Аналитическим центр АПЭ 6-7 июля 2001 г. в Голицино-2. Цель конференции, посвященной исследованию рынков факторов производства в АПК России, - оценить степень изученности проблемы и наметить направления исследований в данной области по программе "Базис".
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003
Jan Grund, Bjorn Hennestad, Jon-Arild Johannesen, Agneta Karlsson, Johan Olaisen
2003
The objective of this paper is to contribute to a perspective on economic performance; i.e. the interaction between norms specific to a company, the knowledge basis of the company and innovation. The main questions in this article are: What is the connection between norms specific to the company, the knowledge basis of the company and innovation? The main thesis in the article is that a companys capabilities are primarily developed on the basis of social norms and values already existing in the social relations of the company. This in turn influences how the company develops and applies the knowledge basis, thus influencing innovation strategies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Zerihun Gudeta Alemu, Klooper Oosthuizen, Herman D. van Schalkwyk
2003
In Ethiopia, growth in cereal production is accompanied by a more than proportionate increase in the standard deviation of production. This study applies descriptive and variance decomposition procedures to determine the sources of increased instability in cereal production in order to show whether they are caused by policy changes. It was found that production instability was caused more by increased yield instability. Considering the fact that use of high-powered inputs is limited to a small number of farmers, production is at subsistence level and that farmers. responsiveness to policy changes is constrained by infrastructural and institutional constraints and by the existing land policy, instability in yield is predominantly attributed to weather variability.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Luka Juvancic, Emil Erjavec, Morten Kvistgaard, Jens P. Olsson
2004
The paper reports on the experiences gained from conducting the mid-term evaluation of SAPARD Program in Slovenia. The methodological approach lies in comparative analysis of two approaches: empirical approach, based on the application of Input-Output model and conventional approach based on application of evaluation techniques as proposed by the Guidelines prescribed by the European Commission. Limited scale of implementation has raised problems in economy-wide assessment of the impact and success of the Program. In some cases, quantitative relationships were also hard to assess due to the impact of external influences. Important limitations were found also in the case of conventional evaluation approach. The analysed case encountered some data-related problems (deficient monitoring data, almost exclusive dependence on primary data). There is also a more systemic problem of a limited contextual scope of this evaluation approach, which fails to provide sufficient information in the policy formation phase. Apart from comparison of alternative evaluation approaches, the paper also attempts to provide some wider implications for adoption of 'evaluation paradigm' in rural development policy in countries without a previous experience in this field.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Martin Kapfer, Jochen Kantelhardt, Elizabeth Osinski
2003
In comparison to large-scale natural landscapes separated from extensively used agricultural production landscapes in North America or Australia, German and Central Europe landscapes are all characterised by predominantly agricultural landscapes with few “rests of nature”. Due to the high population density, different types of land users demand different functions of the landscape. In addition to food production, there is a high demand for protection of cultural heritage by caring for e.g. hedgerows in the landscape. The aim of this study was to estimate the costs arising from the maintenance of landscape elements in landscapes situated on land with different site conditions. As an example, the distribution of hedgerows on sites of varying agricultural quality were considered. The calculations were undertaken on the entire area of Baden- Wuerttemberg in Southwest Germany, comprising various administrative districts. The association between ecological and economic information was analysed statistically and with the help of GIS. The results indicate that the costs for landscape element protection differ within the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg and that there is a lot of economic pressure against hedgerow biotopes existing in certain districts. Measures for protection such as agri-environmental programmes should consider the different landscape-dependent costs.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Jussi Lankoski, Markku Ollikainen
2002
We study the multifunctional character of agriculture in a model of endogenous input use and land allocation augmented by biodiversity, landscape amenity, and nutrient runoff. While biodiversity and landscape amenities represent the public good aspects of agriculture, nutrient runoff represents its negative externalities. We show that the private use of fertilizer input is higher and the size of buffer strips lower than the socially optimal solution requires. Also the socially optimal land allocation differs from the private solution due to the valuation of landscape diversity and runoff damages. The optimal policy is to use a differentiated fertilizer tax and a differentiated buffer strip subsidy and to determine their levels by the equality between the net value of their marginal product in food production and their effects on the marginal valuation of diversity and runoff damage in each parcel. We characterize empirically socially optimal multifunctional agriculture and the optimal design of the policy instruments by using Finnish data.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-05-2008
Marius T.H. Meeus, Jan Faber, Leon A.G. Oerlemans
2002
This paper is based on the assumption that a synthesis of the old Chandlerian structure follows strategy notion and the literature on innovation and learning. The main research question was as follows: To what extent does the level of strategic activity in innovation affect the external and internal structuring directly and to what extent is this effect mediated by learning and innovation processes?
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Theresia Oedl-Wieser
2004
This paper will discuss the difficulties to implement the requirement of the application of the EU-wide concept of “gender mainstreaming” in respect to the “Rural Development Programme for Austria” (RDP). Experiences and results from the study “Fundamental principles of ‘Gender-sensitive Regional Development’” commissioned by the Federal Chancellery, Department of Regional Policy, and from the Evaluation on the cross-cutting theme “Equal Opportunities between women and men“ of the RDP are the basis for this paper. They show that most stakeholders in the various administrative and spatial levels dealing with RDP do have difficulties in understanding and implementing “gender mainstreaming” in their field of activity.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Yasuo Ohe
2002
Understanding the demand profile of rural tourism is a necessary condition for the successful diversification of any rural economy. Although descriptive analyses have been conducted on this issue, a more generalized framework is required that allows us to explore economic analyses. This paper evaluates the leisure behavior of households that have a preference for rural tourism in Japan. First, we give conceptual consideration to the notion that leisure behavior should be regarded as a form of a home production and explain that households that undertake rural tourism have undergone an upward shift in the home production function to realize a higher utility level. We propose that a preference for rural recreation causes this shift by improving the efficiency of the home production of leisure. Second, as an actual behavior of rural tourism, the characteristics of visitors to pick-your-own farms were statistically tested using data from a nation-wide survey on tourism. Finally, the rural preference function was estimated. The results revealed that the profile of households showing a preference for rural tourism demonstrated both up-market and niche market characteristics, which mirrored findings in European countries emphasizing the importance of a higher academic background, stronger orientation towards outdoor recreation, and greater discrimination with respect to the quality of services and goods received. Preference for rural recreation can be enhanced through the provision of authentic, high quality service and goods and the preservation of the rural environment. Therefore, there will be an increased demand for a farm policy that integrates both agricultural and rural measures.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-12-2003
В 1977 году шведский экономист Бертиль Олин получил премию памяти Альфреда Нобеля по экономике за первопроходческий вклад в теорию международной торговли и международного движения капитала. Данная публикация представляет собой его нобелевскую лекцию; в ней автор описывает базовые понятия теории мировой экономики и международной торговли и проводит сравнения ситуаций в мировой экономике на базе исторических данных об её функционировании в 1933 и 1977 годах. Лекция написана простым английским языком. Она находится в открытом доступе на официальном сайте.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Shunji Oniki
2003
As modern agricultural growth has been attained through increasing use of material input, it is discussed whether agricultural growth can be sustained in the long run within the limit of environmental tolerance. In order to investigate the possibility of the long-run growth, this study applies aghion and howitt's schumpeterian growth model, and conducts empirical analyses using rice production panel data from eight regions in japan for the period 1984 to 1999. Estimation of the translog cost function, which incorporates quality improvement effects, as well as the growth accounting estimation, reveals that the growth with quality improvement occurs, as the growth with increasing material input is stagnant. The quality-based innovation does not lead to increases in chemical input, implying the shift in innovation plays a key role in attaining sustainable development, which also explains a greater increase in pollution at the early stage of development and its slowing down. Sustainable growth can be attained through quality innovation even if environmental regulations are tightened.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Karl M. Ortner
2004
The evaluation of rural development programs in the EU should provide information on the implementation and impacts of EAGGF co-financed programs in accordance with Council Regulation (EC) Nr. 1257/1999, help to re-orient existing programs in terms of their goals and budget allocation in order to improve the administration, implementation and the achievements of their targets. This presents an overview of mi-term evaluation results of measures to improve marketing of agricultural quality products in Austria. They are offered in the rural areas of all federal states and received 2.4 Mio. € of public assistance in the years 2000 to 2002; 179 projects were approved during that period. The effects of the measures undertaken were estimated according to the guidelines of the European Commission, DG AGRI, on the basis of monitoring data collected at the application stage and data from a questionnaire. The results are discussed with a view to isolate indicators which would allow for an unambiguous ranking of programs.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-12-2002
Maria Osteraker
2002
In qualitative management research the researcher is sometimes confronted with questions about the use of theory, the value of the empirical findings and the relation between the researcher and his/her informants. This paper presents phenomenography as a research method and describes how the phenomenographic researcher tries to struggle with these dilemmas. At the same time it presents the argumentation for a practical use of the method also in management research.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Keijiro Otsuka
Berlin, 2000
Based on the recently completed project on land tenure and the management of land and trees in Asia and Africa (Otsuka and Place 2000), this article attempts to identify the process by which population pressure leads to the individualization of land rights and its consequences on the management of land and trees. A particular focus will be placed on the development of agroforestry systems growing commercial trees, such as cocoa, coffee, cinnamon, and rubber, which are becoming important farming systems in agriculturally marginal areas, where people are particularly poor and natural forests have been degraded rapidly (Otsuka 2000).

The conceptual framework is discussed in the next section, which is followed by the examination of the results of case studies on the management of trees and cropland. Policy implications of this study are discussed in the final section.
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